Partnership to investigate the emergence of MRSA clones in cattle and their transmission to man.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Veterinary Science

Abstract

This research results from the recent discovery of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in dairy cattle in the UK that possess a divergent gene responsible for antibiotic resistance combined with the detection of the same divergent gene in a hospital MRSA isolate. This project is designed to answer questions about the prevalence of MRSA possessing the divergent gene in people, and in dairy cattle, and also to see if people closely associated with dairy farms are more likely to harbour the new MRSA. The research will take advantage of the latest genome sequencing technology through a partnership between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, the University of Cambridge and the Moredun Institute. The research itself will involve a survey of MRSA isolates obtained from 6 regional hospitals, a survey of 600 dairy herds and a case-control-study comparing herds infected with the novel MRSA and unaffected herds. The case-control study will also provide an opportunity to look at other staphylococcal species (coagulase negative staphylococci) that cause mastitis in dairy cows, and are known to have high levels of methicillin resistance, for evidence of the origins of the methicillin resistance gene. Genome sequencing will be used both to search the bacterial genomes for genetic mechanisms that are responsible for conferring antibiotic resistance and to look at family trees in fine detail to provide evidence of transmission and micro-evolution of MRSA.

Technical Summary

MRSA is a major public health problem, which is exacerbated by emergence of new MRSA strains in community settings and animal populations. For example, MRSA ST398 emerged from the pig population in mainland Europe and is now widespread in man. The discovery of a novel bovine associated SCCmec, carrying a divergent mecA gene, from a phenotypically MRSA strain on a dairy farm, and its subsequent isolation from a human clinical sample, highlights the importance, to human health, of animal MRSA as a potential reservoir of emerging MRSA strains. Through a partnership grant, relevant medical and veterinary expertise will be combined to address the importance of this novel MRSA for human medicine. The proposed partnership between the Department of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Medicine/HPA at Cambridge, the Moredun Research Institute, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute will provide a unique combination of expertise in the fields of MRSA research, farm animal infectious disease research, and cutting edge bacterial genomics research to investigate emerging methicillin resistant veterinary isolates. The planned work will establish their prevalence in human and animal populations, and examine the potential for interspecies transmission. A survey of MRSA acquired from hospital screening, collecting 2100 isolates from 6 regional hospitals, will collate all MRSA that are not caused by carriage of conventional mecA. A parallel farm level prevalence survey of 600 dairy herds will be performed using bulk milk samples. Subsequently a farm level case control study will be performed to determine if there is an association between people, who work or live on farms where divergent mecA MRSA are present, and carriage of divergent mecA MRSA. Coagulase negative staphylococci, which are common bovine mastitis pathogens and a potential source of mecA, will be subjected to genome sequencing on case farms to look at mecA diversity and for evidence of possible transmission of SCCmec. Genome sequencing will also be used to perform a SNP analysis of groups of isolates, that share a sequence type and cross the host species divide, to provide a fine resolution phylogenetic analysis. The phylogenetic analysis will help us understand the micro-evolution and transmission of these novel MRSA. The research to be undertaken by the partnership will help us measure and understand the risks to human health; they will also provide a valuable insight into the origins and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in farm animal associated MRSA.

Publications

10 25 50
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Allcock S (2017) Antimicrobial resistance in human populations: challenges and opportunities. in Global health, epidemiology and genomics

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Busche T (2018) Comparative Secretome Analyses of Human and Zoonotic Isolates CC8, CC22, and CC398. in Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP

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De Vries SPW (2018) Streptococcus bovimastitidis sp. nov., isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis. in International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology

 
Description Alborado Research Fund award
Amount £37,182 (GBP)
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Department Alborada Research Fund
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 06/2017
 
Description BBSRC PhD studentship
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2016
 
Description BSAC Grants Programme
Amount £5,290 (GBP)
Funding ID GA2013_006P 
Organisation British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2015
 
Description Cambridge Overseas Trust PhD studentship
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2015
 
Description Cambridge-Africa Research Fund
Amount £5,400 (GBP)
Organisation Alborada Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2014
 
Description Cambridge-Chennai centre partnership on antimicrobial resistant tuberculosis
Amount £1,007,929 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/N501864/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2015 
End 06/2019
 
Description Does AMR in livestock contribute to AMR in people in NE India? An interdisciplinary study.
Amount £1,358,389 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/S000186/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
End 06/2021
 
Description Health Protection Research Unit
Amount £4,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation NIHR Health Protection Research Unit 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2014 
End 03/2019
 
Description Petsavers Pump Priming Award
Amount £4,275 (GBP)
Funding ID S14-52 
Organisation Petsavers Charitable Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2014 
End 11/2015
 
Description Petsavers clinical research award
Amount £4,820 (GBP)
Organisation British Small Animal Veterinary Association 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2012 
End 08/2013
 
Description Royal Society UK India Workshops
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 05/2014
 
Description Royal Society Wolfson Laboratory Refurbishment Scheme
Amount £187,200 (GBP)
Funding ID WL150047 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description Tackling AMR Theme 1: Understanding resistant bacteria
Amount £1,985,599 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/N002660/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2018
 
Description UK-China AMR Partnership Initiative
Amount £783,728 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/P007201/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 06/2019
 
Description Wellcome Collaborative Award
Amount £2,341,255 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 03/2024
 
Title Detection of MRSA possessing a novel mecA homologue (mecC) 
Description Staphlococcus aureus causes a wide range of diseases in humans and other animals, including bovine mastitis, a very common and economically significant disease of dairy herds. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was first identified in 1961; resistance is conferred by a single gene, mecA, which encodes a penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) with a low affinity for ß-lactam antibiotics (including methicillin), and which is located in a mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC, or SCCmec when harbouring a mecA gene). MRSA is sub-classified as hospital acquired (HA-MRSA), community acquired (CA-MRSA) or livestock associated (LA-MRSA); the latter emerged in the early 2000's and provides a reservoir of infection for both farm animals and humans. A recent PhD project in the Department of Veterinary Medicine (Defra/Hefce funded) exploring the epidemiology of bovine mastitis identified a novel strain of S. aureus, which although testing negative for mecA or PBP2a using established tests, was found to be phenotypically resistant to ß-lactam antibiotics at levels that would normally identify it as MRSA. Research into this isolate, led by Dr Mark Holmes culminated in whole genome sequencing of this isolate (in collaboration with the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) which found that the genetic basis for the ß-lactam resistant phenotype was a novel mecA gene, provisionally named mecALGA251 but since reclassified as mecC. mecC was found to be located in a novel SCCmec (type XI). The failure to detect the mecA homologue using PCR was due to the low sequence conservation between mecA and mecC, with 60 % homology at the DNA level and 63% at the amino acid level. New PCR primers were designed to enable detection of this new MRSA. Following the design of new PCR primers a further 13 mecC MRSA isolates were found in a collection of 940 S. aureus isolates from 465 UK herds which had submitted mastitic milk samples to the UK Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA). These isolates were among 24 found to have high levels of antibiotic resistance consistent with MRSA status, but not identified as MRSA using established PCR assays (using specific primers for mecA) and slide latex agglutination (using a monoclonal antibody specific for PBP2a). The discovery of mecC as outlined above raised important questions about the detection and confirmation of MRSA in humans, and resulting decisions about patient care. Based on current molecular diagnostic tests at the time, patients presenting with mecC S. aureus could wrongly be diagnosed as methicillin susceptible rather than methicillin resistant, given the relatively low sequence conservation between mecC and mecA, on which such tests were based. The importance of work was indicated by its dissemination prior to publication via the EuroStaph network, and led the immediate adoption of the Holmes group's PCR primers, or use of their sequence data, for mecC detection of MRSA by MRSA reference laboratories in England & Wales, Scotland, Denmark, the Netherlands, France, Germany, Sweden, Norway, Belgium. In April 2011, a meeting was called by Prof Maria Zambon, Director of HPA Microbiology at Colindale to explore the potential impact of the discovery of mecC on human health, and on MRSA screening programmes, and to discuss the epidemiology of the new MRSA in humans and animals. The outcome of the risk assessments undertaken at this meeting are now being used to inform the Department of Health, the Health Protection Agency and other relevant bodies of the potential risks and how they might be mitigated. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Based on the work of the Holmes group, and in collaboration with them, microbiology reference laboratories have now developed a number of tests to distinguish mecC from mecA that is more appropriate for reference laboratory use (i.e. multiplex PCRs that include species confirmation and mecA, in addition to detection of mecC). In hospital settings, there is increasing use of automated PCR testing, and test equipment is currently being updated to make provision for mecC screening of patients presenting with suspected MRSA, by the main test providers (namely Roche and Becton Dickinson). A commercial microarray based MRSA test system incorporating mecC sequence data has been developed and is now being marketed (Greiner bio-one, Genspeed MRSA Test System). A commercial qRT-PCR system incorporating primers for mecC is marketed by ELITech (MRSA/SA ELITe MGB® Kit). The European Union Reference Laboratory for Antibiotic Resistance has published a recommended protocol PCR protocol for the detection of MRSA incorporating primers for mecC. 
 
Description Collection and investigation of Danish MRSA 
Organisation The Statens Serum Institute (SSI)
Department National Institute for Health Data and Disease Control
Country Denmark 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have undertaken whole genome sequencing of mecC MRSA isolates and bioinformatic analysis. We have provided various S. aureus isolates for their studies.
Collaborator Contribution SSI have contributed MRSA isolates for our study and undertaken functional analysis of our isolates and performed spa-typing
Impact The SSI have implemented a diagnostic test based on our sequence data in order to incorporate screening for mecC MRSA as part of their surveillance activity (as reported in the following publication). Rapid detection, differentiation and typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harbouring either mecA or the new mecA homologue mecA(LGA251). Stegger M, Andersen PS, Kearns A, Pichon B, Holmes MA, Edwards G, Laurent F, Teale C, Skov R, Larsen AR. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Apr;18(4):395-400. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03715.x. The collaboration also generated the following paper: The newly described mecA homologue, mecALGA251, is present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a diverse range of host species. Paterson GK, Larsen AR, Robb A, Edwards GE, Pennycott TW, Foster G, Mot D, Hermans K, Baert K, Peacock SJ, Parkhill J, Zadoks RN, Holmes MA. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Sep 12. [Epub ahead of print]
Start Year 2011
 
Description Freie Universität Berlin 
Organisation Free University of Berlin
Department Institute of Microbiology and Epizootics
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whole genome sequencing and genomic analysis of S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococci
Collaborator Contribution Provision of isolates of interest
Impact Identification of mecC MRSA under further examination
Start Year 2012
 
Description Ghent University 
Organisation University of Ghent
Department Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whole genome sequencing and genomic analysis of S. aureus isolates
Collaborator Contribution Provision of S. aureus isolates and epidemiological data
Impact This collaboration lead to the publication of: The newly described mecA homologue, mecALGA251, is present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a diverse range of host species. Paterson GK, Larsen AR, Robb A, Edwards GE, Pennycott TW, Foster G, Mot D, Hermans K, Baert K, Peacock SJ, Parkhill J, Zadoks RN, Holmes MA. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Sep 12. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22941897
Start Year 2011
 
Description Investigation of PBP2a from mecC MRSA 
Organisation Rockefeller University
Department Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided mecC MRSA isolates and characterisation data for a project investigating the functional properties of the PBP2a produced by the new mecA homologue. We continue to collaborate with further investigations.
Collaborator Contribution Alexander Tomasz's lab undertook the genetic manipulations needed to produce and characterise recombinant PBP2a produced by mecC
Impact Properties of a novel PBP2A protein homologue from Staphylococcus aureus strain LGA251 and its contribution to the ß-lactam resistant phenotype. Kim C, Milheirico C, Gardete S, Holmes MA, Holden MT, de Lencastre H, Tomasz A. J Biol Chem. 2012 Sep 12. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22977239
Start Year 2011
 
Description NIHR HPRU in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed to the original application for HPRU and contribute to its administration. We are partners in research projects involving agricultural sampling and S. aureus genomics.
Collaborator Contribution The aim of the work of the HPRU is to address the complex and inter-related causes driving antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and healthcare associated infection (HCAI). Imperial are the main grant holders and coordinate the work.
Impact None to date.
Start Year 2014
 
Description NIHR HPRU in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance 
Organisation Public Health England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We contributed to the original application for HPRU and contribute to its administration. We are partners in research projects involving agricultural sampling and S. aureus genomics.
Collaborator Contribution The aim of the work of the HPRU is to address the complex and inter-related causes driving antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and healthcare associated infection (HCAI). Imperial are the main grant holders and coordinate the work.
Impact None to date.
Start Year 2014
 
Description NIHR HPRU in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance 
Organisation The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We contributed to the original application for HPRU and contribute to its administration. We are partners in research projects involving agricultural sampling and S. aureus genomics.
Collaborator Contribution The aim of the work of the HPRU is to address the complex and inter-related causes driving antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and healthcare associated infection (HCAI). Imperial are the main grant holders and coordinate the work.
Impact None to date.
Start Year 2014
 
Description NIHR HPRU in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department School of Clinical Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed to the original application for HPRU and contribute to its administration. We are partners in research projects involving agricultural sampling and S. aureus genomics.
Collaborator Contribution The aim of the work of the HPRU is to address the complex and inter-related causes driving antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and healthcare associated infection (HCAI). Imperial are the main grant holders and coordinate the work.
Impact None to date.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Scottish Agricultural College 
Organisation Scotland's Rural College
Department Inverness Veterinary Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whole genome sequencing and genomic analysis
Collaborator Contribution Provision of S. aureus isolates and epidemiological data
Impact This collaboration lead to the publication of: The newly described mecA homologue, mecALGA251, is present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a diverse range of host species. Paterson GK, Larsen AR, Robb A, Edwards GE, Pennycott TW, Foster G, Mot D, Hermans K, Baert K, Peacock SJ, Parkhill J, Zadoks RN, Holmes MA. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Sep 12. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22941897
Start Year 2012
 
Description Scottish S. aureus reference centre 
Organisation NHS Health Scotland
Department Scottish MRSA Reference Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Whole genome sequencing of S. aureus isolates and genomic analysis
Collaborator Contribution Provision of S. aureus isolates
Impact This collaboration lead to the publication of: Paterson GK, Larsen AR, Robb A, Edwards GE, Pennycott TW, Foster G, Mot D, Hermans K, Baert K, Peacock SJ, Parkhill J, Zadoks RN, Holmes MA. The newly described mecA homologue, mecALGA251, is present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a diverse range of host species. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Dec; 67(12)2809-13 Cartwright EJ, Paterson GK, Raven KE, Harrison EM, Gouliouris T, Kearns A, Pichon B, Edwards G, Skov RL, Larsen AR, Holmes MA, Parkhill J, Peacock SJ, Török ME. Use of VITEK 2 antimicrobial susceptibility profile to identify mecC in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 May 29. Pichon B, Hill R, Laurent F, Larsen AR, Skov RL, Holmes M, Edwards GF, Teale C, Kearns AM. Development of a real-time quadruplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of nuc, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL), mecA and homologue mecALGA251. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Oct; 67(10):2338-41 Stegger, M., Andersen, P. S., Kearns, A., Pichon, B., Holmes, M. A., Edwards, G., Laurent, F., Teale, C., Skov, R., Larsen, A. R. Rapid detection, differentiation and typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harbouring either mecA or the new mecA homologue mecA(LGA251). Clin Microbiol Infect 2012 18:4 395-400 García-Álvarez L, Holden MT, Lindsay H, Webb CR, Brown DF, Curran MD, et al. A descriptive study of MRSA harbouring a novel mecA homologue emerging in human and bovine populations in the United Kingdom and Denmark. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Aug;11(8):595-603
Start Year 2011
 
Description Staphylococcal host adaptation collaboration 
Organisation The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Collaborator Contribution They are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Impact No publications as yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description Staphylococcal host adaptation collaboration 
Organisation University of Bath
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Collaborator Contribution They are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Impact No publications as yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description Staphylococcal host adaptation collaboration 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department School of Clinical Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Collaborator Contribution They are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Impact No publications as yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description Staphylococcal host adaptation collaboration 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Collaborator Contribution They are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Impact No publications as yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description Staphylococcal host adaptation collaboration 
Organisation University of Helsinki
Country Finland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Collaborator Contribution They are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Impact No publications as yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description Staphylococcal host adaptation collaboration 
Organisation University of Hull
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Collaborator Contribution They are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Impact No publications as yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description Staphylococcal host adaptation collaboration 
Organisation University of St Andrews
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Collaborator Contribution They are providing genome data and bioinformatic analysis to the collaboration
Impact No publications as yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description ASM-ESCMID Conference on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Animals (Copenhagen, Denmark) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 200 delegates attended talk (Harrison E, Phylogenetics and Molecular Epidemiology of mecC-MRSA Isolates in Europe. Presented at 3rd ASM-ESCMID Conference on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Animals: Veterinary and Public Health Implications, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 4- 7 November, 2013.)


Further collaboration engendered.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description American Society for Microbiology (Denver, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Approximately 300 delegates attended talk with questions & discussion.

Requests for collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description American Society of Microbiology-ESCMID Conference on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Animals (Washington, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact About 140 delegates attended (Holmes MA, 2011 Sept 9, 2nd American Society of Microbiology-ESCMID Conference on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Animals: Veterinary and Public Health Implications, Washington. "MRSA harboring a novel mecA homologue emerging in human and bovine populations in the UK and Denmark" Washington, USA). Considerable discussion and interest in collaboration.

Lead to collaborations providing large number of MRSA isolates worldwide.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Annual Cambridge One Health Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 100 people attended a conference and dinner organised by veterinary undergraduates which was attended by a wide range of interested parties.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.onehealthcambridge.com
 
Description Antibiotics Conference (Cambridge, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Harrison E, MRSA with a novel mec gene: molecular epidemiology and ß-lactam resistance. Invited speaker at One Bug, One Drug - Delivering Targeted Antibiotics to Patients. Peterhouse College, Cambridge, UK, 24th September 2014. Researchers and industry meeting resulted in further enquiries about our research.

Further discussions with industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description British Cattle Veterinary Association Congress (Southport, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact About 300 cattle vets attended (2011 Nov 26, British Cattle Veterinary Association Congress "An update on the new MRSA found in dairy cows and people in the UK & Europe", Southport, UK). Questions and discussion.

Further requests for information. One practitioner asked for help with antibiotic resistance problem which resulted in our discovery of a methicillin resistant coagulase negative staph with a mecC gene.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description British Cattle Veterinary Association Congress (Telford, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk to 300 cattle veterinary surgeons (Holmes MA. 2012 Nov 17, British Cattle Veterinary Association Congress "MRSA the veterinary reality", Telford, UK). Questions and discussion.

Requests from practitioners for further information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description British Society for Antimicrobial Chemistry (Birmingham, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact About 110 delegates attended (Holmes MA, 2013 Nov 28, British Society for Antimicrobial Chemistry "mecC MRSA" Birmingham, UK). Vigorous discussion and questions.

Lead to collaboration with Irish research group
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description EUCAST Workshop (Vienna, Austria) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact About 200 health professionals attended. Provided further isolates for our research.

Requests received regarding testing for mecC MRSA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description European Conference on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (London, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Attended by about 300 delegates (Holmes MA, 2012 April 1, 22nd European Conference on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases "A novel MecA homologue" London, UK). Provoked questions and discussion.

Number of requests for further information and collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Infectious Disease Genomics & Global Health meeting (Cambridge, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 80 delegates attended (Harrison E, Whole-genome analysis and phylogenetics of MRSA isolates with a novel mecA homolog (mecALGA251 / mecC) Presented at: Infectious Disease Genomics & Global Health Møller Centre, Cambridge, UK 1 - 3 October 2012)

Discussion and questions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description International Research Training group (Berlin, Germany) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 2012 Dec 6, International Research Training group, Freie Universität Berlin "The discovery of the mecC gene: a divergent mecA homologue and a new MRSA" Berlin, Germany. Talk also broadcast to India. Generated questions and discussion.

Requests for information and collaboration from attendees
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description International Symposium on Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Diseases (Chicago, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 160 delegates attended talk which stimulated wide discussion (Holmes MA & Harrison E, The genomic picture of mecC MRSA, its distribution, phylogeny, diversity and evolution. Presented at 6th International Symposium on Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections (ISSSI). Chicago, IL, USA, 26th - 29th August 2014.

Additional international collaborators recruited
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description International Symposium on Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections (Lyon, France) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Holmes MA. 2012 August 30th, International Symposium on Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections "An update on research into MRSA harbouring a divergent mecA homologue" Lyon, France. Generated discussion and questions

Requests for further information and collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Interview on BBC Countryfile programme (broadcast 7/9/14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Enquiries from the public and an NGO concerning our work on antimicrobial resistance

Invited to speak at a conference run by the NGO.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity
 
Description School Visit (Ormiston Ilkeston Enterprise Academy) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 'Antibiotic resistance in bacteria' - Talks given to year 10, 11, 12 and 13 at Ormiston Ilkeston Enterprise Academy, Ilkeston , Derbyshire - 7th March 2013. Total of about 120 students involving questions and discussion of antimicrobial resistance and careers in research.

Positive feedback from staff at school.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.infectiousdisease.cam.ac.uk/cid-fellows1/cambridge-infectious-diseases-reaches-out-to-the...
 
Description School Visit (Outwood Academy Portland, Worksop) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 'Antibiotic resistance in bacteria' - Talks given to year 10, 11, 12 and 13 at Outwood Academy Portland, Worksop, Nottinghamshire- 13th June 2013. Stimulated questions and discussion about research careers and antimicrobial resistance

Good feedback from participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.infectiousdisease.cam.ac.uk/cid-fellows1/cambridge-infectious-diseases-reaches-out-to-the...
 
Description School Visit (Outwood Academy Valley, Worksop) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 'Antibiotic resistance in bacteria' - Talk given to year 11 and 12 at Outwood Academy Valley, Worksop, Nottinghamshire - 14th June 2013. Generated discussions and questions about research careers and antimicrobial resistance.

Follow-up emails received from school.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.infectiousdisease.cam.ac.uk/cid-fellows1/cambridge-infectious-diseases-reaches-out-to-the...
 
Description School Visit (The Minister School, Southwell, Nottinghamshire) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 'Antibiotic resistance in bacteria' - Talk given to year 10, 11, 12 and 13 at The Minister School, Southwell, Nottinghamshire - 8th March 2013. Questions and discussions from staff and students about research careers and antimicrobial resistance.

Positive feedback from staff.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.infectiousdisease.cam.ac.uk/cid-fellows1/cambridge-infectious-diseases-reaches-out-to-the...
 
Description Seminar (North Carolina State University, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Audience of 40 (Holmes MA, "Discovery of a new livestock associated MRSA, pitfalls of PCR diagnostics and the value of whole genome sequencing." Questions and discussion

Greater interest in LA-MRSA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Seminar (University of Bath, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk attended by about 40 people (Holmes MA. 2011 October 25, University of Bath, "Emergence of a novel mecA homologue in MRSA from human and bovine populations in the UK and Denmark", Bath, UK). Questions and discussion.

Lead to exchange of isolates and genomic constructs for further work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Seminar at University of Aberystwyth (Aberystwyth, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact About 40 students and researchers attended (Holmes MA, 2011 October 27, University of Aberystwyth: Stapledon Lecture, "Discovery of an occult methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in animals and people - the perils and pitfalls of relying on molecular biology". Aberystwyth, UK). Questions and discussion

None
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Translational Research on Combating Antimicrobial Resistance Meeting (Barcelona, Spain) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Holmes MA, 2012 June 5, Translational Research on Combating Antimicrobial Resistance Meeting, "A novel MecA homologue", Barcelona, Spain. Generated questions and discussion

Requests for information and collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012