Allergenicity and allergen dominance: structural requirements for IgE-dependent recognition by B cells & effector cells

Lead Research Organisation: King's College London
Department Name: Randall Div of Cell and Molecular Biophy

Abstract

The incidence of allergic disease has increased alarmingly in the UK and is now among the highest in the world. One in six children in the UK suffer from asthma, and life-threatening anaphylactic reactions to common food allergens such as peanuts, once rare, are now increasingly common; peanut allergy in children has doubled in ten years. Allergic reactions occur when apparently innocuous substances are recognised by the immune system and treated as dangerous. The antibodies produced by the immune system in response to these allergenic substances are of a type called IgE, with different properties to the more commonly produced protective (IgG) antibodies with which the body defends itself again bacterial, viral and other ?foreign? invaders. While much is known about IgE antibodies and their mechanism of action, a fundamental question in allergy remains unanswered, namely, why are only certain substances allergenic and others not? Our research has brought us to the point at which we can address this question experimentally, and we propose to do this using peanut allergy as our example. This is a particularly good example not only because of its medical importance, but also because the individual allergenic proteins within the peanut have been identified, and particular allergens have been shown to be ?dominant?, i.e. people with antibodies to these dominant allergens are clinically reactive, while those with antibodies to ?minor? peanut allergens do not react. We aim to understand these differences, and have developed methods to isolate IgE antibodies from the cells of patients with known allergic reactivity. Using a range of techniques that include determining the detailed 3D structures of the complexes formed between the IgE antibodies and the allergens, and studying whether or not the different allergens (individually and in various combinations) can trigger either the cells (called B cells) that produce the IgE antibodies or the cells (mast cells and basophils) that cause immediate hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions. Our hypothesis is that the 3D structure of the allergenic protein, together with the unique structure of the IgE antibody molecule, determines whether a protein is recognized as an allergen or not. We shall also investigate whether bacterial proteins known as ?superantigens?, and a particular (and perhaps unstable) form of IgE, play a role in allergic disease. Our results will underpin immunotherapeutic methods to treat allergic disease, and lead to the development of methods to profile and predict patient?s potential for allergic reactivity.

Technical Summary

IgE is the antibody isotype involved in mediating allergic reactions. Our structural and functional studies on B-cell switching to IgE expression, regulation of IgE synthesis, and the mechanism of IgE/receptor interactions (which has spawned an anti-IgE small-molecule drug discovery programme), together with the development of a novel cloning/expression system to produce IgE molecules from human B-cells and plasma cells from allergic subjects, places us uniquely to investigate a fundamental question in allergy, i.e. what makes a protein allergenic? We shall test our hypothesis that the disposition of epitopes on the allergen structure, and their IgE-binding affinity, determine whether they are recognized by the IgE-B-cell receptor (to cause B-cell proliferation and IgE synthesis) and by receptor-bound IgE on mast cells and basophils (to cause immediate hypersensitivity reactions); antigens that are not allergens may fail at one or both of these stages. We further propose that the bent structure of IgE places isotype-specific constraints upon these recognition steps. We shall study peanut allergy as a paradigm, not only for its medical importance, but also because certain peanut allergens are known to be dominant - IgE antibodies to these correlate with clinical reactivity - while others are not. Specifically we shall: 1) Clone and express peanut allergen-specific IgEs from single B-cells and plasma cells from allergic subjects; these will have naturally ?matched? H- and L-chains, which we believe is critical for understanding pathogenicity in allergic disease. 2) Determine the structures of allergen/IgE/receptor complexes to understand the constraints of the Fab regions in IgE. 3) Employ TIRF microscopy with lipid bilayers to study interactions of allergens (and combinations of allergens) with membrane-bound and receptor-bound IgE using the peanut allergen-specific antibodies. 4) Investigate the bias in VH gene usage in the peanut allergen-specific IgEs, explore the role of known B-cell superantigens (SAg) with SAg-specific IgEs from human tissue, and discover whether dominant allergens behave as ?superallergens?. 5) Determine the structural basis of ?cytokinergic? IgE and its pathogenic potential in allergic disease by comparing IgEs with matched and unmatched VH/VL domains from allergic patients. 6) Correlate the structural studies with functional assays of IgE-BCR signalling and mast cell/basophil activation, using peanut allergens with combinations of the allergen-specific IgEs. Answers to the fundamental questions addressed here in peanut allergy will underpin immunotherapeutic and potentially disease-modifying ?cures? for other allergies, and may lead to the development of clinically relevant diagnostic tools to profile patient reactivity to dangerous allergens.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Aperiodic tiling pattern 
Description Production of the largest aperiodic tiling pattern, through involvement of the public in printing the tiles and adding to the pattern. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Sparked discussion about symmetry, structure and pattern in biology, which could then be related to our work, using X-ray crystallography, to study antibodies and allergens in allergic disease. 
 
Title Crystal Symmetry 
Description In collaboration with glass sculptor Dr. Shelley James, two exhibitions at the History of Science Museum, Oxford to celebrate the International Year of Crystallography. Exhibition consisted of graphic art pieces and glass sculptures representing aspects of crystallographic symmetry. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Led to invitations to participate in public engagement activities and two public lectures at the History of Science Museum, Oxford, and at the Diamond Light Source as part of the CCP$ Summer School. 
 
Title DNAted at Fabrication Festival 
Description 3d sculpture created from linear (DNA) code; public interactive exhibit as part of the London Fabrication Festival, Somerset House. 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Several invitations for further opportunities for exciting and development of the project (with Mehran Gharleghi). 
 
Title Dynamic Symmetry 
Description In collaboration with glass sculptor Dr. Shelley James, exhibition of graphic art and glass pieces to illustrate aspects of crystallographic symmetry, at the Royal Society Summer Exhibition, London. A celebration of the International Year of Crystallography. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Public engagement with crystallography; subsequent invitation by The Royal Society to give lecture at the Royal Society and run a pubic engagement activity as part of the Big Draw Event, October 2014. 
 
Title Gaze - seen and unseen worlds 
Description Glass sculptures; product of collaboration with artist Dr. Shelley James; exhibition at The Circus Gallery, London. 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Interest from various other galleries, organisations for hosting similar event. 
 
Title Glass sculptures by Dr. Shelley James 
Description Glass sculptures (and also multiple, smaller 3d-printed copies) of mirror symmetry-related crystals, to illustrate lectures on topic of mirror symmetry, handedness and pattern in biology. 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Sparked discussion about symmetry, patterns and structure in biology, which could then be related to our work using X-ray crystallography to study antibodies and allergens in allergic disease, including asthma. 
 
Title Minerva Scientifica Franklin Effect 
Description Music composition based upon crystals, symmetry and DNA structure, involving primary and secondary schools in Islington 
Type Of Art Composition/Score 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Tweets/blog reports of the workshops and performance led to various enquiries for future events. Event featured as part of National Science Week. 
 
Title Spit Crystal: A Glance Within 
Description Set of 10 images of crystallisation patterns formed from salivary fluid. Produced by artist Inés Cámara Leret. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Successful sales of limited edition of this set of prints. 
 
Title The Franklin Effect: CD 
Description CD launched of new musical compositions by four women composers, inspired by the work of women scientists including Rosalind Franklin. Entitled: The Franklin Effect. Produced by Minerva Scientifica/Electric Voice Theatre 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Excellent reviews in "The Gramophone" and "BBC Music Magazine" and elsewhere. Selected for live performance at The Edinburgh Festival 2016. 
 
Description Asthma UK Research Grants Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Asthma UK Project Grant
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Funding ID AUK-IG-2014-255 
Organisation Asthma UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2014 
End 10/2015
 
Description Asthma UK Project Grant
Amount £49,754 (GBP)
Funding ID AUK-IG-2016-338 
Organisation Asthma UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2018
 
Description BBSRC CASE Award
Amount £167,235 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/K501815/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2016
 
Description BBSRC CASE award
Amount £167,235 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2017
 
Description BBSRC CASE award (Waters plc)
Amount £19,200 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2020
 
Description BBSRC Project Grant
Amount £400,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2016
 
Description BBSRC Project Grant
Amount £292,546 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2020
 
Description Industrial Collaboration
Amount £168,000 (GBP)
Organisation UCB Pharma 
Department UCB Celltech
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2014
 
Description Industrial collaboration
Amount £164,139 (GBP)
Organisation UCB Pharma 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 02/2019
 
Description King's Health Partners Fellowship
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation King’s Health Partners 
Department King's Health Partners Research and Development Challenge Fund
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 06/2016
 
Description King's Health Partners Research Grant (Ramadani)
Amount £80,754 (GBP)
Organisation King’s Health Partners 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 06/2018
 
Description MRC Fellowship (Santos)
Amount £1,483,513 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2015 
End 07/2020
 
Description MRC Project
Amount £64,281 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 01/2019
 
Description MRC Project
Amount £774,182 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2015 
End 12/2018
 
Description MRC and Asthma UK Centre Studentship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation King's College London 
Department MRC & Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Description MRC/GSK Alliance Programme Grant
Amount £867,757 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2012 
End 06/2017
 
Description NIH Project Grant
Amount £252,000 (GBP)
Funding ID R01 HL124283 
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 11/2014 
End 10/2019
 
Description NIHR Biomedical Research Centre
Amount £66,378 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Department NIHR Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre, Guy's and St Thomas
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2012 
End 12/2013
 
Description Rosetrees Trust Award
Amount £19,924 (GBP)
Organisation Rosetrees Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 10/2017
 
Description UCB Industrial Collaboration
Amount £156,718 (GBP)
Organisation UCB Pharma 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description UCB Industrial Collaboration
Amount £160,000 (GBP)
Organisation UCB Pharma 
Department UCB Celltech
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2013
 
Description UCB Industrial Collabration
Amount £152,756 (GBP)
Organisation UCB Pharma 
Department UCB Celltech
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2013
 
Description UCB Pharma
Amount £120,000 (GBP)
Organisation UCB Pharma 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description UCB Pharma
Amount £174,000 (GBP)
Organisation UCB Pharma 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 01/2018
 
Title Fluorescently labelled IgE biosensors 
Description Fluorescently labelled versions of IgE-Fc that are sensitive to conformational changes in the IgE molecule. Valuable for screening for small molecules that influence the structure of IgE and that might therefore be leads for IgE inhibitors. 
Type Of Material Antibody 
Year Produced 2009 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Currently under investigation within our group; publications in preparation; potential IgE small molecule inhibitors. 
 
Description MRC & Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma 
Organisation King's College London
Department MRC & Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of expertise in molecular, cellular and structural biology across a range of projects.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of studentships; support of the Protein Production Facility; network of collaborators for provision of clinical materials from allergic and asthmatic patients.
Impact Many publications and outputs described in the other sections.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Philippe Gevaert 
Organisation University of Ghent
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Complementary molecular biological assays
Collaborator Contribution Provision of materials and assays
Impact Materials generated; posters and talks at meetings; manuscripts in preparation.
Start Year 2009
 
Description Prof. Alan Spivey 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Chemistry
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of materials and assays
Collaborator Contribution Synthesis of small molecule peptides and non-peptide analogues
Impact Three papers to date.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Prof. Frank Sobott 
Organisation University of Antwerp
Department Department of Chemistry
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of materials.
Collaborator Contribution Ion mobility mass spectrometry
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2012
 
Description Prof. Stephen Perkins 
Organisation University College London
Department Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of materials (IgE etc.)
Collaborator Contribution Low angle solution X-ray scattering
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2011
 
Description Prof. T.W. Chang 
Organisation Academia Sinica
Country Taiwan, Province of China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Structural biology; access to clinical samples; training.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of materials. Visiting scientist Dr. Leo Chen, for one year at King's. Joint publications in progress.
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2012
 
Description Professor Claus Bachert 
Organisation University of Ghent
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise and materials related to IgE regulation and function; functional assays.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of clinical material (nasal polyps and turbinates) and manpower for experimental work at King's.
Impact Demonstration of receptor revision and isotype switching to IgE in nasal polyps; the demonstration of local IgE switching and production, and the role of bacterial superantigens in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps, will inform future therapeutic intervention.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Professor Gideon Lack 
Organisation King's College London
Department School of Medicine KCL
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Molecular biology to study peanut allergen-specific IgE response
Collaborator Contribution Provision of clinical material
Impact None yet. Collaboration is multidisciplinary: molecular biology and clinical medicine (paediatric allergy). Gained funding for new MRC Programme Grant (2011-2016).
Start Year 2010
 
Description Professor Toshi Kawakami 
Organisation Los Angeles Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of cDNA of potentially cytokinergic IgE for analysis.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in analysis of cytokinergic IgE; sequence data.
Impact Demonstration that human IgE can exert cytokinergic activity; this has profound implications for the pathogenesis of allergic disease and asthma in particular.
Start Year 2007
 
Title Anti-IgE antibodies 
Description Antibody-derived biologic that inhibits binding of IgE to its receptors on effector cells. 
IP Reference WO2017211928 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2017
Licensed No
Impact Understanding of the mechanism of action of anti-IgE antibodies in general and the possibilities for allosteric inhibition.
 
Title Definition of CD23 site in IgE 
Description Identification of residues involved in CD23 receptor binding in IgE 
IP Reference Not yet available 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed No
Impact N/A
 
Title IgE anti-HMW-MAA antibody patent 
Description Antibody capable of binding high molecular weight melanoma associated antigen and also to Fc-epsilon receptor, with application to cancer therapy. 
IP Reference WO2013050725 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2013
Licensed No
Impact Too early to report.
 
Title Thiophene derivatives for the treatment of disorders caused by IgE 
Description Small molecule inhibitor of IgE 
IP Reference WO 2019/243550 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2019
Licensed No
Impact Too early to say.
 
Description Allergy and Asthma talk at Medical Society St Paul's School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk about research into allergy and asthma prompted discussion about the science and careers in science and medicine.

Requests for placements and advice about university applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Asthma UK Publicity materials 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Interview (recorded and filmed) for use by Asthma UK for fundraising and asthma awareness campaign.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Asthma UK Staff visit to labs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact 17 staff from Asthma UK London office visited or research labs and had several short presentations.

Spreading detailed knowledge of research activities to fundraisers and supporters, and provided background material for Asthma UK's publications and website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Atlas Project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Interview about X-ray crystallography, crystallisation and structure analysis; reference to our work on antibodies in allergy and asthma.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Atlas Project Exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of crystallisation process of various substances from sea water to salivary fluid. Encouraged people to think about natural variation of environmental and medically relevant substances.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BBC News online 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC News - 10/07/2018
Babies given solid food plus breast milk from three months sleep better than those who are solely breastfed, according to a new study. The study, by King's College, London, and St George's, University of London, surveyed 1,303 three-month-olds, and divided them into two groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-44723638
 
Description BBC World News interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact TV interview.

Asked to give presentations/lectures.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Brighton College - Protein Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact About 80 pupils involved in workshop at their school, plus talk, about protein structure and immunology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015
 
Description Bush House, King's College London, The Science and Art of Mirror Symmetry. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Hands-on activity to explore symmetry in tiling patterns, mirror symmetry and aperiodic symmetry. Included one-hour lecture (repeated). All-day event in public accessible space. Sparked discussion about pattern, structure, molecular structure and the work with antibodies in allergy and asthma in which we are engaged.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description CNN News Online feature 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact CNN - 10/07/2018
Dr. Gideon Lack, senior author of the study and a professor and head of the Department of Paediatric Allergy at King's College London, the study's single most important finding was the "more than 50% reduction in the number of families reporting severe sleep disturbances in their babies."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://edition.cnn.com/2018/07/09/health/infant-sleep-solid-food-study/index.html
 
Description Crystals, Symmetry and the DNA Double Helix 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture led to discussion about science: crystallography, DNA, symmetry and mathematics.

Requests for further talks and engagement activities and schools visits.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Daily Mail Newspaper article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Daily Mail - 10/07/2018
p34 News. Ben Spencer .
FEEDING babies solid food from when they are three months old could help them sleep better and improve their long-term health, a study suggests. The new study, by researchers at King's College London and St George's University of London, found solid food did in fact increase sleep time and reduced the number of times a baby woke.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-5933905/Babies-fed-solid-food-just-3-MONTHS.html
 
Description Exhibition at History of Science Museum Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 200 visitors engaged in workshop. Hundreds visited exhibition over 3 months (Oct-Dec).

Contacts with members of public and overseas students interested in studies in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Exhibition: Viewing the Invisible 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project involved sitting for sculptor and conversing about the similarities and differences between an artist's and a scientist's approach their work. Filmed the process and the conversation; exhibited results along with 6 other artist/scientist partners at Bush House Arcade, London; public lecture/workshop at The National Portrait Gallery. Expectation of further public exhibitions of the material.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Interview about Rosalind Franklin (Mars Rover naming; 07/02/19) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with BBC Radio Wales and contribution to BBC TV (World News) explaining the role of Rosalind Franklin in the discovery of the structure of DNA, following the naming of the Mars Rover that will search for evidence of life on Mars.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Interview and publicity material for Asthma UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Interview about our work on IgE antibodies in allergy and asthma, and work towards development of new therapeutic agents.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Interview for "New Scientist" article on the Allergy Epidemic (22/05/18) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to widely-read article on the "Allergy Epidemic".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Interview for "Technology Network" (22/06/18) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Interview and article about X-ray crystallography and structural biology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Interview for national news 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Guardian Newspaper article "Feeding your baby solids early may help them sleep, study suggests"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2018/jul/09/feeding-baby-solids-early-may-help-them-sleep-s...
 
Description Last Words (Ray Gosling) BBC Radio4 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invitations to further public engagement activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description MRC Centenary Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Poster Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Engaged very large number of the public over several hours and generated considerable interest.

Schools visits following discussion at event with teachers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description MRC Centenary Event (MRC Centre) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Hundreds of visitors engaged in the activity over two days at the Science Museum.

Schools visits arising from discussion with teachers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description MRC Centenary Exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Two thousand visitors to the exhibition and 200 at the lecture and panel discussion.


Other invitation to speak and publicise work of the MRC Centre.
Schools visits organised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description MRC Centre Public Engagement Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 100 people attended raising the profile of asthma research

Enhanced awareness of need for long-term basic research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Newspaper and radio interviews 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Articles and interviews concerning the trials of IgE in the immunotherapy of cancer

Raised awareness of this approach with the public and assisted in gaining funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012
 
Description Pattern in African fabric design (12/02/19) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to a "King's Together" interdisciplinary project to explore pattern in African textile design; my contribution is to classify pattern and symmetry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Photograph 51 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prof. Brian Sutton acted as science advisor to the West End production of the play "Photograph 51" and was involved in several associated outreach events for schools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentations at Asthma UK events 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presented my research on IgE and the development of novel therapeutics to fundraisers, supporters and patients at events organised by Asthma UK.

Raises profile of asthma research nationally. Assisted the charity in attracting new donors and raising funds for asthma research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012
 
Description Production of "Photograph 51" (Cambridge) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk and presentation of artefacts in the King's College London Archive to the cast and production team of a new production of "Photograph 51", a play by Anna Ziegler, in Cambridge in April 2019. The cast reported that they were inspired by their new-found understanding of X-ray diffraction, DNA and the scientists involved in the discovery of its structure.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Protein Folding Workshop at Brighton College 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Approximately 100 pupils attended the talk and activities, which promoted discussion about science and possible careers.

Led to requests for visits to King's College; placements for work experience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Public Lecture at Dulwich Picture Gallery 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about crystallography and the discovery of the DNA structure prompted discussion about science, genetics, symmetry and mathematics.

Requests for visits to lab and careers in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Public talk (22/03/18 at Guy's Campus of KCL) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk about symmetry and molecular structure, in particular handedness (chirality) and its discovery. This was followed by a hands-on event, generating a quasi-periodic tiling pattern. Comments afterwards from many showed that a whole new way of looking at molecular structure had been opened up for them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public talk - Museum of Life Sciences, Guy's Hospital Campus, King's College London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about DNA and symmetry in biology, to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of the Museum of Life Sciences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Rosalind Franklin: Women in Science conference (Warwick University) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about Rosalind Franklin and panel discussion in context of one-day symposium to highlight women in science; Warwick University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Hands-on activity involving tiling patterns to present principles of symmetry, crystallography and structure analysis. Discussion of antibody structure, antibody recognition and allergic disease including asthma.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description School Visit to KCL (The Grey Coat Hospital School) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Visit to labs; tour of other facilities relevant to our work in allergy and asthma; talks; time for free discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description School talk and workshop (Brighton College) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk about research activities and workshop.

School arranged visit to labs and interest from pupils for science studies and university entrance, and work experience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description School visit (Greycoat School 21/11/18) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk about DNA and role of Rosalind Franklin in the discovery of its structure.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description School visit and workshop (St. Paul's Catholic College) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Visit to St. Paul's Catholic College; 6th form science students; talk and half-day workshop on protein structure, folding, mis-folding and disease.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description School visit to KCL (Cobham Free School) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk and lab visit and demonstrations concerning structural biology in medical sciences, in particular allergic disease.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description School visits to labs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 80 secondary school pupils attended day-long workshop on protein and DNA structure
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Schools visits to research labs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Over several schools visits, approx. 100 students attended demonstrations and visits to various research labs within the group, which prompted discussion about science and careers in science.

Requests for placements and advice about university applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014
 
Description Science Gallery London: Spit Crystal Project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Art/science collaborative project entitled "Spit Crystal". Supported by Science Gallery London (based at King's College London) and working with artist Inés Cámara Leret, the project explored "ferning" crystallisation patterns from spit and salivary fluid. Open day events engaged public audiences with concepts of crystallography, crystals and X-ray diffraction, as well as the medical aspects of salivary fluids and the use of ferning as a potential biomarker for disease.

The project was selected for an international art/science event in The Netherlands.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Science Gallery London: YouTube video 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact YouTube video describing experiences of public engagement through Science Gallery London and featuring the Spit Crystal project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Science Stories (Maurice Wilkins) BBC Radio4 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invitations to further public engagement activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Symmetry and Crystals Open Day, HSM Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 1400 attendees of day-long event. Stimulated discussion about various aspects of science: crystallography, symmetry and mathematics, medical science related to my research.

Subsequent correspondence; requests for lab visits; advice about scientific careers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Symmetry, Crystals and DNA talk at Winchester College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 60 pupils attended talk, which stimulated discussion and thoughts about science careers.

Requests for work placements and advice about university applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk and hands-on tiling event (30/05/18) Bush House Arcade 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Hands-on event to generate a novel quasi-periodic tiling pattern involving tiles with handedness (chirality). Brief talk also delivered twice during the day. Considerable interest generated and discussions promoted about the nature of handedness, crystals and molecular structure, periodicity and quasi-symmetry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk to Aldwych Quarter Project (25/07/18) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk about proposals for tiling patterns as part of the Aldwych Quarter development by Westminster City Council.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk to King's Designers (28/06/18) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk about symmetry, handedness and pattern. Many in the audience reported that they now viewed pattern and symmetry in an entirely new way.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Teachers' Conference (Royal Institution, London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk to science teachers' conference on symmetry, crystallography, structural biology in medicine; event run by OCR examination board; lecture and panel discussion. Event held at the Royal Institution, London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Telephone interviews with journalists 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Telephone interviews with journalists about our IgE work and development of new drugs. Press releases accompanied recent publication in J. Biol. Chem. Reports in the Times, Daily Telegraph, Daily Mail, London Metro, NHS Web pages.

Raises profile of our work nationally, and of the need for research into allergy and asthma generally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012
 
Description Telephone interviews with newspapers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Various interviews leading to pieices in newspapers: Times, Daily Telegraph, Sunday Times, Daily Mail, London Metro, NHS Web pages. (Earlier years: breakfast TV appearance and Radio 4 programme "Leading Edge")

Raised national public profile of allergy research generally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008
 
Description The Franklin Effect: Primary Schools Workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Worked with Minerva Scientifica to deliver a series of three workshops combining music, dance, symmetry and science, the latter focussed on Rosalind Franklin, X-ray crystallography, DNA and evolution. Project selected as flagship event for British Science Week, March 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The Hospital Club: Panel discussion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contributed talk (symmetry, crystallography, DNA, structural biology in medicine) and panel discussion to present an art/science collaboration between Brian Sutton and Shelley James (glass sculptor).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The Times Newspaper article - Babies given solid food early sleep better, study claims 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feeding babies solids from three months improves their sleep, according to a study that contradicts NHS advice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/babies-given-solids-early-sleep-better-study-claims-pshrbrnbr
 
Description Video about Rosalind Franklin (06/12/18) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Video to explain role of Rosalind Franklin in the discovery of the structure of DNA, promoted by King's College London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Visit of Greycoat School to King's 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk about Rosalind Franklin, crystallography and DNA. About 50 sixth-form pupils attended. Questions, excited discussion about scientific research, and school reported increased interest in related science subjects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Work experience visits 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact About 6 school pueblos in total visited for several days to gain work experience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015