The neural basis of gambling cognitions: relevance for vulnerability and treatment of gambling addiction

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Psychology

Abstract

The lure of gambling has fascinated scientists and observers of human behaviour for centuries. Roughly 70% of the population gamble, and 3-5% gamble to excess, with negative consequences in terms of debt, relationships, and sometimes illegal acts. Pathological Gambling, the most extreme form, is a psychiatric disorder that bears many similarities to drug addiction, including withdrawal symptoms and tolerance. However, there is no chemical entering the brain of the gambler, and the features of gambling games that enable the hijacking of the brain?s motivational systems are unclear. We argue that people gamble because of natural decision-making biases (?gambling distortions?) that cause an overestimation of their chances of winning. Some individuals are more susceptible to these distortions than others, and this is thought to be a risk factor for Pathological Gambling. In our recent work, we have developed a slot machine game to elicit one common distortion, the ?near-miss? effect (e.g. two cherries on the slot machine payline, with the third falling short). Near-misses do not pay out, and provide no information for future gambles. Nevertheless, brain areas that code wins also respond to near-misses, and this response is greater in gamblers with more gambling problems. The current application will extend this work by developing a second task to elicit another distortion: the biased processing of recent outcomes. In roulette, for example, if the last four spins have landed RED, gamblers are often convinced that BLACK is now due (aka ?the Gambler?s Fallacy?). We will use a coin-flipping task to measure brain responses as participants fall prey, or overcome, this bias. We will compare brain responses in Pathological Gamblers against healthy non-gamblers, as they perform the two tasks. We will explore the specificity of any changes to Pathological Gambling by testing a group with alcohol dependence, a form of drug addiction. We will determine their relevance to vulnerability, by testing the unaffected siblings of gamblers, who share some of the genetic and familial risk for the disorder. The final aim is to examine the brain chemistry that regulates these distortions. We will study the opioid system, because drugs that block this system are promising treatments for Pathological Gambling. We will compare brain responses after a dose of an opiate blocker and a placebo drug in a group of Pathological Gamblers. The findings will inform our understanding of the psychological factors involved in disordered gambling, and their relevance to vulnerability and treatment.

Technical Summary

Pathological Gambling is a debilitating and poorly understood condition that is known to have several core similarities with drug addiction. The study team represents a collaboration between cognitive neuroscientists and addiction researchers at the University of Cambridge, Imperial College London and the University of Oxford, and the National Problem Gambling Clinic in the Central and North West London NHS Trust. The clinic is a unique NHS facility for patients with gambling problems, and the proposed work will build upon a current MRC grant to characterise Pathological Gamblers attending the clinic using cognitive and brain pharmacology probes. The proposed work is driven by a cognitive formulation of Pathological Gambling, which proposes that distorted styles of thinking about recent outcomes (e.g. the ?Gambler?s Fallacy?), and inappropriate appraisals of skill (the ?Illusion of Control?), cause gamblers to over-estimate their chances of winning. Two tasks will be used to elicit gambling distortions during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), in order to visualise and quantify brain responses in reward-related circuitry during the gambling process. One task resembles a slot machine, and detects brain responses to unpredictable wins and ?near-misses?. The second task, to be developed in year 1 of the grant, will elicit biased processing of recent outcomes, in the form of the ?Gambler?s Fallacy? and the ?Hot Hand Belief?. Building on our recent research, we will determine the relevance of these tasks to Pathological Gambling, by comparing brain responses in Pathological Gamblers and healthy controls. By employing a substance misuse control group (individuals with alcohol dependence), we will examine whether these distortions are specific to Pathological Gambling or generalise across the addictions. We will establish the relevance of these distortions to the vulnerability to Pathological Gambling, by studying a fourth group of unaffected biological siblings of Pathological Gamblers. Finally, we will establish the relevance to treatment by assessing the modulation of brain responses in Pathological Gamblers by the opiate antagonist naltrexone, the best-validated pharmacotherapy for Pathological Gambling at the current time.

Publications

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Chu Stephanie (2015) Cognitive and Neurobiological Aspects of Problem Gambling: Relevance to Treatment in CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ADDICTION

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Clark L (2014) Damage to insula abolishes cognitive distortions during simulated gambling. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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Clark L (2014) Disordered gambling: the evolving concept of behavioral addiction. in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

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Clark L (2013) Pathological choice: the neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction. in The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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Clark L (2013) Disordered gambling: a behavioral addiction. in Current opinion in neurobiology

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Limbrick-Oldfield E (2014) What are the chances? in Science

 
Description Invited member of expert panel (Luke Clark) and review by Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre / Gambling Research Exchange Ontario
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL http://greo.ca/knowledge-transfer/conceptual-framework
 
Description LC input on BC Government information package on public health risks of gambling
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/sports-culture/gambling-fundraising/news-updates/2018-02-14
 
Description Luke - Conceptual Framework v3
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www.greo.ca/Modules/EvidenceCentre/Details/conceptual-framework-of-harmful-gambling-third-ed...
 
Description Luke - Municipal info sheet
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/sports-culture/gambling-fundraising/news-updates/2018-02-14
 
Description New Trends in Addiction (RC Psych workgroup)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
 
Description Discovery Award 'The psychological and neural basis of money in risky decision-making'
Amount $195,000 (CAD)
Funding ID RGPIN-2017-04069 
Organisation Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) 
Sector Public
Country Canada
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2021
 
Description National Institute of Health RO1 Award
Amount $1,245,000 (USD)
Funding ID R01MH100095-01 
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 01/2019
 
Description National Institute of Health RO1 Award
Amount $1,827,000 (USD)
Funding ID R01MH085651-05 
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 01/2014 
End 01/2019
 
Description Personal award to HBJ
Amount £225,000 (GBP)
Organisation Charles Wolfson Charitable Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Project Grant 'The effects of reward cues on risky decision making: the role of dopamine and relevance to addiction'
Amount $612,000 (CAD)
Organisation Canadian Institutes of Health Research 
Sector Public
Country Canada
Start 03/2018 
End 02/2021
 
Description Research Grant 'Do ambitious and exploratory behaviours drive creativity in bipolar disorder? The quest for a mechanism' (PI: Sheri Johnson)
Amount $9,995 (USD)
Organisation The Sean Costello Memorial Fund for Bipolar Research 
Start 06/2017 
End 05/2019
 
Title Problem Gambling Research Consortium 
Description LC, HBJ and A Lingford-Hughes (Imperial) have instigated a consortium of researchers and clinicians who work with the National Problem Gambling Clinic. The consortium meet quarterly to review new collaborations, project proposals at the clinic, and future funding directions. Given that the clinic is the only NHS facility for gambling, the research consortium is now recognised as the only evidence-based research body in the field. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We anticipate a number of funding bids in 2011 based on collaborations fostered through this consortium 
 
Description Imperial College 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Faculty of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution LC and HBJ are collaborating with an addiction imaging group at Imperial looking at neurotransmitter involvement in pathological gamblers.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in PET imaging methodology and analysis from the MRC Cyclotron Unit at Imperial.
Impact LC and HBJ are collaborators on an MRC Programme Grant to D Nutt and A Lingford-Hughes (2011-2016, G1002226 'Neurotransmitters in opiate and alcohol addiction') to run further PET imaging studies in pathological gamblers. A Lingford-Hughes (Imperial) is a co-investigator on LC's recent MRC award (2011-2014, G1100554 'Neural basis of gambling cognitions').
Start Year 2009
 
Description UBC 
Organisation University of British Columbia
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Luke Clark has moved to UBC in July 2014 but is continuing to collaborate with Cambridge and London, and we are exploring avenues for multi-site research in problem gambling.
Collaborator Contribution LC applied for and was appointed as the inaugural Director of the Centre for Gambling Research at UBC.
Impact None
Start Year 2014
 
Description University of Vienna, Austria 
Organisation University of Vienna
Department Faculty of Psychology
Country Austria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution International collaborator on a grant application to use the slot machine task developed in the MRC work
Collaborator Contribution Grant application submitted to the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) to study genetic basis of reward processing using this task
Impact Multidisciplinary: the project involves multi-modal neuroimaging (fMRI and EEG) as well as genetics.
Start Year 2013
 
Description University of Waterloo, Canada 
Organisation University of Waterloo
Department Department of Psychology
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Clark was a named consultant on an International Collaborative Grant from the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Council.
Collaborator Contribution Dr K Harrigan and Dr MJ Dixon applied for a collaborative grant to host Dr Clark for a one-week visit.
Impact Ongoing collaboration with the Problem Gambling Research Team in the Psychology department (not multi-disciplinary)
Start Year 2012
 
Description "Betting machines: How one man lost everything, £1,000 at a time", by Randeep Ramesh, The Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/jan/02/gambling-addiction-fixed-odds-betting-terminals
 
Description "Hindsight bias", featured in BBC Radio 4 'The Human Zoo' series by Timandra Harkness 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description "How gamblers try - and fail - to beat the system" commentary on article by Gaissmeier et al (2015) in InsideScience 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact na
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.insidescience.org/content/how-gamblers-try-%E2%80%93-and-fail-%E2%80%93-beat-system/2826
 
Description 15th International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Symposium talk:
Clark L 'Gambling distortions and the brain reward system' at the 15th International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, Las Vegas, 28 June 2013. This is the largest conference specialising in gambling and problem gambling


Collaborations with North American groups and translation of research findings to responsible gambling
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.unlv.edu/igi/conference/
 
Description Addicted to gambling", by Mary Bates. BrainFacts.org (Society for Neuroscience), 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.brainfacts.org/diseases-disorders/addiction/articles/2015/gambling-addiction-and-the-brai...
 
Description BBC Documentary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact HBJ and LC were interviewed by a TV production team from Matchlight for a documentary 'Gambling, Addiction and Me: The Real Hustler' aired on 22nd March 2012

further media interest and invitations to present
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description BNA 'Festival of Science' - HBJ 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact HBJ live interview for the Barbican / Wellcome Trust sponsored 'Packed Lunch' event on Arts and Science on the Brain

Increased visibility of gambling research and London clinic
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Bowden-Jones: Student BMJ Career Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact HBJ interviewed by S Ginn 'Up the ante: A psychiatrist who treats problem gamblers' for the Student British Medical Journal (BMJ) 20: e2763 (May 2012).

None
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Bowden-Jones: Westminster 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact HBJ gave Westminster keynote seminar on 'Problem Gambling: a Patient's Journey', to MPs and Lords on the illness and the National Problem Gambling Clinic.

Increased awareness of illness and treatment provision
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Bowden-Jones: media interviews on FOBTs 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact HBJ has provided media commentary on the public concern about Fixed Odds Betting Terminals (FOBTs), drawing on her experiences at the National Problem Gambling Clinic.

Interviews on Channel 4 Dispatches (Aug 2012), and in Daily Mirror (3 May 2012) and The Guardian Society (23rd April).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Bowden-Jones: media on NPGC 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact HBJ provides ongoing public awareness about the National Problem Gambling Clinic, in media interviews for BBC Panorama (20 July 2012), the Evening Standard (12 April), the Financial Times (11 Sept 2012, 29 Oct 2012).

Improved public awareness about National Problem Gambling Clinic
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Cambridge Mental Wealth 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk on 'Gambling and the Brain' about the risks of gambling and gambling addiction, as part of 'Mental Health Week' organised by the University of Cambridge Student Union, and sponsored by Mental Wealth UK

student engagement
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Cambridge Science Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Around 100 members of the public attended lecture on Gambling, with discussion afterwards. Title: 'the Psychology of Gambling'

Invitations to speak at regional schools and media enquiries from advertising of talk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Cambridge Science festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We presented examples of our work, experiments, and findings to members of the public using interactive games and short presentations of posters,.

Many people reported a change in perspective on gambling as a medical problem with widespread consequences in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Canadian Mental Health Association talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Panel discussion on the neuroscience of video gaming ('Coding the Game') chaired by Dara O'Briain, to audience of 400, including large group of sixth formers.

Correspondence with public and video game designers about links between video game use and modern gambling.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Clinic presentation (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Fifteen patients with Pathological Gambling attended a 'Friends of the Clinic' meeting. Presentation of our data was on the agenda, along with discussion of the clinic practices. In response to our presentation, many of the patients in attendance were very interested in our findings, and responded that our research was very relevant to their experiences as gamblers.

For those in attendance, they reported an increased understanding of the research we are carrying out. In addition, many asked for information on a research study that we are currently carrying out (at least three individuals asked for leaflets).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference Posters, 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Graduate student (S Sharman) and post-doc (E Limbrick Oldfield) presented data at two conferences:
Limbrick-Oldfield E, Aitken MRF, Clark L 'Investigation of the Gambler's Fallacy in a simplified roulette task using fMRI'.
British Neuroscience Association, 8 April 2013.
15th International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, 29 June 2013. (Awarded poster prize)

Sharman S, Limbrick-Oldfield E, Aitken MRF, Bowden-Jones H, Clark L 'Psychological and physiological responses to gambling cues in pathological gamblers'. 15th International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, 29 June 2013.

Strong training component for grad student.

Limbrick-Oldfield awarded poster prize at prestigious gambling conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Disseminating information about the MARC scheme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented MARC scheme, its aims and opportunities. Presented at RCPsych Addictions Faculty Meeting 2016 as well as other regional meetings alongside presentation of research outputs from other grants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.imperial.ac.uk/medicine/mrc-addiction-research-clinical-training/
 
Description ELO talk at InSRI 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Limbrick-Oldfield gave invited symposium talk on 'fMRI investigations of impulsivity and cognitive distortions in gambling disorder' at the International Society for Research on Impulsivity (InSRI) annual conference (a satellite to the Society of Biological Psychiatry annual meeting in San Diego CA, May 2017)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ELO talk at SNE 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Limbrick-Oldfield. Symposium talk at Society for Neuroeconomics annual meeting "Behavioural and neural correlates of the gambler's fallacy in Gambling Disorder" (Berlin, August 2016).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ELO talk at UNLV conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Limbrick-Oldfield: Conference talk. UNLV International Conference on Gambling and Risk-Taking, "Neural Substrates of Cue Reactivity and Craving in Gambling Disorder" (Las Vegas, June 2016)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Eve - Swiss talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Eve Limbrick-Oldfield. Symposium talk 'Impulsivity and altered reward processing as vulnerabilities for gambling disorder: A study in unaffected siblings' at the 4th International Multidisciplinary Symposium on Gambling Addiction (Fribourg, Switzerland, June 2018).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Financial Times magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Financial Times publish an interview with Henrietta on her work at the NHS clinic she founded ('The Risk Addicts'. FT Magazine, Feb 1st 2013)

Increased visibility of gambling research and London clinic
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Gambling Addiction Awareness Week (UK), webinar on the neuroscience of gambling addiction 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUAkW1mn58Y
 
Description Interview on loot boxes in PC Gamer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact LC quoted in interview on loot boxes in video games, PC Gamer
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.pcgamer.com/behind-the-addictive-psychology-and-seductive-art-of-loot-boxes/
 
Description LATELAB: Casino scienza (Edinburgh) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Over 100 members of the public attended this event at the Edinburgh Science Festival. A talk on studying gambling in the lab (by Eve Limbrick-Oldfield) formed part of an evening that included the chance to try casino games for 'play' money and a talk on the public understanding of mathematics.

The audience gained an understanding og how gambling can be investigated in a laboratory, and with an understanding of some of our main findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description LC gave colloquium talk, UBC Neuropsychiatry Grand Rounds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact LC invited colloquium talk, University of British Columbia (Vancouver) Neuropsychiatry Grand Rounds: 'Problem Gambling and the 'Player - Product' Interaction', May 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description LC gave research seminar at UCSF Alcohol & Addiction Research Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact LC invited talk at UC San Francisco, Alcohol and Addiction Research Group seminar series (San Francisco, May 2017): 'Gambling Disorder and the interplay between personal vulnerability and game features'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description LC gave symposium talk at New Horizons 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact LC gave symposium talk at New Horizons, a gambling conference directed at industry & policy makers: 'Skill-based EGMs: Evaluating the Risks to Players'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description LC, Department Talks - 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact LC was an invited speaker in the following department seminar series (average attendance: 50 people):
Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience (UCL): 5th Nov 2012
Department of Psychology, University of Bristol: 28th Nov 2012.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge: 2nd Nov 2012
Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London: 31st May 2012
Department of Psychology, Universite Louvain-de-Neuve, Belgium: 19th Dec 2011



Dissemination of research outputs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description LC, Radio Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Live radio interview on BBC Radio Bristol mid-morning show with John Darvall, discussing GamCare statistics reporting a rise in internet gambling in 18-35 year olds. 10th October 2013.

public engagement
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p001d77l
 
Description Luke - BAP talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Luke Clark. Symposium talk 'Neuroimaging of the opiate system in gambling disorder', British Association for Psychopharmacology annual conference (London, UK, July 2018).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Luke - CAN Public Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Luke Clark. Invited public lecture 'Deconstructing the modern slot machine: gambling, game features and addiction'. Canadian Neuroscience Meeting (Canadian Association of Neuroscience), May 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Luke - McMaster talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Luke Clark. Invited talk 'Deconstructing the modern slot machine: game features and gambling addiction' in the St Joseph's Hospital & McMaster University Mental Health and Addictions Program (MHAP) Grand Rounds (Hamilton ON, Dec 2018)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Luke - Pulse podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Luke Clark featured on The Pulse podcast (WHYY Philadelphia): interview for 'Who's in Control- Tech or Us' episode on slot machine design, April 2018: https://whyy.org/episodes/whos-in-control-tech-or-us/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Luke - Radio 5 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC Radio5live Stephen Nolan show: live interview (25 mins) with Luke Clark on modern gambling machine design and personal risk factors for problem gambling, 19 Nov 2018 https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0070jd4
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Luke - SFU talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Luke Clark: Invited talk 'Gambling distortions as a paradigm for decision neuroscience'. Simon Fraser University workshop on Neuroeconomics and the Evolution of Economic Behaviour (Vancouver, May 2018).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Luke - WealthSimple 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Luke Clark interview with WealthSimple 'Why Our Brains Like Gambling', 7 Feb 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.wealthsimple.com/en-ca/magazine/data-gambling-psychology
 
Description Media coverage of 2014 Research study (insula) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As a result of a press release the study was covered by National Media including the Daily Mail.
International coverage included 'Addiction Treatment' magazine, elementsbehavioralhealth.com, and sciencedaily.com

Increased interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Media coverage of Murch et al (2017) paper on slot machine immersion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Widespread media coverage of one of our research papers (Murch et al 2017 Psychology of Addictive Behaviors), including CBC News website and Daily Mail:Roundhouse Radio - live interview on Mornings with Martin Strong, 16 February 2017. At: http://cirh2.streamon.fm/listen-pl-8063
CFAX 1070 Radio (Victoria, BC) - live interview with Adam Stirling, 23 February 2017.
The Province / Times Colonist "Lost in the slot machine zone", 20 February 2017. http://www.timescolonist.com/life/problem-gamblers-enter-trancelike-zone-when-they-play-slots-study-1.10131444
Vancouver Sun "Problem gamblers enter a trancelike 'zone' when they play slots, UBC study finds" by Randy Shore. 20 February 2017. http://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/problem-gamblers-enter-a-trancelike-zone-when-they-play-slots-ubc-study-finds
CBC News British Columbia "Redesign slot machines to be less attractive to problem gamblers", 20 February 2017. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/ubc-research-slot-machine-addiction-1.3991111
Global BC1, TV interview, 20 February 2017.
CBC Radio live interview on 'All Points West', 20 February 2017.
CKNW Radio (Vancouver), live interview on Charles Adler Tonight, 20 February 2017.
Newsbeat 1010 (Toronto Radio station), live interview, 20 February 2017.
Daily Mail "Slot machines really do lull gambling addicts into a trance, researchers find", 22 February 2017. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4247192/Slot-machines-lull-gambling-addicts-trance.html
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Media interviews on video gaming 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact LC and HBJ provided commentary to the Science Media Centre on a new paper in Translational Psychiatry using brain imaging in adolescence video gamers (Kuhn et al 2012)

LC and HBJ widely quoted in media including national newspapers (Daily Mail, Telegraph), BBC online, and Reuters online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description NCPG Service User Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact 20 clients from the National Problem Gambling Clinic attended a seminar on the ongoing research at the clinic, including presentations by LC and HBJ (19th March 2012)

Discussion at the User Forum provided valuable service user input into the research programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description News coverage of Limbrick-Oldfield et al 2017 paper on cue reactivity in Gambling Disorder 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Extensive media coverage in UK, Canada, and other countries, with roughly 100 outlets covering the work; including
Daily Mail: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/pa/article-4084940/Gamblers-brain-activity-resembles-drug-addicts-research-shows.html
The Sun: https://www.thesun.co.uk/living/2524985/gambling-addicts-have-weaker-brains-just-like-alcoholics-and-drug-addicts-scientists-discover/
Vancouver Sun: http://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/gambling-alcohol-drug-addictions-share-brain-circuitry-ubc-research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://evelimbrickoldfield.com/public-engagement/
 
Description Pittsburgh Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact LC spoke in the Translational Neuroscience Program seminar series in the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, to an audience of 50 academic and clinical researchers. Title 'Neural Substrates of Distorted Cognition in Gambling Addiction'

Dissemination of research outputs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Public talk at HOpe Centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact LC gave public talk on "The Psychology of Gambling and Gambling Addiction: Science & Policy" at The Kelty Dennehy Mental Health Resource Centre, Mental Health Breakfast, Dec 9, 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://cgr.psych.ubc.ca/2017/12/09/luke-clark-speaking-on-gambling-at-the-hope-centre-in-north-van/
 
Description Research2Reality feature on Luke Clark 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Luke Clark videoed for Research2Reality 2016 discussing "What makes gambling addictive?". This is national website featuring innovative science aimed at early career scientists in Canada.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://research2reality.com/science-society/what-makes-gambling-addictive/
 
Description School visit (Little Chalfont) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Approx 200 sixth form students attended a science talk, with additional discussion about careers in psychology and at Cambridge

School became aware of new 3 year psychology degree offered by Cambridge, starting 2013.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Symposium talk on near-misses: International Convention of Psychological Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact LC gave symposium talk at ICPS conference in Vienna, March 2017: 'The role of counterfactual thinking in the response to gambling near-misses'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description TEDMED talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact HBJ invited to give a TEDMED Lecture 'Treating Addiction Against all Odds'

Increased visibility of gambling research and London clinic
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.tedmedliveimperial.com/
 
Description TV and Radio interviews with Eve Limbrick-Oldfield, discussing 2017 paper on cue reactivity in Gambling Disorder 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Several news outlets in British Columbia and Canada interviewed Dr Limbrick-Oldfield on these findings, published in Translational Psychiatry (2017):
CBC Vancouver evening TV news, with Andrew Chang: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OZM5Dr32rBg&t=56s
Global TV News Hour: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ie2hWOs2cw0
CFax radio 1070 - live interview on The Drive with Mark Brennae https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oE_1ET_Tydg
Roundhouse Radio (Vancouver) - live interview on Sense of Placehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=khnskM-EQYo
Pulse FM Radio (Vancouver) - live interview on the Kash Heed Show https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKuFrCOCz0Q&feature=em-upload_owner
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://evelimbrickoldfield.com/
 
Description UBC Mood Disorders Centre research rounds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact LC invited to speak on links between problem gambling and mood disorders at the UBC Centre for Brain Health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description UBC Summer Institute on Addiction: Gambling on the Brain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation 'Meet the Experts' series. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.responsiblegambling.vic.gov.au/newsroom/videos/meet-the-experts/neuroscience