Epidemiology, Ecology and Socio-Economics of Disease Emergence in Nairobi

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Institute of Infection and Global Health

Abstract

There is a global trend towards increasing urbanization. Already, half the world?s population lives in urban areas, and that proportion is rising. It is widely accepted that urbanization, especially when associated with poverty and poor living conditions, increases the risk of disease. Moreover, a number of influential reports have postulated that increased urbanization increases the risk of the emergence of novel pathogens. Though this idea sounds reasonable there is very little hard evidence to back it up: does urbanization really pose a risk of emerging disease and, if so, how? Without this information it is very difficult for policy makers to do anything practical to mitigate any risks that urbanization poses.
We propose a study involving experts in a wide range of relevant subjects to investigate this issue in the specific context of urban livestock keeping in Nairobi, Kenya. We will ask whether there is an association between livestock keeping and diarrhoeal disease in children, but also tackle the broader question of how the presence of livestock affects the microbial ecology of the city: how are the microbial floras of humans, livestock, other animals (such as rodents and birds) and the wider environment related? We will do this by collecting isolates of a ubiquitous bacterium ? Escherichia coli ? from all these environments and undertaking genetic analysis to show how the bacteria are related. This will allow us to determine the ?microbial footprint? of urban livestock and whether this footprint extends to the human population. We propose that novel pathogens are most likely to emerge via the same routes by which humans become exposed to known microbes.

At the same time, we will undertake a series of social and economic studies ? centred on the concept of the ?value chain? (which places supply chains in their socio-economic context) - which will examine the drivers of urban livestock keeping, relate these to other sources of livestock products, and explore how practices are related to supply and demand. This will tell us how the risks are likely to change in the future as urban livestock keeping becomes more widespread and food security more challenging, not just in Nairobi but worldwide. Finally, we will relate the results to policy development: legislation regarding livestock keeping in Nairobi is changing and this study will provide supporting evidence for the potential effectiveness of new regulations, balancing public health risks with the need for food security and income.

Technical Summary

Our overall objective is to understand the mechanisms leading to the introduction of pathogens into urban populations, and their subsequent spread. We focus on livestock as sources of these pathogens: emerging diseases are likely to be zoonotic in origin, and livestock pathogens, through the close interactions between livestock, their products and people, are at high of risk crossing the species barrier. It is often claimed that urbanization makes pathogen emergence more likely, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. What is it, exactly, about urban environments that might predispose to an emergence event, and what is the contribution of livestock keeping to this process? We will investigate two key aspects of this. Firstly, does urban livestock keeping pre-dispose people to acquiring new or more diverse microbial flora? Is the risk compounded by poverty status or other social factors? How is the microbial flora influenced by the keeping of livestock in these areas? Secondly, we will investigate exposure to livestock products traded for food or other purposes. Do supply chains for these products bring people into contact with microbial diversity over and above what they would otherwise experience? Why do people source food from particular places, and what influences the microbial flora to which people are exposed through food? Why do supply chains exist in the way that they do, and how might they change as demand for products changes with urban growth, or as a consequence of legislation? We have created an interdisciplinary team of epidemiologists, microbiologists, urban planners, demographers, social scientists, geographers, public health specialists, ecologists and economists to address these questions, examining in detail the city of Nairobi, Kenya. We will focus on Escherichia coli, an exemplar of many potential emerging pathogens, which exists in a diversity of hosts, in the environment, on food, in waste. We will take a landscape genetics approach to understanding E. coli distribution and spread and how this is affected by environmental and socio-economic factors. Our approach, which builds on state-of-the-art methodologies across a range of disciplines, is likely to become a benchmark for future studies, and will be applicable to a wide range of situations where animals, people and the environment interact. The findings will inform development of policy on urban livestock keeping by improving knowledge of the public health risks and by putting those risks in a wider socio-economic context, including the risks associated with alternative sources of livestock products.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description Government of Kenya Zoonotic Disease Technical Working Group
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Directly influenced systems of national disease surveillance, ranking of priority diseases at a national level
 
Description Promoting food security, safe food trading, and vendors' livelihoods in informal settlements: Lessons from Nairobi
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/90569?show=full
 
Description World Health Organization Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Working Group (FERG)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Main impact was to guide international efforts at data collection for disease burden
URL http://www.who.int/entity/foodsafety/publications/foodborne_disease/fergreport/en/index.html
 
Description World Health Organization Working Group on Zoonotic Neglected Tropical Diseases
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description BBSRC Agri-food technology Seeding catalyst
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2018
 
Description BBSRC GCRF IAA University of Liverpool
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description BBSRC Translational Awards
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R020051/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 10/2019
 
Description CGIAR A4NH
Amount $20,000,000 (USD)
Organisation CGIAR 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Global
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2018
 
Description Carron PhD
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation London International Development Centre 
Department Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 08/2018
 
Description Darwin Trust - Evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance determinants between and within livestock and humans in Kenya
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description Government of Kenya - Mapping Dairy Value Chains to assess Emergence and Transmission of Zoonotic Diseases, using diversity of Escherichia coli as a marker, in Nairobi Kenya
Amount £200,000 (KES)
Organisation University of Nairobi 
Sector Academic/University
Country Kenya
Start 09/2014 
End 08/2017
 
Description Melissa Ward Fellowship
Amount £1,500,000 (GBP)
Funding ID WT103953MA 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Muloi PhD
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation British Society for the History of Science (BSHS) 
Department Darwin Trust of Edinburgh
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description Public Engagement Award
Amount £400 (GBP)
Organisation University of Liverpool 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description Small Grants Louise Parkhurst
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 05/2017
 
Description Staff award
Amount £90,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Liverpool 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2014 
End 05/2016
 
Description US-UK Partnership Award
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N022513/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 05/2020
 
Description ZELS
Amount £3,300,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L019019/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2014 
End 12/2019
 
Title 2500 isolates of E. coli 
Description 2500 confirmed E. coli isolates which have been typed and subjected to phenotypic drug resistance patterns. They have also been whole genome sequenced, data that is not yet (2017) in the public domain, but will be shortly. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact One PhD project and several papers in preparation 
 
Title BAGPIPES 
Description Bacterial Genomics Pipelines 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Streamlined analysis of E. coli whole genome sequences 
 
Title Biobank of 20,000 isolates of E. coli 
Description 20,000 E. coli isolates deposited in the open access biobank maintained by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Nairobi - the AZIZI BioBank: http://azizi.ilri.cgiar.org/ 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Several MSc and PhD projects that will lead to peer reviewed publications 
URL http://azizi.ilri.cgiar.org/
 
Title Frameworks for studying livestock commodity value chains 
Description A formal framework designed to study livestock commodity value chains, an important element in the interdsciplinary work we are doing on the project. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact High quality data 
 
Title Sample biobank 
Description Biobank of biological samples and associated metadata from East African field research in humans and animals 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None yet 
URL http://azizi.ilri.cgiar.org/
 
Title Urban Zoo biorepository and metadata 
Description E coli and Campylobacter isolates collected from households, farms, slaughterhouses and butcheries. Sources include human faeces; faecal swabs from livestock and peri-domestic wildlife; food samples and environmental samples. All isolates have associated source data held in a secure database (under development - expected completion by the end of 2018); approximately 2000 have whole genome sequence data that will be uploaded to NCBI sequence read archive 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact New collaboration with Dr Louise Pankhurst 
 
Description A4NH 
Organisation International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Department Agriculture for Nutrition and Health
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Technical expertise
Collaborator Contribution Funding for sub-projects (eg on human nutrition in urban value chains), as well as technical staff support and some consumables
Impact Interdiciplinary. Outputs still in preparation
Start Year 2013
 
Description Co-PI on Consortium Grant (ESEI) 
Organisation African Population and Health Research Center
Country Kenya 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution All collaborators are now actively working together in the interdisciplinary ESEI project.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium Grant
Impact This is an interdisciplinary collaboration, involving Human medicine Veterinary public health Demography Remote sensing Livestock demography Economics Social science Anthropology Microbiology
Start Year 2010
 
Description Co-PI on Consortium Grant (ESEI) 
Organisation Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)
Department Animal Production and Health Division
Country Italy 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution All collaborators are now actively working together in the interdisciplinary ESEI project.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium Grant
Impact This is an interdisciplinary collaboration, involving Human medicine Veterinary public health Demography Remote sensing Livestock demography Economics Social science Anthropology Microbiology
Start Year 2010
 
Description Co-PI on Consortium Grant (ESEI) 
Organisation International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
Department Human Settlements Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution All collaborators are now actively working together in the interdisciplinary ESEI project.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium Grant
Impact This is an interdisciplinary collaboration, involving Human medicine Veterinary public health Demography Remote sensing Livestock demography Economics Social science Anthropology Microbiology
Start Year 2010
 
Description Co-PI on Consortium Grant (ESEI) 
Organisation International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution All collaborators are now actively working together in the interdisciplinary ESEI project.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium Grant
Impact This is an interdisciplinary collaboration, involving Human medicine Veterinary public health Demography Remote sensing Livestock demography Economics Social science Anthropology Microbiology
Start Year 2010
 
Description Co-PI on Consortium Grant (ESEI) 
Organisation Kenyan Institute for Medical Research (KEMRI)
Department Centre for Microbiology Research
Country Kenya 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution All collaborators are now actively working together in the interdisciplinary ESEI project.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium Grant
Impact This is an interdisciplinary collaboration, involving Human medicine Veterinary public health Demography Remote sensing Livestock demography Economics Social science Anthropology Microbiology
Start Year 2010
 
Description Co-PI on Consortium Grant (ESEI) 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Department Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (formerly Veterinary Clinical Sciences)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution All collaborators are now actively working together in the interdisciplinary ESEI project.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium Grant
Impact This is an interdisciplinary collaboration, involving Human medicine Veterinary public health Demography Remote sensing Livestock demography Economics Social science Anthropology Microbiology
Start Year 2010
 
Description Co-PI on Consortium Grant (ESEI) 
Organisation University College London
Department Bartlett Development Planning Unit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution All collaborators are now actively working together in the interdisciplinary ESEI project.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium Grant
Impact This is an interdisciplinary collaboration, involving Human medicine Veterinary public health Demography Remote sensing Livestock demography Economics Social science Anthropology Microbiology
Start Year 2010
 
Description Co-PI on Consortium Grant (ESEI) 
Organisation University of Nairobi
Department Department of Veterinary Public Health and Toxicology
Country Kenya 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution All collaborators are now actively working together in the interdisciplinary ESEI project.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium GrantCollaborator is a co-PI on an ESEI Consortium Grant
Impact This is an interdisciplinary collaboration, involving Human medicine Veterinary public health Demography Remote sensing Livestock demography Economics Social science Anthropology Microbiology
Start Year 2010
 
Description Dorte Dopfer 
Organisation University of Wisconsin-Madison
Department Department of Medical Sciences
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sharing of data for added value in analysis
Collaborator Contribution Additional analytical expertise
Impact None yet
Start Year 2012
 
Description EPT-2 USAID/FAO 
Organisation United States Agency for International Development
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have contributed policy advice and samples to the EPT2 programme in Kenya
Collaborator Contribution EPT2 have contributed samples
Impact Analysed samples awaiting publication
Start Year 2016
 
Description Erasmus Holland 
Organisation Erasmus University Medical Center
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sharing of samples and joint analysis of data leading to outputs
Collaborator Contribution Laboratory consumables, laboratory personnnel time, shipping costs
Impact PLoS One. 2015 Oct 16;10(10):e0140125. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140125. eCollection 2015. Serological Evidence of MERS-CoV Antibodies in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Laikipia County, Kenya. Deem SL1, Fèvre EM2, Kinnaird M3, Browne AS4, Muloi D5, Godeke GJ6, Koopmans M7, Reusken CB6.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Kenya FELTP 
Organisation Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT)
Department Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program
Country Kenya 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We train FELTP residents in our programme
Collaborator Contribution Provide 3x full time trainees every year (total of 6 trainees at any given time) at no cost to our programme. Effectively, we are given 6 free members of full time staff.
Impact MSc theses x3 so far Papers x 3 in preparation 6x theses expected over the next 2 years
Start Year 2015
 
Description LIDC 
Organisation London International Development Centre
Department Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Access to data and study sites, and analytical tools
Collaborator Contribution 100% of a joint PhD student
Impact PhD student appointed
Start Year 2012
 
Description Muungano Support Trust 
Organisation Muungano Support Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Personnel from the Trust shared by the project during fieldwork activities
Collaborator Contribution Primary data collection
Impact Primary data Newsletter: http://www.iied.org/air-citizen-scientists-map-food-dangers-nairobi
Start Year 2013
 
Description PREDICT-USAID 
Organisation United States Agency for International Development
Department PREDICT
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have contributed samples and intellectual inputs to the PREDICT program
Collaborator Contribution USAID -PREDICT program has been a partner on wildlife sampling, sharing materials, protocols and staff time
Impact Agreed shared protocols
Start Year 2015
 
Description Sarah O'Brien 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Department Department of Epidemiology and Population Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Access to field sites and data
Collaborator Contribution Access to field sites and data
Impact Joint PhD student
Start Year 2012
 
Description St Louis Zoo 
Organisation Saint Louis Zoo
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Joint work in the field and joint analysis of data leading to publications
Collaborator Contribution Funding from their fundraising activitites
Impact PLoS One. 2015 Oct 16;10(10):e0140125. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140125. eCollection 2015. Serological Evidence of MERS-CoV Antibodies in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Laikipia County, Kenya. Deem SL1, Fèvre EM2, Kinnaird M3, Browne AS4, Muloi D5, Godeke GJ6, Koopmans M7, Reusken CB6.
Start Year 2013
 
Description ZDU Kenya 
Organisation Government of Kenya
Department Zoonotic Disease Unit
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution ZDU is a policy partner to whom we have contributed policy advice for national level policy making
Collaborator Contribution Facilitation to work in Kenya
Impact Formal advice to policy fora. Involvment of the PI in two national task forces.
Start Year 2012
 
Description ZELS 
Organisation International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The partnership created by the MRC ESEI award was successful in applying for a Zoonoses In Emeging Livestock Systems grant from the BBSRc woth 3.3 M pounds.
Collaborator Contribution Partners are co-PIs in the new ZELS application
Impact Successful grant application
Start Year 2014
 
Description ZELS 
Organisation Kenyan Institute for Medical Research (KEMRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The partnership created by the MRC ESEI award was successful in applying for a Zoonoses In Emeging Livestock Systems grant from the BBSRc woth 3.3 M pounds.
Collaborator Contribution Partners are co-PIs in the new ZELS application
Impact Successful grant application
Start Year 2014
 
Description ZELS 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The partnership created by the MRC ESEI award was successful in applying for a Zoonoses In Emeging Livestock Systems grant from the BBSRc woth 3.3 M pounds.
Collaborator Contribution Partners are co-PIs in the new ZELS application
Impact Successful grant application
Start Year 2014
 
Description ZELS 
Organisation University of Nairobi
Country Kenya 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The partnership created by the MRC ESEI award was successful in applying for a Zoonoses In Emeging Livestock Systems grant from the BBSRc woth 3.3 M pounds.
Collaborator Contribution Partners are co-PIs in the new ZELS application
Impact Successful grant application
Start Year 2014
 
Description ZELS 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department School of Biomedical Sciences Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The partnership created by the MRC ESEI award was successful in applying for a Zoonoses In Emeging Livestock Systems grant from the BBSRc woth 3.3 M pounds.
Collaborator Contribution Partners are co-PIs in the new ZELS application
Impact Successful grant application
Start Year 2014
 
Description 11th Eastern and Southern Dairy Association (ESADA) conference from 23rd to 26th September 2015 at the Kenyatta International Conference Centre, Nairobi. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Study of food systems with value chain analysis. These are in the context of the importance of the food system in terms of pathogen disease emergence and re-emergence, environmental impacts and the changing patterns of diets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 3rd International One Health meeting - Amsterdam, The Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Multiple presenations (x7) at this conference. Study of food systems with value chain analysis. These are in the context of the importance of the food system in terms of pathogen disease emergence and re-emergence, environmental impacts and the changing patterns of diets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description A paper presentation in the 4th International One health congress and the 6th Biennial congress of the International Association of Ecology and Health, Australia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation was titled "Assessing and understanding food safety risk practices in Nairobi pork food system: a value chain approach". It was meant to share information and how to assess the food risk practices in food systems using Value Chain approach. This raised alot of interest and has led to further queries on the same.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BBC news article on AMR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC News article reporting the wider context around a project output on AMR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-34276557
 
Description Case control treatments 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Participants in the research received direct health benefits in terms of free treatments for diagnosed conditions.

700 people screened for helminths and zoonotic diseaeses and treated accordingly. Mainly involved children under 5 with diarrhoea in vulnerable groups. 50% were female.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Conference presentation: Forces of urbanisation that drive zoonoses emergence in global South . Special Session on Transdisciplinarity in urban health, 11th International Urban Health Conference, 4-7th March, Manchester, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The conference was a valuable opportunity to share and exchange information, as well as to build and strengthen networks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference presentation: Health premium for whom in the city? Comparing Health equity through the lens of social and spatial determinants in formal-informal settlements in Nairobi. International Conference on Urban Health 2015, 24-27 May Dhaka, Bangladesh. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Main aim was to foster international discussion of urban health issues, build networks among stakeholders in urban health, and promote enhanced understanding of the impacts of urban environments and human behaviour on health and well-being.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conference presentation: Participatory mapping for transformation: multiple visual representation of food scapes and environment in informal settlements in Nairobi. GIS Research UK Conference, University of Leeds, 14-17 April, Leeds, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Intended purpose of this talk was to share the experience gained while mapping the informal settlements in Nairobi. It created a lot of inquiries on the different approaches used and created a lot of interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Converstaion article: How an 'urban zoo' project in Kenya is helping unpack the spread of disease 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article on the academic blog site The Conversation entitled 'How an 'urban zoo' project in Kenya is helping unpack the spread of disease'
Written and published by EM Fevre on 17 November 2016. Downloaded 59,289 times by March 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://theconversation.com/how-an-urban-zoo-project-in-kenya-is-helping-unpack-the-spread-of-diseas...
 
Description Converstaion article: Studying African camels is key to learning more about the MERS virus 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Converstation academic blog site article entitled "Studying African camels is key to learning more about the MERS virus".
Downloaded 944 times by March 2017
Led to requests to participate in new grants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconversation.com/studying-african-camels-is-key-to-learning-more-about-the-mers-virus-487...
 
Description Fly butchery study 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Dissemination of research results relating to food chain microbial contamination to the target groups of that research in Nairobi, Kenya

High uptake of the intervention we were testing, namely insecticide incorporated nets in prtoeting meat in butcheries from flies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Food handling and food safety training 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Training in food safety and safe food handling for food retailers in informal settlements of Nairobi. The activity was filmed and distributed on local social media channels
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.zoonotic-diseases.org/informal-food-vendors-training/
 
Description From Faeces to Phylogeny 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Formal course delivered as part of the project entitled From Faeces to Phylogeny, delivered jointly by the project, the International Livestock Research Institute (Kenya), the University of Liverpool and the University of Edinburgh. Formal training in phylogenetics analysis to scientists and public health practionners in the Government of Kenya

Better understanding of research data in public policy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/43775
 
Description Invited Talk: Sohel Ahmed and Cecilia Tacoli: Mapping Food Safety and Environmental Hazards: what difference do community-led initiatives make? In the Workshop on Global Public Health: The potential of social networks, participatory systems and context-aware data, Festival of Digital Health , UCL. 2nd July 2014, London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact It was a platform to discuss new technologies, Share achievements, Network with staff, industry and healthcare and Create new collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited talk at the Chilean Veterinary Congress 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Santiago, Chile - December 2014; Keynote address
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited talk: Linking food and environment in informal settlements in Nairobi. Food Consumption, Urbanisation and Rural Transformation, IIED, London 3-5 December 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop brought together practitioners, researchers and staff from international and donor agencies to launch a new initiative on 'Food consumption, urbanisation
and rural transformations'. The initiative was addressing two interrelated levels: Support change in the global narrative and Support change on the ground. Our presentation was able to contribute towards identifying priority issues for knowledge integration, consolidation and advocacy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited talk: Rapid urbanization and new zoonotic diseases: The challenge of inter-disciplinary research, 21-OCT-2014 , UNAM, Mexico. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The aim was to share experience and challenges experienced and how to overcome them during the implementation of the multi disciplinary research. It emitted a lot of interest and requests for discussions after the meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description KVA/UON JOINT CONFERENCE Salmonella Serotypes and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Livestock and Humans in Korogocho and Viwandani, Kenya. By Dr. Mercy Cianjoka 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The conference was a valuable opportunity to share and exchange information, as well as to build and strengthen networks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Kenya Government Zoonotic Disease Technical Advisory Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Expert Member of the Zoonotic Disease Technical Advisory Group, the independent panel of experts who advise the Government of Kenya Zoonotic Disease Unit on scientific and technical issues in the area of zoonoses and disease surveillance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://zdukenya.org
 
Description Kenya Zoonotic Disease Technical Working Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Key policy makers from several government ministries learnt about our future research plans

Involvement of government policy makers in the research design process
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012
 
Description Member of the Avian Influenza Task Force coordinated by Director of Veterinary Services 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The purpose of this task force was in five themes 1) Surveillance; (2) Research & Laboratory; (3) Case Management; (4) Information, Communication and Education; and (5) Funding.

So far, several surveillance work has been done to evaluate the Avian Influenza prevalence and in particular highly pathogenic strains, among wild bird populations, including both migratory and resident bird species; and to provide technical support to the national surveillance programme through capacity building of national counterparts on sampling techniques.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Member of the MERS Technical Working Group/ Task force coordinated by the Director of Veterinary Services, Kenya. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact To deliberate on issues of MERS and to give technical advice on the surveillance and control of MERS in the region.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description New Scientist article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article in the New Scientist in both the online (http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22329842.900-mappi) and print editions. Widley distributed through blogs, twitter and others.

Much blog/twitter and other online interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22329842.900-mappi
 
Description News article in national Kenyan paper the Daily Nation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article on zoonoses together with policy partners in a national daily newspaper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.nation.co.ke/lifestyle/DN2/Take-care-how-you-interact-with-animals/-/957860/3108294/-/15f...
 
Description News article: Kenya tackles growing threat of deadly animal viruses transmitted to humans 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Two page spread article in the Kenyan daily paper the "Business Daily" on March 2 2017 entitled 'Kenya tackles growing threat of deadly animal viruses transmitted to humans'. Article the results of a series of interviews with project staff by a science journalist
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.businessdailyafrica.com/corporate/Kenya-tackles-growing-threat-of-deadly-animal-viruses-/...
 
Description News viewpoint: Achieving a common good 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact News item in the Veterinary Record: Achieving a common good resulting from a conference talk in September 2016, at the meeting of the Royal Soceity of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.i5006
 
Description Paris AGREENSkills 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk: "An Urban Zoo - the city from a pathogen's perspective" at AgreenSkills Annual Meeting; Cities and the new challenges and issues for research in agriculture, environment and nutrition Paris, Feb 13-16
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.agreenskills.eu/Events-training/Annual-Meetings/Annual-Meeting-2017
 
Description Post Doc attendance to a Symposium: One Health for the Real World: zoonoses, ecosystems and wellbeing in London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This symposium brought together leading experts from different fields to discuss the topic 'Healthy ecosystems, healthy people'.This symposium brought together leading experts from different fields to:Present new interdisciplinary frameworks for a real-world One Health approach, Highlight evidence from field-based settings in Africa and beyond and Debate implications for policy and practice.

The level of interaction was key to the Project and more opportunities of collaboration has created a lot of interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.zsl.org/science/whats-on/one-health-for-the-real-world-zoonoses-ecosystems-and-wellbeing
 
Description Post Doc attendance to a conference: Responsible Use of Antimicrobials in Animals at The Hague 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact To widen scope of current information on Antimicrobial use and to make links with interested parties on the same for future possible collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.responsibleantibioticuse.org/#xl_xr_page_index
 
Description Presentation in a Conference: Putting food first: narrating, mapping and analysing food-environment- society nexus in informal settlements of Nairobi . Special session on Perceptions of Urban Environmental Health: Narrating Political Ecologies of Disease, in the Dimensions of Political Ecology (DOPE) Conference, 26-28 Febryary, University of Kentucky, Lexington, US. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The conference creates a welcoming, supportive environment for junior scholars to share their work, while at the same time providing a forum for cutting-edge political ecological thought and debate on key topics in the community.

The work presented created discussions and interest from among the participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation to the UK Cheif Scientist, Sir Mark Walport 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Sir Mark Walport, the UK Cheif Scientist, visited Kenya and was invited to the International Livestock Research Institute where PIs for the project presented the work we are doing to him and his team.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://news.ilri.org/2015/07/22/uk-chief-scientific-adviser-visits-kenya-part-2-one-health-surveilla...
 
Description Press attention to the project forth quarter 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press attention from several groups of international journalists who visited field sites in Kenya, in association with a partner institute on the project, ILRI:

eg
1) http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/africa/kenya/120926/urban-farming-nairobi-agriculture-economy
2) http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2012/oct/12/stop-zoonoses-spreading-chickens-bed
3) http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2012/10/20121021183432618404.html
4) http://allafrica.com/stories/201210230238.html

Let to several additional interviews by co-PI Grace
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Quote and photo in Daily Nation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Brief piece in the Kenyan Daily Nation newspaper reporting on urban health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Soup-E.Coli-Field Logistics-Epi-And-Genomics: a sampling strategy to capture bacterial diversity in a changing urban environment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The conference was a valuable opportunity to share and exchange information, as well as to build and strengthen networks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Training policy makers and the private sector to understand phylogentics 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Formal 2 day workshop targeting policy audience and private sector food industry representatives on understanding drug resistance, phylogenetics and scientific output interpretation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Twitter social media activity on @ZoonoticDisease 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our team uses twitter on @ZoonoticDisease with almost 1800 followers to date (March 2016).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016
URL https://twitter.com/ZoonoticDisease
 
Description Uppsala Health Summit 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Uppala Health Summit; The overall goal for this year's summit is to bring together a diverse group ofpolicy-makers, scientists, industry representatives and civil society to stimulate dialogue around the One Health concept as approach to emerging infectious disease threats.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.uppsalahealthsummit.se/our-summits/tackling-infectious-disease-threats-with-a-one-health-...
 
Description Urban Zoo project quarterly newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Urban Zoo project quarterly newsletter (produced 4x per year). Immediate circulation list of approx 60, plus social meida, and print issues distributed to various partner organisations. 10 issues produced during the course of the project so far.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.zoonotic-diseases.org/project/urban-zoo-project/
 
Description VOA news report 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Media output (written) together with video footage of project sidte, project explanation etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://m.voanews.com/a/scientists-study-slums-signs-spreading-superbugs/3116155.html
 
Description WHO NZD group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Participation in a World Health Organization Expert Panel on Zoonotic diseases:
4th International meeting on the control of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases
"From Advocacy to Action"

Very wide dissemination of information to a global policy audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/zoonoses/fourth_meeting/en/
 
Description WHO Strategic Advisory Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact WHO working group appointed by the WHO Director General considering issues of Zoonotic Diseases
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/stag_nzd_call_nominations/en/
 
Description Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Curated website with rich content, receiving approx 950 hits per month from a global audience. Includes newsletters specific to the projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.zoonotic-diseases.org/
 
Description ZDU GIS training 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Training in the use of Open Source GIS by the project and its collaborators for Government policy makers and civil servants in Kenya

Better use of software to analyse national data on disease
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/45971/TrainingWorkshopReport-IntroductionToGIS.pdf?...