Defining the biomedical, environmental and social risk factors for human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi; opportuniti

Lead Research Organisation: London Sch of Hygiene and Trop Medicine
Department Name: Infectious and Tropical Diseases

Abstract

Malaria is caused by a single celled parasite found predominantly in the blood of its host, and is transmitted between hosts by the bite of a mosquito. Greater than 100 species of malaria exist, infecting many different animals. Until recently, humans were thought to be the natural hosts for 4 malaria species. However, since 2004 reports appeared of malaria infections in humans that are caused by a parasite species found previously in certain types of macaque in Southeast Asia. This species is Plasmodium knowlesi and, although benign in its natural monkey host, it has caused severe and even fatal disease in a proportion of human sufferers.

Currently, we know little about the true burden of disease caused by this macaque parasite, or why it has emerged as a human pathogen. Initial descriptions of humans with Plasmodium knowlesi malaria suggested that they had been bitten and infected while working in forested areas, common in many countries of Southeast Asia. However, a more recent study in Malaysian Borneo shows that communities there are also being infected, even though there is little forest in existence. There may be a number of factors related to the environment, the types of mosquito in the area, people?s behaviour or movement and their proximity to troops of macaques that will have an effect on how at risk they are to being infected with Plasmodium knowlesi.

We have built a network of researchers with different skills and expertise from the UK, the Philippines, Malaysia and Australia to tackle the various knowledge gaps by working together in a concerted approach. We plan to conduct studies in both the Philippines (on Palawan island) and in Sabah, a region of Malaysian Borneo. A larger number of cases of human Plasmodium knowlesi infection have been found in Sabah, compared to Palawan, and we will attempt to find out why communities here seem at higher risk. In treating their infections we can produce guidelines to help other clinicians faced with this disease. We also want to study the macaques, the mosquitoes that transmit the parasite, and the environment in which the infections occur to give us the whole picture and to produce maps that describe the risk factors existing in the different areas. We hope this will provide important information to ministries of health trying to control malaria disease in the affected regions and prevent further outbreaks of malaria originating from primates.

Technical Summary

Background:
Until recently, medical science has attributed malaria infections in humans to only four parasite species. However, molecular investigations during a malaria epidemic in Malaysian Borneo in 2004 confirmed the causative agent as Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite formerly thought to only infect primates. Studies have since detected P. knowlesi in human populations in several other Southeast Asian countries.

The primary hosts of P. knowlesi are macaque species that are widely distributed across Southeast Asia and in which infection is benign. P. knowlesi infections in humans however can cause severe and fatal disease. Moreover recent studies in Sabah, Malaysia, have suggested that transmission is not confined to adults or the forest fringe as previously described. We hypothesize that the change in land use patterns has lead to this apparent increase in cases and changing epidemiology. The appearance of other primate-associated pathogens within human populations has been linked with activities such as deforestation (eg Yellow fever) and hunting (eg Ebola). A common feature of these zoonoses is that community perceptions of disease risk strongly impact on the economic activities that drive exposure, and demonstrate the value of an integrated approach to prevention and control.

Methods:
We propose an interdisciplinary approach to examine the extent of infection with P.knowlesi at 2 study sites and to identify risk factors for infection that ultimately contribute to its control. A case control study, the first of its kind for P.knowlesi, will allow analysis of broad scale spatial and socio-behavioural factors associated with symptomatic infections. Alongside this we will conduct detailed entomological trapping experiments and primatology studies within habitats of potential epidemiological importance (closed canopy primary forest, secondary forest, etc.). These data together with mosquito and macaque infection rates will be incorporated into spatial and mathematical models to generate risk maps for P.knowlesi infection. We will use these maps to define areas in which to conduct cross sectional surveys to identify asymptomatic infections and exposure patterns with P.knowlesi.

Outputs:
We aim to identify the scale of public health threat posed by P. knowlesi, through characterisation of the biological, environmental and social factors responsible for triggering its emergence within human populations. By understanding these factors we will generate risk maps to define and focus appropriate control strategies. This will allow an understanding of the conditions that permit the parasite host switch from macaque to human, and predictions of the risk of further species crossover events may be possible.

Publications

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Grigg MJ (2018) Age-Related Clinical Spectrum of Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria and Predictors of Severity. in Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

 
Title Borneo Jungle Diaries - Episode on Proboscis Monkeys 
Description Monkeybar funded MSc student Amaziasizamoria Jumail featured in Borneo Jungle Diaries 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact Showing how thermal camera's are used to find proboscis monkeys and the work DGFC doing. Raise awareness of DGFC work. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5alVymrAJc
 
Description 2012 - 2016 Manual of Operations
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact The Malaria Program called attention to the fact that the four human malaria species and zoonotic malaria are endemic in the Philippines. Included in the 2012 - 2016 manual of operations is the instruction for the collection of blood spots from P malariae malaria cases and shipment to RITM. The specimens will undergo molecular assay for P knowlesi infection.
 
Description Case Control Data (data continually fed to Malaysian MOH, giving continued support to national malaria policy decisions)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Fever Surveillance training
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Barangay health workers in Bacungan, Palawan, Philippines, were trained in malaria diagnosis and treatment, and collection/reporting of malaria surveillance data. This has enabled basic detection, diagnosis and treatment of malaria at the local barangay level, therefore improving local access to care whilst also increasing availability of data for malaria surveillance on a national level.
 
Description Palawan Wildlife Care Center, Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Standard operating procedures for (a) care of macaque monkeys used in field-based research specifically mosquito-vector collections; and (b) with assistance from LSHTM, procedures for euthanasia of monkeys. An incident wherein four monkeys suddenly died within a two-week period and the observance of inadequate mangement of the event prompted RITM to hold a basic clinical Biosafety course for staff of the center and local veterinarians, among other participants. RITM plans to develop a Bisoafety course curriculum for veterinarians based on participant feedback.
 
Description Routine PCR for diagnosis of P. knowlesi
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact The research of project partners directly informed a new policy in the Philippines for routine PCR confirmation on all malaria cases, thereby improving diagnosis and detection of P. knowlesi in the Philippines.
 
Description Standard Operating Procedures
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Management of animal component of the project in The Phillipines has led to development of additional guidelines and Standard Operating Procedures for professional and humane management of wildlife institutionally at our collaborator RITM and regionally, in Palawan.
 
Description Training material for community volunteer healthworkers
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Training material for community volunteer healthworkers for malaria blood film preparation, malaria diagnosis using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and obtaining written informed consent. After their training, these nine healthworkers received certificates from the Provincial Health Office in 2014 and which allowed them to diagnose malaria using RDTs. All of the health workers were women; the youngest was a 16 y/o high school student.
 
Description Training material for photovoice for researchers (including non-social scientists) and community members
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Photos taken by the participants are used to explain their perceptions of, in this case, zoonotic infections.
 
Description Diploma in Applied Parasitology and Entomology - Ms. Majhalia Torno
Amount RM100,000 (MYR)
Organisation Malaysian Technical Cooperation Program 
Sector Public
Country Malaysia
Start 06/2016 
End 12/2017
 
Description Establish platform to investigate human genetics and plasmodium knowlesi with the Department of Biotechnology.
Amount RM50,000 (MYR)
Organisation Malaysian University of Sabah 
Sector Academic/University
Country Malaysia
Start 04/2016 
End 12/2017
 
Description LIDC Fellowships Scheme
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation London International Development Centre 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2013 
End 07/2014
 
Description PhD in Medical Entomology - Wilfredo Aure
Amount RM100,000 (MYR)
Organisation Malaysian University of Sabah 
Sector Academic/University
Country Malaysia
Start 06/2014 
End 12/2017
 
Description WHO Fellowship
Amount Php0 (PHP)
Organisation World Health Organization (WHO) 
Sector Public
Country Global
Start 06/2015 
End 12/2015
 
Description WHO Fellowship - Ms. Paulene Joy Lorenzo
Amount Php600,000 (PHP)
Organisation World Health Organization (WHO) 
Sector Public
Country Global
Start 06/2015 
End 12/2015
 
Title Anopheles balabacensis colony 
Description Laboratory colonisation of the Anopheles balabacensis. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This has not happened anywhere else in the world. The culture is now in its 12th generation. 
 
Title GPS tracking 
Description Subsistence farmers, charcoal makers, fishermen and their families were trained in the use of handheld GPS devices to track their movements. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact In another project, RITM researchers have now trained community health workers in the collection of malaria signs and symptoms and socio-demographic data of community members. 
 
Title Molecular detection of Pk from faeces 
Description Use of PCR to detect Pk infection in wild, free-ranging long-tailed macaque 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The sensitivity and specificity of the method correlates with that previously reported, therefore the need to capture wild macaques to determine Pk infection could be decreased 
 
Title Photovoice 
Description Photos taken by the participants in focus group discussions are used to explain their perceptions of, in this case, zoonotic infections. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This method is included RITM research protocol for community perceptions of intestinal parasitic infections and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. 
 
Title Human movements data 
Description Human movements data of which consists of time (within 24 period), seasonal (12 month period) and geographical. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This is the first of its kind in the Philippines with regard to pratices and behaviour that put communities at risk for vector-borne and emerging zoonotic diseases because of the changing land use and human behaviour tht adapts to this change. 
 
Title Macaque home ranges 
Description This model describes the movement and home ranges of long tailed macaques when their habitat has been recently been subjected to anthropogenic change 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Statistical evidence indicates deforestation influenced the behaviour of macaques for this troop, which could be an important step towards understanding how deforestation impacts P. knowlesi transmission. 
 
Description Ecology of mosquito vectors of malaria in Sabah (DGFC & UMS) 
Organisation Danau Girang Field Centre
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DGFC makes available manpower, facilities and transportation while the research is conducted in the Kinabatangan area
Collaborator Contribution Expertise on trapping and identifying mosquitoes and funding to contribute to salaries of RA attached to the project
Impact Not outcomes/outputs at this stage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Ecology of mosquito vectors of malaria in Sabah (DGFC & UMS) 
Organisation Malaysian University of Sabah
Department Department of Pathobiology & Medical Diagnostics
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DGFC makes available manpower, facilities and transportation while the research is conducted in the Kinabatangan area
Collaborator Contribution Expertise on trapping and identifying mosquitoes and funding to contribute to salaries of RA attached to the project
Impact Not outcomes/outputs at this stage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Molecular Biologist (CAS) 
Organisation University of the Philippines Los Baños
Country Philippines 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a new collaboration that involves LSHTM & RITM.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Mary Grace Ducuma, a molecular biologist also of CAS, is a consultant for antimalaria drug resistance of a new collaboration between RITM and LSHTM (Newton Fund Collaboration)
Impact Pending.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Monkeybar ESEI Research Consortium 
Organisation Danau Girang Field Centre
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI and coordinator of a network of multidisciplinary researchers who, building on the Catalyst Grant (G0902437), are working together to achieve the objectives of the P. knowlesi Monkeybar ESEI project. As well as overall coordination of the network, the research team at LSHTM contribute particular expertise in parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, land use and GIS mapping and molecular biology.
Collaborator Contribution Partners at the University of Glasgow made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and ecological modelling. Partners at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (formerly University of Greenwich) made a large contribution to preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and alternative vector trapping methods. Partners at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in social science, entomology, and malaria control in the Philippines. Partners at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in primatology. Partners at the Menzies School of Health Research made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Clinical Research Centre made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and diagnosing and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology and social sciences in Sabah, Malaysia. Partners at the Danau Girang Field Centre and the Sabah Wildlife Department contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in primatology and the use and welfare of macaques in both primatology and entomology activities. Collaborators at the University of Malaya contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology.
Impact The collaboration is multidisciplinary, with the following disciplines represented: Clinical sciences, parasitology, entomology, primatology, social sciences, land use/mapping, epidemiology, ecological modelling and molecular biology.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Monkeybar ESEI Research Consortium 
Organisation Government of the Republic of the Philippines
Department Research Institute for Tropical Medicine (RITM) Phillippines
Country Philippines 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution PI and coordinator of a network of multidisciplinary researchers who, building on the Catalyst Grant (G0902437), are working together to achieve the objectives of the P. knowlesi Monkeybar ESEI project. As well as overall coordination of the network, the research team at LSHTM contribute particular expertise in parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, land use and GIS mapping and molecular biology.
Collaborator Contribution Partners at the University of Glasgow made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and ecological modelling. Partners at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (formerly University of Greenwich) made a large contribution to preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and alternative vector trapping methods. Partners at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in social science, entomology, and malaria control in the Philippines. Partners at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in primatology. Partners at the Menzies School of Health Research made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Clinical Research Centre made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and diagnosing and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology and social sciences in Sabah, Malaysia. Partners at the Danau Girang Field Centre and the Sabah Wildlife Department contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in primatology and the use and welfare of macaques in both primatology and entomology activities. Collaborators at the University of Malaya contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology.
Impact The collaboration is multidisciplinary, with the following disciplines represented: Clinical sciences, parasitology, entomology, primatology, social sciences, land use/mapping, epidemiology, ecological modelling and molecular biology.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Monkeybar ESEI Research Consortium 
Organisation Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI and coordinator of a network of multidisciplinary researchers who, building on the Catalyst Grant (G0902437), are working together to achieve the objectives of the P. knowlesi Monkeybar ESEI project. As well as overall coordination of the network, the research team at LSHTM contribute particular expertise in parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, land use and GIS mapping and molecular biology.
Collaborator Contribution Partners at the University of Glasgow made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and ecological modelling. Partners at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (formerly University of Greenwich) made a large contribution to preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and alternative vector trapping methods. Partners at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in social science, entomology, and malaria control in the Philippines. Partners at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in primatology. Partners at the Menzies School of Health Research made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Clinical Research Centre made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and diagnosing and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology and social sciences in Sabah, Malaysia. Partners at the Danau Girang Field Centre and the Sabah Wildlife Department contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in primatology and the use and welfare of macaques in both primatology and entomology activities. Collaborators at the University of Malaya contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology.
Impact The collaboration is multidisciplinary, with the following disciplines represented: Clinical sciences, parasitology, entomology, primatology, social sciences, land use/mapping, epidemiology, ecological modelling and molecular biology.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Monkeybar ESEI Research Consortium 
Organisation Malaysian University of Sabah
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI and coordinator of a network of multidisciplinary researchers who, building on the Catalyst Grant (G0902437), are working together to achieve the objectives of the P. knowlesi Monkeybar ESEI project. As well as overall coordination of the network, the research team at LSHTM contribute particular expertise in parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, land use and GIS mapping and molecular biology.
Collaborator Contribution Partners at the University of Glasgow made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and ecological modelling. Partners at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (formerly University of Greenwich) made a large contribution to preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and alternative vector trapping methods. Partners at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in social science, entomology, and malaria control in the Philippines. Partners at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in primatology. Partners at the Menzies School of Health Research made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Clinical Research Centre made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and diagnosing and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology and social sciences in Sabah, Malaysia. Partners at the Danau Girang Field Centre and the Sabah Wildlife Department contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in primatology and the use and welfare of macaques in both primatology and entomology activities. Collaborators at the University of Malaya contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology.
Impact The collaboration is multidisciplinary, with the following disciplines represented: Clinical sciences, parasitology, entomology, primatology, social sciences, land use/mapping, epidemiology, ecological modelling and molecular biology.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Monkeybar ESEI Research Consortium 
Organisation Menzies School of Health Research
Department Global & Tropical Health Division
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI and coordinator of a network of multidisciplinary researchers who, building on the Catalyst Grant (G0902437), are working together to achieve the objectives of the P. knowlesi Monkeybar ESEI project. As well as overall coordination of the network, the research team at LSHTM contribute particular expertise in parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, land use and GIS mapping and molecular biology.
Collaborator Contribution Partners at the University of Glasgow made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and ecological modelling. Partners at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (formerly University of Greenwich) made a large contribution to preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and alternative vector trapping methods. Partners at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in social science, entomology, and malaria control in the Philippines. Partners at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in primatology. Partners at the Menzies School of Health Research made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Clinical Research Centre made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and diagnosing and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology and social sciences in Sabah, Malaysia. Partners at the Danau Girang Field Centre and the Sabah Wildlife Department contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in primatology and the use and welfare of macaques in both primatology and entomology activities. Collaborators at the University of Malaya contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology.
Impact The collaboration is multidisciplinary, with the following disciplines represented: Clinical sciences, parasitology, entomology, primatology, social sciences, land use/mapping, epidemiology, ecological modelling and molecular biology.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Monkeybar ESEI Research Consortium 
Organisation Queen Elizabeth Hospital (Malaysia)
Country Malaysia 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution PI and coordinator of a network of multidisciplinary researchers who, building on the Catalyst Grant (G0902437), are working together to achieve the objectives of the P. knowlesi Monkeybar ESEI project. As well as overall coordination of the network, the research team at LSHTM contribute particular expertise in parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, land use and GIS mapping and molecular biology.
Collaborator Contribution Partners at the University of Glasgow made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and ecological modelling. Partners at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (formerly University of Greenwich) made a large contribution to preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and alternative vector trapping methods. Partners at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in social science, entomology, and malaria control in the Philippines. Partners at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in primatology. Partners at the Menzies School of Health Research made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Clinical Research Centre made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and diagnosing and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology and social sciences in Sabah, Malaysia. Partners at the Danau Girang Field Centre and the Sabah Wildlife Department contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in primatology and the use and welfare of macaques in both primatology and entomology activities. Collaborators at the University of Malaya contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology.
Impact The collaboration is multidisciplinary, with the following disciplines represented: Clinical sciences, parasitology, entomology, primatology, social sciences, land use/mapping, epidemiology, ecological modelling and molecular biology.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Monkeybar ESEI Research Consortium 
Organisation Sabah Wildlife Department
Country Malaysia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution PI and coordinator of a network of multidisciplinary researchers who, building on the Catalyst Grant (G0902437), are working together to achieve the objectives of the P. knowlesi Monkeybar ESEI project. As well as overall coordination of the network, the research team at LSHTM contribute particular expertise in parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, land use and GIS mapping and molecular biology.
Collaborator Contribution Partners at the University of Glasgow made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and ecological modelling. Partners at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (formerly University of Greenwich) made a large contribution to preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and alternative vector trapping methods. Partners at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in social science, entomology, and malaria control in the Philippines. Partners at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in primatology. Partners at the Menzies School of Health Research made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Clinical Research Centre made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and diagnosing and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology and social sciences in Sabah, Malaysia. Partners at the Danau Girang Field Centre and the Sabah Wildlife Department contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in primatology and the use and welfare of macaques in both primatology and entomology activities. Collaborators at the University of Malaya contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology.
Impact The collaboration is multidisciplinary, with the following disciplines represented: Clinical sciences, parasitology, entomology, primatology, social sciences, land use/mapping, epidemiology, ecological modelling and molecular biology.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Monkeybar ESEI Research Consortium 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI and coordinator of a network of multidisciplinary researchers who, building on the Catalyst Grant (G0902437), are working together to achieve the objectives of the P. knowlesi Monkeybar ESEI project. As well as overall coordination of the network, the research team at LSHTM contribute particular expertise in parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, land use and GIS mapping and molecular biology.
Collaborator Contribution Partners at the University of Glasgow made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and ecological modelling. Partners at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (formerly University of Greenwich) made a large contribution to preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and alternative vector trapping methods. Partners at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in social science, entomology, and malaria control in the Philippines. Partners at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in primatology. Partners at the Menzies School of Health Research made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Clinical Research Centre made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and diagnosing and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology and social sciences in Sabah, Malaysia. Partners at the Danau Girang Field Centre and the Sabah Wildlife Department contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in primatology and the use and welfare of macaques in both primatology and entomology activities. Collaborators at the University of Malaya contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology.
Impact The collaboration is multidisciplinary, with the following disciplines represented: Clinical sciences, parasitology, entomology, primatology, social sciences, land use/mapping, epidemiology, ecological modelling and molecular biology.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Monkeybar ESEI Research Consortium 
Organisation University of Malaya
Department Department of Parasitology
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI and coordinator of a network of multidisciplinary researchers who, building on the Catalyst Grant (G0902437), are working together to achieve the objectives of the P. knowlesi Monkeybar ESEI project. As well as overall coordination of the network, the research team at LSHTM contribute particular expertise in parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, land use and GIS mapping and molecular biology.
Collaborator Contribution Partners at the University of Glasgow made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and ecological modelling. Partners at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (formerly University of Greenwich) made a large contribution to preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and alternative vector trapping methods. Partners at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in social science, entomology, and malaria control in the Philippines. Partners at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in primatology. Partners at the Menzies School of Health Research made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Clinical Research Centre made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and diagnosing and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology and social sciences in Sabah, Malaysia. Partners at the Danau Girang Field Centre and the Sabah Wildlife Department contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in primatology and the use and welfare of macaques in both primatology and entomology activities. Collaborators at the University of Malaya contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology.
Impact The collaboration is multidisciplinary, with the following disciplines represented: Clinical sciences, parasitology, entomology, primatology, social sciences, land use/mapping, epidemiology, ecological modelling and molecular biology.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Monkeybar ESEI Research Consortium 
Organisation University of the Philippines Los Baños
Country Philippines 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI and coordinator of a network of multidisciplinary researchers who, building on the Catalyst Grant (G0902437), are working together to achieve the objectives of the P. knowlesi Monkeybar ESEI project. As well as overall coordination of the network, the research team at LSHTM contribute particular expertise in parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, land use and GIS mapping and molecular biology.
Collaborator Contribution Partners at the University of Glasgow made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and ecological modelling. Partners at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (formerly University of Greenwich) made a large contribution to preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in entomology and alternative vector trapping methods. Partners at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in social science, entomology, and malaria control in the Philippines. Partners at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in primatology. Partners at the Menzies School of Health Research made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Clinical Research Centre made large contributions to developing the research consortium and preparing the ESEI grant application, with particular expertise in clinical sciences and diagnosing and managing human P. knowlesi malaria infections. Partners at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology and social sciences in Sabah, Malaysia. Partners at the Danau Girang Field Centre and the Sabah Wildlife Department contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in primatology and the use and welfare of macaques in both primatology and entomology activities. Collaborators at the University of Malaya contribute to the research consortium with particular expertise in entomology.
Impact The collaboration is multidisciplinary, with the following disciplines represented: Clinical sciences, parasitology, entomology, primatology, social sciences, land use/mapping, epidemiology, ecological modelling and molecular biology.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Parasitology and ecotourism-related stress in hybrid macaques, PhD student (Lauren Gilhooly) 
Organisation Danau Girang Field Centre
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided logistical support to the student, advise on parasitology and genetics
Collaborator Contribution Proposed the project, provided funding, supervision of student on anthropology aspects
Impact Impact pending.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Parasitology and ecotourism-related stress in hybrid macaques, PhD student (Lauren Gilhooly) 
Organisation Western University
Department Department of Anthropology
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided logistical support to the student, advise on parasitology and genetics
Collaborator Contribution Proposed the project, provided funding, supervision of student on anthropology aspects
Impact Impact pending.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Primate census using Drones, MSc student (Amaziasisamoria Jumail) 
Organisation Danau Girang Field Centre
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DGFC Proposed the project in conjunction with the LSHTM, supervision of the student on primate ecology
Collaborator Contribution LSHTM - funding, supervision on remote sensing; ITBC - host the student, funding, supervision on remote sensing
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Primate census using Drones, MSc student (Amaziasisamoria Jumail) 
Organisation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DGFC Proposed the project in conjunction with the LSHTM, supervision of the student on primate ecology
Collaborator Contribution LSHTM - funding, supervision on remote sensing; ITBC - host the student, funding, supervision on remote sensing
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Primate census using Drones, MSc student (Amaziasisamoria Jumail) 
Organisation Malaysian University of Sabah
Department Institute for Tropical Biology Conservation
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DGFC Proposed the project in conjunction with the LSHTM, supervision of the student on primate ecology
Collaborator Contribution LSHTM - funding, supervision on remote sensing; ITBC - host the student, funding, supervision on remote sensing
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description RVC 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Department One Health (Infectious Diseases)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The PI and others within the Monkeybar ESEI research consortium have been in communication with the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) in London, for their guidance on the use of macaques in the ESEI research project, and have established a new research collaboration with their One Health department on zoonotic disease research. Our project scientist developed a successful fellowship proposal with collaborators at RVC to support work exploring land use change and its effects on behaviour of macaques and their interactions with humans. LSHTM and RVC have developed joint PhD proposals on development and evaluation of tools to detect potential zoonotic infections in macaques. The Monkeybar ESEI research consortium are collaborating with RVC on integrative laboratory work to optimise P. knowlesi detection methods, particularly from macaque faecal samples.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners at the RVC have attended meetings at LSHTM and have provided advice for our protocols and ethics applications on the use of macaques. They have worked with us closely to develop collaborative research proposals, have participated in site visits to Sabah, Malaysia using funds from our joint LIDC fellowship funding, and participates in the Monkeybar Mid-Project Scientific Workshop in Sabah (25-28 Nov 2014). They have contributed their own time and RVC funding to Monkeybar laboratory work on optimising P. knowlesi detection methods and are working closely with our overseas partners on developing this area of work.
Impact Development of study protocols for the Entomology work; development of applications to animal ethics committees; successful application for LIDC fellowship funding; development of joint LSHTM-RVC funding applications for PhD studentships on zoonotic diseases; development of integrative laboratory work on P. knowlesi detection methods, particularly from macaque faecal samples.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Rickettsiae in wildlife, MSc student (Cyrlen Jalius) 
Organisation Danau Girang Field Centre
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Proposed the project, collected all samples, funding the university fee and student stipend
Collaborator Contribution UMS - host the student and supervise on ectoparasite identification; MORU - supervise on immunology and molecular detectio of ricketssiae
Impact Pending.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UG and UMalaya collaboration 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Multiple 
PI Contribution Planned collaboration between University of Glasgow and University Malaya Kuala Lumpur on Aedes vector surveillance and Dengue transmission
Collaborator Contribution Initiated by the co-sponsorship of a Training Fellowship in Tropical Medicine and Public Health which was submitted to Wellcome Trust in Feb 2018
Impact No outputs yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description UG and UMalaya collaboration 
Organisation University of Malaya
Department Department of Parasitology
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Planned collaboration between University of Glasgow and University Malaya Kuala Lumpur on Aedes vector surveillance and Dengue transmission
Collaborator Contribution Initiated by the co-sponsorship of a Training Fellowship in Tropical Medicine and Public Health which was submitted to Wellcome Trust in Feb 2018
Impact No outputs yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description University of the Philippines at Los Banos 
Organisation University of the Philippines Los Baños
Country Philippines 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution 1. RITM is the designated WHO Regional Training Centre in the Western Pacific Region.
Collaborator Contribution 1. Dr. Gloria Nelson, Department of Sociology, CAS, is a point person for discussions to develop UP Los Banos as a sister institution of the WHO-TDR supported Regional Training Center for Good Health Research Practices (WHO RTC).
Impact 1. Dr. Gloria Nelson, Department of Sociology, CAS, is a point person for discussions to develop UP Los Banos as a sister institution of the WHO-TDR supported Regional Training Center for Good Health Research Practices (WHO RTC).
Start Year 2012
 
Title Thermal camera attached to drone 
Description Use of a thermal camera attached to a Drone to conduct a primate census. This is ongoing but to our knowledge this has never been attempted and there are no peer reviewed publications on this. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact None yet 
 
Description 4th Annual Future of Malaria Research Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Kimberly Fornace. Johns Hopkins University. 2018. "Future of Malaria Research Symposium." Keynote speaker. Maryland, USA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://malaria.jhsph.edu/conferences/2018-future-of-malaria-research/index.html
 
Description APLMA visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Kimberly Fornace visited the Asia Pacific Leaders Malaria Alliance (APLMA) office in Singapore (where the APMEN Secretariat is based) and met with the CEO of APLMA. The use of drones for malaria surveillance and response is among the innovative intervention tools the initiatives are interested in.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ASTMH 2016 oral presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 'Age-related clinical spectrum of malaria in children and adults infected with Plasmodium knowlesi compared with human-only Plasmodium species' (oral presentation) Purpose - to share information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ASTMH 2017 oral presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Oral presentation - Clinical and laboratory predictors of severe knowlesi malaria
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ASTMH P. knowlesi symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Symposium held at ASTMH Annual Meeting (Nov 2014) on 'Plasmodium knowlesi: an emerging pathogen of public health importance', with talks by Monkeybar investigators from LSHTM, QEH Malaysia, Menzies School of Health Research and the University of Malaya. Topics covered: clinical context; latest MOH notification data; epidemiology; multidisciplinary research; clinical epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment; severe knowlesi malaria: diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology and treatment; and vectors of P. knowlesi transmission.

Symposium generated great interest at the ASTMH conference and attracted a large audience of scientists who engaged in stimulating discussion after the presentations.

Generated great interest at the ASTMH conference and attracted a large audience of scientists who engaged in stimulating discussion after the presentations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://www.abstractsonline.com/plan/ViewSession.aspx?sKey=1cffea0c-d02e-45ba-8039-0053eb4f6229&mKey=...
 
Description Commissioned photography 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact LSHTM commissioned photographer to visit Monkeybar project sites in Malaysia and the Philippines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2017
 
Description Community dissemination 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Social Science teams in both the Philippines and Malaysia held meetings with communities in the research sites and with village leaders to communicate the nature of the research and to establish a dialogue with the local population. Representatives from each research component presented their work to the village residents and responded to their questions and concerns.

It is beneficial for the local communities in our research sites to understand why our teams are there and the importance of the research. This raises awareness of malaria in the local areas and encourages prevention measures. Support of the local communities also makes it easier to run the project, therefore increasing the chances of study success.

It is beneficial for the local communities in our research sites to understand why our teams are there and the importance of the research. This raises awareness of malaria in the local areas and encourages prevention measures. Support of the local communities also makes it easier to run the project, therefore increasing the chances of study success.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016
URL https://www.facebook.com/MonkeyBar-Research-Sabah-933019546778648
 
Description Conferences 2012-2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Project investigators attended and gave presentations / held discussions at scientific meetings: (1) Ecohealth 2012 Conference, Kunming, China, October 2012; (2) Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN) V Business Meeting; Bali, Indonesia; March 2013; (3) Universiti Malaysia Sabah Malaria Symposium; Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; April 2013; (4) Inaugural Scientific Meeting of the Infectious Disease Society Kota Kinabalu Sabah; August 2013; (5) 6th ASEAN Congress of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology (ACTMP); Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; March 2014; (6) APMEN VI and Working Group Meeting; Manila, Philippines; March 2014; (7) UCLH Hospital for Tropical Diseases Grand Round meeting; London, UK; June 2014; (8) XXVth Congress of the International Primatological Society (IPS); Hanoi, Vietnam; August 2014; (9) 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH); New Orleans, USA; November 2014; (10) Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases (IECID), Spain, March 2015; (11) British Society for Parasitology Spring Meeting, Liverpool, UK, April 2015; (12) EcoHealth Alliance/UMS conference, 'Links between land use change, development and health', Malaysia, May 2015; (13) Borneo Infectious Disease Conference, Malaysia, June 2015; (14) Universiti Malaysia Sabah Malaria Symposium: War against mosquito-borne diseases, Malaysia, August 2015; (15) 7th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH), USA, October 2015; (16) Postgraduate Symposium (ENTOPOST 2016) Entomology: Limitless Horizon, Malaysia, March 2016. (17) Environmental Defense Fund , San Francisco, USA, 2016, 'Tracking malaria outbreaks: applications of remote sensing'; (18) NetHope, Washington DC, USA, 2015 'Applications of unmanned aerial vehicles in epidemiology'; (19) Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2015, 'Environmental and social risk factors for human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi"; (20) 9th National Conference of Medical Arthropodology. Emerging and re-emerging vector borne diseases:Surveillance and control, Hyderabad, India, 2016, 'Plasmodium knowlesi: An emerging zoonotic malaria problem in Southeast Asia' (21) Entomology and Vector Control for Malaria Elimination Regional Meeting & Workshop Bangkok, Thailand, 2016, 'Plasmodium knowlesi: outdoor transmission of malaria' (22) British Ecological Society Conference, 2016, 'Spatial heterogeneity in mosquito vectors of Plasmodium knowlesi in Sabah Province, Malaysian Borneo' (23) ACTMP, Brisbane, Australia, 2017, 'Seasonal Movement of Households in Malaria Endemic Communities: Implications for Malaria Elimination in the Philippines' (24) Mekong Outdoor Malaria Transmission Network Regional Workshop, Bangkok, Thailand 2016, two presentations - human movement and Photovoice (25) 3rd Borneo Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease Congress, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2017, 'Individual-level acquisition risk factors and treatment of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria' (oral presentation); (26) Malaria in Melbourne Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 2015 'Clinical features and treatment of uncomplicated knowlesi malaria' (oral presentation); (27) 85th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Atlanta, Georgia, 2016, 'The MonkeyBar Project: population density of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kudat district, Sabah, Malaysia'

Publicity for the project within the South East Asia and international scientific research community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
 
Description DGFC publications 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact The project was publicised in the newsletter and Facebook page of partner Danau Girang Field Centre (Sabah, Malaysia - managed by Cardiff University and the Sabah Wildlife Department). The publicity has attracted attention from DGFC supporters worldwide, including significant help in recruiting for the Malaysian Primatology field teams.

The publicity has attracted attention from DGFC supporters worldwide, including significant help in recruiting for the Malaysian Primatology field teams.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015
URL http://www.facebook.com/pages/Danau-Girang-Field-Centre/147476775319983?fref=ts
 
Description Danau Girang Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations at the Danau Girang Symposium by Kimberly Fornace, Benoit Goosens and Amaziasizamoria Jumail in Kota Kinabalu, 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Deforestation Tied to Changes in Disease Dynamics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Scientific article on deforestation and malaria based on research article "Predictive analysis across spatial scales links zoonotic malaria to deforestation"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/deforestation-tied-to-changes-in-disease-dynamics-65406
 
Description Drones help fight surge in deadly malaria spread by monkeys in Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Guardian article: "Drones help fight surge in deadly malaria spread by monkeys in Malaysia". The MonkeyBar Project has been collecting data in this way since 2013 but more recently has started using thermal imaging to follow the movements of the macaque monkeys.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2018/apr/17/drones-fight-surge-monkey-malaria-malaysi...
 
Description Environmental risk factors for Plasmodium knowlesi in Northern Sabah, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Kimberly Fornace. American Society of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine 2018. "Environmental risk factors for Plasmodium knowlesi in Northern Sabah, Malaysia."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Featured Researcher 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Our teaching resource on RCUK School Science website led to one of our lead researchers being made a 'featured researcher' on the Association for Science Education website for their Research Week in February 2016. The interview with the Research Fellow remains online and can be viewed in conjunction with the Macaques and Malaria teaching resource. We hope that this will showcase an interesting career in science to the UK's secondary school pupils and encourage them to take up their own scientific careers, perhaps in epidemiology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ase.org.uk/news/ase-news/research-week-kimberly-explains/
 
Description GIS Training Materials 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A GIS based activity for secondary school students was developed in collaboration with the Association for Science Education and SynerGIS. This activity uses data from the Monkeybar project to teach the basics of GIS and how it can be used for scientific research, building on the previous teaching resources on macaques and malaria.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.arcgis.com/home/search.html?q=macaque+carried+malaria
 
Description International Conference on Rainforest Ecology, Diversity and Conservation in Borneo. June 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact International Conference on Rainforest Ecology, Diversity and Conservation in Borneo. June 2015. Sabah, Malaysia. [M. Salgado-Lynn, K.M. Fornace, N.M. Anstey, W.E. Aure, T.H. Chua, J. Dimalibot, F.E. Espino, H. Ferguson, B. Goossens, M.J. Grigg, R.R. Kao, J. Luchavez, K. Mariappan, S. Nathan, P. Porodong, D.J. Stark, A. McIntyre, L. Gilhooly,S.J. Torr, I. Vythilingam, T. Williams, T.W. Yeo, J. Cox, and C.J. Drakeley, "The MONKEYBAR project: Defining biomedical, environmental and social risk factors for human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi"]
Five postgraduate students approached the speaker, asking for advice about emerging infectious diseases career opportunities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Malaysia is ground zero for the next malaria menace 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Scientific article on deforestation and malaria
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.sciencenews.org/article/malaysia-ground-zero-monkey-malaria-deforestation
 
Description Modern Digital Methods in Epidemiology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact In March 2015, the Monkeybar PI gave a presentation at the Modern Digital Methods in Epidemiology meeting, hosted in London by the Royal Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The presentation was on 'Integrated methods to study the spatial epidemiology of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria'. This meeting allowed our project to reach a new audience, and to discuss modern digital research techniques with others. The presentation was subsequently uploaded onto YouTube and as of 08 March 2016 had been viewed 439 times.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szmR87yvsXk&index=5&list=PLLRqrk2kjm2cAgYNPtuDNEz_6nr4WoK6k
 
Description New Straits Times articles 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project was covered in numerous articles in the New Straits Times, a local Malaysian newspaper. This provided general publicity for the research project, and raised public awareness and understanding of the disease. It also helped to regain the trust of communities in our research sites when local rumours were threatening the continuation of our survey in particular kampungs.

General publicity for the research project; raising public awareness and understanding of P. knowlesi and malaria in general.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015
 
Description Online news article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Information about the drones used in the Monkeybar project was included in an article on the role of mobile technology in global health. This was distributed via LSHTM's Chariot mailing list to subscribers in the broader public health community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/research/research-action/features/drones-and-phones-how-mobile-tech-fighting...
 
Description Philippine Embassy talk 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Monkeybar PI gave a talk at the Philippines Embassy in London on 19 Oct 2012 on the ESEI P. knowlesi collaborative project with the Philippines. This was to commemorate Philippine-British Friendship Day through an academic forum highlighting the works of British and Filipino scientific researchers. This event raised awareness in the Philippines government of P. knowlesi and of our research being conducted in the country. It also enabled us to establish contact with data management personnel in the post-disaster monitoring group in the Philippine government. We discussed potential new interactions on the integration of health surveillance post-disaster in relation to malaria and other vector-borne diseases.

This event raised awareness in the Philippines government of P. knowlesi and of our research being conducted in the country. It also enabled us to establish contact with data management personnel in the post-disaster monitoring group in the Philippines government. We discussed potential new interactions on the integration of health surveillance post-disaster in relation to malaria and other vector-borne diseases.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://philembassy-uk.org/philippine-british-friendship-day-commemorated-in-the-uk
 
Description Philosophies of the Good Doctor 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article in response to investigator Timothy Wiliam's receipt of the national Merdeka award
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2017/10/286038/philosophies-good-doctor
 
Description Phones, Drones, and Disease: Epidemic Intelligence and the Future of Communications in East Asia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Kim Fornace invited to do a talk at the University of Hong Kong for International Workshop on Phones, Drones, and Disease on 17-18 May 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.chm.hku.hk/phones_drones_disease.html
 
Description Plasmodium knowlesi : Epidemiology of a Zoonotic Malaria from a Multidisciplinary Study 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Chris Drakeley: Plasmodium knowlesi : Epidemiology of a Zoonotic Malaria from a Multidisciplinary Study - Malaria Branch Special Seminar
CDC, January 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Plasmodium knowlesi in humans: a vector control challenge in public health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper presented by Chua Th "Plasmodium knowlesi in humans: a vector control challenge in public health" in 50th APACPH Conference 2018 in Kota Kinabalu. APACPH: Asia Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health.
12-14 September 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://apacph2018.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/APACPH-CONFERENCE-BOOK-FINAL-11-Sept18-2100H.pdf
 
Description Presentation of research findings to the Ministry of Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation of research findings to the Ministry of Health, Sabah on the 29 March 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Press Release (deforestation) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release from LSHTM on Fornace et al paper on association of landscape factors and spatial patterns of P. knowlesi infections in Sabah (Emerging Infectious Diseases 2016).

The story received global coverage in more than 50 outlets, including Washington Post (potential online viewership 26,370,338), NDTV (India; 14,329,276), and Phnom Penh Post (55,289). Coverage by Reuters led to articles in multiple outlets including Wild Singapore (175,473,479) and Channel News Asia (1,225,665). The PI spoke to Voice of America News (1,149,423) which is broadcast on multiple international outlets. As of 04 Jan 2016, the news story on the LSHTM website had been viewed 254 times. Tweets from Treehugger.com, Greenpeace USA, Reuters Health, Phnom Penh Post and sociobiologist Rebecca Costa increased the story's global reach.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2015/deforestation_malaria_link.html
 
Description Press Release (drones) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press releases from LSHTM and Elsevier on Fornace et al drone paper (Trends in Parasitology); and from ASTMH on P. knowlesi studies and symposia at the Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Nov 2014.

Outcome was numerous articles and press coverage on drone paper across mainstream news media and social media. Paper generated an Altmetric score of 51 to date (03 Nov 2014). In the mainstream news media the paper was covered by a number of top-tier news outlets, including Yahoo! News Canada, UK & Ireland, NPR, Live Science, Takepart, Medical Daily, Design & Trend, Medical Xpress, Mashable, Gizmodo, Gizmag, Malaysian Digest, China Topix.

Numerous articles and press coverage on drone paper across mainstream news media and social media. Paper generated an Altmetric score of 51 to date (03 Nov 2014). In the mainstream news media the paper was covered by a number of top-tier news outlets, including Yahoo! News Canada, UK and Ireland, NPR, Live Science, Takepart, Medical Daily, Design and Trend, Medical Xpress, Mashable, Gizmodo, Gizmag, Malaysian Digest, China Topix.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2014/drones_monkeys_malaria.html
 
Description Results dissemination 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Results dissemination meetings were held in both community and health facility settings in Kudat and Kota Marudu districts after study was completed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Sabah tops monkey malaria cases 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview in Daily Express Malaysia: "Sabah tops monkey malaria cases" by Prof Dr Chua Tock Hing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Stakeholder dissemination 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Meetings were held with Philippines and Malaysian stakeholders (from government offices, MOH, policy makers, local universities) at the Monkeybar ESEI project kick-off meeting (2012), and mid-project dissemination meetings held in Sabah in November 2014 and in Palawan in December 2014. Updates were presented on project progress, and a dialogue opened to gain feedback and recommendations from the stakeholders to inform ongoing project work. Recommendations from local stakeholders feed directly into project decisions.

Recommendations from local stakeholders feed directly into project decisions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2014,2015
 
Description Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Mosquito Borne Diseases Symposium. August 2015. Sabah, Malaysia. [Milena Salgado-Lynn, Danica Stark, Kimberly Fornace, Sergio Guerrero-Sánchez, Chris Drakeley, Benoit Goossens. "Vector borne diseases: A tale of two monkeys"]
Newspaper article about the talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Teaching Resource 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact In 2015, we contributed to a teaching resource developed by the Association for Science Education for their RCUK funded series 'Research focused teaching resources to inspire students in STEM careers'. PowerPoint slides were prepared, with information on how a field survey can be used to investigate an increase in 'macaque-carried malaria' in Borneo, and example datasets which teachers could use with their secondary school pupils to work through as a lesson activity. We have had positive feedback on the resource so far, and it remains on the School Science website for download by schools across the UK. As of 11 February 2016, there had been 412 downloads of the resource.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.schoolscience.co.uk/macaques
 
Description The MONKEYBAR project: environmental risk factors for an emerging zoonotic malaria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Kimberly Fornace. University of California, Irvine. 2018. "The Monkeybar Project: identifying environmental risk factors for an emerging zoonotic malaria in Malaysian Borneo." Invited seminar. California, USA
22 October 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2018
URL http://publichealth.uci.edu/ph/_news_events/seminar_event/13821
 
Description The Star Online 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Main purpose - To share information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/06/11/monkey-malaria-alert-in-sabah-intense-hunt-on-for-...
 
Description The Sun Daily articles 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project was covered in an article in The Sun Daily, a local Malaysian newspaper. This provided general publicity for the research project, and raised public awareness and understanding of the disease. It also helped to regain the trust of communities in our research sites when local rumours were threatening the continuation of our survey in particular kampungs.

General publicity for the research project; raising public awareness and understanding of P. knowlesi and malaria in general.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL http://www.thesundaily.my/node/260295
 
Description WHO Expert consultation on Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria to guide malaria elimination strategies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact MONKEYBAR had five delegates on the expert panel committee to update evidence and regional guidelines on plasmodium knowlesi. The MONKEYBAR team have contributed key evidence to optimal treatment and disease epidemiology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017