Rapid co-design, implementation and evaluation of a digital behaviour change intervention to improve hand hygiene and limit spread of the COVID-19 outbreak

Lead Research Organisation: University of Southampton

Abstract

The public can play a crucial role in infection outbreaks by adopting simple behaviours such as handwashing to curb the spread of infection. This can save lives by preventing everyone becoming ill at once, which would mean the healthcare system could not cope and a vaccine could not be developed in time. Evidence shows that despite public health advice most people need to increase behaviours such as handwashing that can help prevent infection. We developed an online intervention (‘Germ-Defence’) that was tested in the swine flu pandemic and seasonal flu years. Germ-Defence increased handwashing and reduced infections and healthcare use. This new project will quickly work with stakeholders and users to adapt and translate Germ-Defence to be suitable for preventing infection from coronavirus (and other flu-like infections) in the UK and China. We will roll it out rapidly and widely in both countries, and collect online information about how it is used, how it affects people’s attitudes and behaviour, and users’ views of it. We will use our findings to immediately update and improve Germ-Defence and to make recommendations and provide tools for adapting Germ-Defence and other public health advice for use in more countries and in future outbreaks.

Technical Summary

This COVID-19 Rapid Response award is jointly funded (50:50) between the Medical Research Council and the National Institute for Health Research. The figure displayed is the total award amount of the two funders combined, with each partner contributing equally towards the project.

This project will evaluate how an existing digital public health intervention can be very rapidly adapted and optimised for the changing needs of an infection outbreak, using novel participatory-co-design methods, and building on partnerships with PHE and leading Chinese researchers. We will translate and immediately widely disseminate in both UK and China our NICE-endorsed ‘Germ-Defence’ digital infection control intervention for the general public. We will then engage with stakeholder (n=15) and PPI (n=20-30) online panels in each country to co-design, update and optimise the intervention as required for re-release in later and second phases of the outbreak. At every stage of dissemination we will document reach and impact using unobtrusive measures of usage and handwashing intentions and behaviour. We will triangulate these data with findings from online interviews with a purposive user sample (n=20-30) in each country to understand contextual effects on engagement. We will also carry out a rapid online trial in China (n = 1318) comparing the effects of the initial and adapted versions of the intervention on infection control beliefs, attitudes and behaviour, to evaluate the value of the adaptation process. This work is intended to contribute directly to the management of the outbreak by preventing infection transmission and slowing the spread of infection, so that the healthcare system will have more capacity to cope with demand. This work will also contribute to a better understanding of how to rapidly optimise public health interventions for future emergencies, and the factors influencing behaviour relevant to infection transmission.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description Addressed House of Lords Science Select Committee (9/6/20) and House of Commons Women and Equality Select Committee (10/6/20)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Contributed to shaping policies for pandemic management
 
Description Areas of intervention ('local lockdown') measures to control outbreaks of COVID during the national release phase 30/07/20;
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact paper cited in SAGE paper Areas of intervention ('local lockdown') measures to control outbreaks of COVID during the national release phase 30/07/20; Informing Covidpolicy
 
Description Co Chair of SPI-B committee (Scientific Pandemic Influenza- Behaviour (COVID-19) Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Co-Chair of Scientific Pandemic Influenza - Behaviour (Covid-19) committee (SPI-B), providing behavioural input to SAGE
 
Description Germ Defence Papers cited in SAGE Ethnicity subgroup paper
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Germ Defence papers cited in the SAGE Ethnicity subgroup paper 'Housing, household transmission and ethnicity' for SAGE meeting 26th November 2020, influencing government advice about reducing household transmission of COVID-19 Little, P. et al. (2020). Reducing risks from coronavirus transmission in the home-the role of viral load. BMJ. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1728 Denford, S., et al. (2020). Preventing within household transmission of COVID-19: Is the provision of accommodation feasible and acceptable? MedRXiv. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.20.20176529 Ainsworth, B. et al., (2020). Current infection control behaviour patterns in the UK, and how they can be improved by 'Germ Defence', an online behavioural intervention to reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the home. MedRXiv DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.22.20137406
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/housing-household-transmission-and-ethnicity-26-november-...
 
Description Germ Defence Referenced in EMG/SPI-B Paper
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Part of a paper to SAGE to influence government advice about reducing household transmission of COVID-19
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/emgspi-b-mitigating-risks-of-sars-cov-2-transmission-asso...
 
Description Germ Defence linked to the Public Health England self isolation guidance
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Formed part of the national guidance to households self isolating during the COVID-19 pandemic
 
Description Informed MHCLG Housing Impacts paper for SAGE 10.09.20
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Preprint published on dissemination and effectiveness: Ainsworth B, Miller S, Denison-Day J, et al. Current infection control behaviour patterns in the UK, and how they can be improved by "Germ Defence", an online behavioural intervention to reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the home. medRxiv. June 2020:2020.06.22.20137406. doi:10.1101/2020.06.22.20137406 Preprint was cited in SPI-B Evidence Review that informed MHCLG Housing Impacts Paper for SAGE 10.09.20.
 
Description Links to Germ Defence website in Government Website
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Germ Defence natinally avaiable with over 130,000 users
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/guidance-for-contacts-of-people-with-possible-or-confirme...
 
Description Links to Germ Defence website in Government Website
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Germ Defence website available nationally with over 130,000 users
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/covid-19-stay-at-home-guidance/stay-at-home-guidance-for-...
 
Description Links to Germ Defence website in Government Website
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Gem Defence website available nationally with over 130,000 users
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/how-to-stop-the-spread-of-coronavirus-covid-19/how-to-sto...
 
Description Member of Academy of Sciences Expert Advisory Groups
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact co-authored reports for government on 'Covid-19: Preparing for a challenging winter' (July 2020) and 'Covid-19: Preparing for the future' (July 2021).
 
Description Member of MQ / Academy of Medical Sciences Expert Advisory Group
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Resulted in paper in Lancet Psychiatry June 2020 'Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science' https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32304649/ and follow-up report in 2021 'Progress and priorities for mental health sciences research since COVID-19'.
URL https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32304649/
 
Description Member of Testing Initiatives Evaluation Board and ONS Covid-19 compliance study steering group
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Multidisciplinary Task and Finish Group on Mass Testing: Behavioural considerations 27/08/20;
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Paper cited in SAGE paper Multidisciplinary Task and Finish Group on Mass Testing: Behavioural considerations 27/08/20; Informed COVID policy
 
Description Principles for managing SARS-CoV-2 transmission associated with higher education
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Paper cited in SAGE paper Principles for managing SARS-CoV-2 transmission associated with higher education 3/09/20 Informed Covid Policy
 
Description Principles for managing SARS-CoV-2 transmission associated with higher education 3/09/20;
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Paper cited in SAGE paper Multidisciplinary Task and Finish Group on Mass Testing: Behavioural considerations 27/08/20 Informed COVID policy
 
Description Reducing within-and between-household transmission in light of new variant SARS-CoV-2 14/01/21
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Paper cited in SAGE paper Reducing within-and between-household transmission in light of new variant SARS-CoV-2 14/01/21 Informed COVID policy
 
Description SPI-B paper 22/6/20
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Cited in SAGE paper Informed COVID policy
 
Description SPI-B: Increasing adherence to COVID-19 preventative behaviours among young people;
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Paper cited in SAGE paper SPI-B: Increasing adherence to COVID-19 preventative behaviours among young people; Informed COVID policy
 
Description SPI-B: Positive strategies for sustaining adherence to infection control behaviours
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Paper cited in SAGE paper SPI-B: Positive strategies for sustaining adherence to infection control behaviours Informed COVID policy
 
Description Sitting on the SAGE committee (Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Sitting on Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE), providing scientific advice to aid the government decision makers throughout the coronavirus pandemic. In addition to being co-chair of SPI-B, contributed to work of other groups, including SPI-M, EMG, JCVI. Also provided input to other government organisations, including Cabinet Office; Department of Health and Social Care; Department of Housing, Communities and Local Government; Department for Education; Office of National Statistics; NHS app development team; Joint Biosecurity Centre. Member expert advisory group convened by MQ and the Academy of Medical Sciences to mobilise, coordinate and inform funders and the research community with regard to the research response to mental health impacts of Covid-19 Member expert advisory group convened by Academy of Medical Sciences to co-author report for SAGE on 'Preparing for a challenging winter'. Member of Testing Initiatives Evaluation Board and ONS Covid-19 compliance study steering group (2020-2021).
 
Description The impact of financial and other targeted support on rates of self-isolation or quarantine 16/09/20;
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Paper cited in SAGE paper The impact of financial and other targeted support on rates of self-isolation or quarantine 16/09/20; Informed COVID policy
 
Description What are the potential behavioural effects of reducing the duration of quarantine for contacts? ;
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Paper cited in SAGE paper What are the potential behavioural effects of reducing the duration of quarantine for contacts? ; Informed COVID policy
 
Description A mixed-methods evaluation of advice on isolation and health-seeking to contain transmission
Amount £413,418 (GBP)
Funding ID MC_PC_19071 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2020 
End 09/2021
 
Description A pragmatic cluster randomised trial in English secondary schools comparing the impact of a policy of weekly testing for COVID-19 followed by isolation of cases and their contacts, with a policy of weekly testing followed by isolation of cases and daily t
Amount £79,414 (GBP)
Organisation Health & Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2021 
End 08/2021
 
Description COVID-19 Mapping and Mitigation in Schools (CoMMinS)
Amount £2,817,666 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/V028545/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2020 
End 03/2022
 
Description Exploration of attitudes regarding uptake of first and second doses of COVID-19 vaccines among adults
Amount £54,312 (GBP)
Organisation Department of Health (DH) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2021 
End 12/2021
 
Description LOngitudinal study of behaviours, risk factors, and effects of COVID-19 in the Community (LOCC): a large, rapid online observational study.
Amount £100,609 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2020 
End 07/2025
 
Title Germ Defence JMIR - Ainsworth et al 2021 
Description Improving infection control behavior patterns in the home during the COVID-19 pandemic: an observational study of the web-based behavioral intervention 'Germ DefenceJournal of Medical Internet Research, 2020 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact
URL https://figshare.com/articles/dataset/Germ_Defence_JMIR_-_Ainsworth_et_al_2021/12471770/1
 
Description Germ Defence Dissemination and evaluation in Mexico and Columbia 
Organisation Inter-American Development Bank
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution - We are working with the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) to disseminate and evaluate the Germ Defence intervention in Mexico and Colombia
Collaborator Contribution - We are working with the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) to disseminate and evaluate the Germ Defence intervention in Mexico and Colombia
Impact The reach and impact of Germ Defence has extended well beyond the initial scope of the project, both the initial implementation and evaluation of Germ Defence in multiple contexts and also in developing methods to adapt and implement behavioural resources for future pandemics.
Start Year 2020
 
Title Germ Defence 
Description Germ Defence is a digital behaviour change intervention to help reduce the spread of viruses like coronavirus (Covid-19). It is designed to be used by members of the public to protect themselves and the people they live with in the home. It was developed based on evidence, theory and plenty of feedback from members of the public. Germ Defence was rapidly updated for the COVID-19 pandemic. It was previously trialled by over 20,000 people . (Little, P., Stuart, B., Hobbs, F., Moore, M., Barnett, J., Popoola, D., Yardley L. . . Raftery, J. (2015). An internet-delivered handwashing intervention to modify influenza-like illness and respiratory infection transmission (PRIMIT): a primary care randomised trial. The Lancet, 386(10004), 1631-1639) and shown to be effective. UK Research and Innovation are funding this phase of rapid development and implementation. 
Type Preventative Intervention - Behavioural risk modification
Current Stage Of Development Wide-scale adoption
Year Development Stage Completed 2020
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Clinical Trial? Yes
Impact Translated into: Chinese (Traditional and Simplified), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Dutch, Polish, Turkish, German, French, Spanish (Latin American), Indonesian, Arabic, Bulgarian, Malaysian, Hindi, Russian, Greek, Norwegian, Maltese, Thai. Disseminated through UK national networks including Public Health England Regional Networks and via media (national TV, radio, print). Disseminated through international networks including PREPARE and GRIN. Over 99,000 users worldwide to date. Feb 21 usage data : 575,000 sessions, with around 300,000 unique engaged users 
URL http://www.germdefence.org
 
Description Centre for Behaviour Change Keynote Panel - Sept 21 (BA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact BA part of the invited panel discussion 'The role of technology in contributing to behaviour change in response to the COVID-19 pandemic'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.ucl.ac.uk/behaviour-change/cbc-conference
 
Description Covid 19: Known Unknowns Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact University of Bristol and BMJ-sponsored conference on 'Covid-19: Known Unknowns', 20.11.20 (over 2,000 registered participants)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Life Sciences in a Post-Truth World: A COVID-19 Case Study' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact University of Bristol, Faculty of Life Sciences launch event: Life Sciences in a Post-Truth World: A COVID-19 Case Study' (3,12,20, > 1500 registered participants from over 30 countries)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Lucy Yardley Media Appearances mentioning Germ Defence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Disseminating expert advice on pandemic management and infection control through the media, including interviews on TV (Andrew Marr Show, BBC News, Newsnight, ITV News, Sky News, BBC SouthWest) and radio (Radio 4 Today programme, BBC 5 Live, Times Radio, TalkRadio, LBC, numerous local BBC radio stations including BBC Radio London, BBC Radio Wales). First-authored and co-authored pieces for BMJ Opinion, and covered in or contributor to numerous articles including in the Times, Telegraph, Guardian, Independent, Daily Mail, Mirror, Sun, Mail on Sunday, New York Times, etc. As co-Chair of SPI-B and regular contributor to SAGE,

Lucy Yardley responded to many media requests whereby she mentioned Germ Defence including
BBC INTERVIEWS:
- BBC News: New app helps protect people looking after loved ones with coronavirus (7 May 2020)
- BBC News: Best practice in keeping coronavirus at bay in the home (20 May 2020)
- BBC Radio 5Live: Minimising risk and maintaining infection control as lockdown eases (11 May 2020)
- BBC Radio 4 Today: Assessing personal risk for COVID (4 July 2020)
- BBC Radio 4 Today: Are people following the COVID guidance? (30 Sept 2020)
- BBC Radio 4 Today: What is the messaging to keep people safe over Christmas and during winter? (24 Nov 2020)
• BBC Radio 4 PM: "Are Covid lockdown rules getting through to people?" 15/1/21
• BBC Radio 5Live: "Interview about minimising risk and maintaining infection control as lockdown eases" 11/5/20
• BBC News at 10: "Main options for the gradual easing of the lockdown" 27/4/20
• BBC Radio 4 World at One: "How can people across the country be persuaded to get tested and self-isolate?" 3/11/20
• BBC The Andrew Marr Show: "Are people following COVID rules or being complacent?" 18/10/20
• BBC Newsnight: "Is England easing the lockdown safely?" 22/6/20

VARIOUS MEDIA ENGAGEMENT
• Multiple outlets: "Sage: The 50 experts who have helped shape the Government's Covid-19 response" 4/5/20
• PA News Interview: Reported in Bristol News as "Bristol's Government advisor explains next stage of coronavirus lockdown" 7/5/20
• Sky News, Daily Mail, Daily Telegraph and Gizmodo: "Leave deliveries for 72 hours to limit risk of virus exposure, experts say" 11/5/20
• Multiple outlets: "Pubs and cinemas to reopen in latest lockdown easing" 23/6/20
• Multiple outlets: "Gove defends police access to Test and Trace data of people told to self-isolate" 18/10/20
• The Guardian / Huffington post / Metro / The Sun: "How To Tweak Your Christmas Plans To Minimise The Spread Of Covid" 15/12/20
• Multiple outlets: "Data suggests activity levels during current lockdown higher than last spring" 11/1/20
• The Guardian: "Everyday Covid mistakes we are all still making" 29/1/21

MEDIA INTERVIEWS, multiple including:
• LBC: "The psychology behind self-isolation" 13/03/20
• Esquire: "What Am I Actually Allowed To Do Now? An Expert Decodes The Coronavirus Lockdown Rules" 11/5/20
• ITV News: "Decision not to adopt Sage advice put UK 'three weeks behind' in Covid fight, member says" 13/10/20
• Times Radio Interview: "Prof Lucy Yardley tells G&T that we should try not to spend more than 15 minutes in a shop - and that we should "take a step back and think" about seeing elderly parents over Christmas." 29/11/20



Four press media releases between May 2020 and March 2021 with large spikes in Germ Defence website use after each media release, especially in May 2020, when users leapt from hundreds to over 33,000. Approx. 150 pieces of media coverage overall.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2021
 
Description Online SAGE science seminar - managing high infection risk occupations and situations 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presented paper on managing high infection risk occupations and situations as online SAGE science seminar for policy makers (21.7.20), attended by 500 representatives from all DAs, including BEIS, GCHQ, HSE, HSE NI, FCO, DHSC, DWP, MOD, DIT, DfE, DFID, DfT, NCSC, ONR, FSA, DEFRA, MHCLG, MI5, PHE, NHS, DCMS and CO (recorded and made available throughout civil service nationally).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Paper presented at SAPC Annual Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper presented at the 49th annual scientifc meeting of the Society for Academic Primary Care (online presentation), 30/6/21 - 1/7/21

Horwood, J. Melanie Chalder, Ben Ainsworth, James Denison-Day, Frank de Vocht, Martha Elwenspoek, Pippa Craggs, Rachel Denholm, Jonathan Sterne, John Macleod, Cathy Rice, Beth Stuart, Michael Moore, Paul Little, Gulliford, Martin, Nicholas Francis, Merlin Willcox, Sascha Miller, Richard Amlôt, Lucy Yardley (2021) How to do efficient trial design in a pandemic? National implementation via primary care of Germ Defence digital behaviour-change intervention to reduce the spread of COVID-19
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://sapc.ac.uk/conference/2021
 
Description Papers presented at EHPS conference (Aug 21) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Papers presented at the 35th Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society (August 21)

1. Ainsworth B, Miller S, Denison-Day J, Rice C, Bostock J, Morton K, Towler L, Moore M, Wilcox M, Chadborn T, Gold N, Amlot R, Little P, Yardley L (2021, August 23-27). Implementing the 'Germ Defence' digital behaviour-change intervention using rapid person-based optimisation methods.

2. Miller S, Denison-Day J, Rice C, Bostock J, Morton K, Towler L, Moore M, Wilcox M, Chadborn T, Gold N, Amlot R, Little P, Yardley L, Ainsworth B (2021, August 23-27). Germ Defence digital behaviour change intervention to reduce the spread of viruses in the home.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://2021.ehps.net/
 
Description Plenary Talk at Elizabeth Blackwell Institute Health Data Science strand showcase 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Yardley, L. Horwood, J. Walter, S. (2021) Implementing Germ Defence to reduce the spread of infections in the home during the Covid-19 pandemic. Elizabeth Blackwell Institute Health Data Science strand showcase. 30th November, plenary talk, online.
Prompted questions and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.bristol.ac.uk/cancer/events/2021/health-data-science-strand-showcase.html
 
Description Rapid person-based co-participatory development of an online behavioural intervention to improve household infection control during the COVID-19 pandemic Jan 21 (LT, KM, SM, BA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at UKSBM Jan 2021
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Royal Society of Medicine Covid-19 Webinar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Royal Society of Medicine Covid-19 Webinar series Anniversary episode (3.18.21, >1,900 registered participants).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Talk - CoProduce Care (May 2021) SM 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact SM was invited to talk at CoProduce Care (May 2021) - 'Reducing transmission of COVID-19 in the home: an introduction to Germ Defence' to an audience of adult care organisations in SW England. Followed by questions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.germdefence.org/index.html
 
Description UKSBM 2021 Conference papers (Jan 21) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Multiple papers were presented at the UKSBM (UK Society for Behavioural Medicine) 16th Annual Scientific Meeting (Jan 21)

1. Towler L, Morton M, Miller S, Ainsworth B. Rapid person-based co-participatory development of an online behavioural intervention to improve household infection control during the COVID-19 pandemic. Annual Scientific Meeting of the UK Society for Behavioural Medicine. (2021, January 13-14)

2. Ben Ainsworth, Melanie Chalder, Jeremy Horwood, Sascha Miller, Lucy Yardley and the Germ Defence Team.. Implementing Germ Defence in the real world: the dissemination and evaluation of a digital behaviour-change intervention to reduce the spread of COVID-19.

3. Groot J, Ainsworth B, Towler L, Denison-Day J, Morton M, Miller S, Yardley L. Facilitators and Barriers of Preventive Behaviours within Households during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

4. Miller S, Denison-Day J, Ainsworth B, Towler L, Morton M, , Yardley L. How does 'Germ Defence', an online behavioural intervention, improve infection control behaviours to reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the home?

5. Natalie Gold, Xiao-Yang Hu, Sarah Denford, Ru-Yu Xia, Lauren Towler, Julia Groot, Rachel Gledhill, Merlin Willcox, Ben Ainsworth, Sascha Miller, Michael Moore, Paul Little, Richard Amlôt, Tim Chadborn, Lucy Yardley. Effectiveness of digital interventions to improve household and community infection prevention and control behaviors and to reduce incidence of respiratory and/or gastro-intestinal infections: A rapid systematic review
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.delegate-reg.co.uk/uksbm2021/programme