Neural circuit basis of olfactory perception in Drosophila

Lead Research Organisation: MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology

Abstract

The brain is a network of interconnected neurons; information processing depends on exactly which neurons are connected and the strength and sign of these connections. A major goal of neuroscience is to understand the principles governing information processing in order to understand how human and animal brains think in health and disease.
Our goal is to understand how smell turns into behaviour. The sensory neurons that detect smells are connected to brain areas that trigger behaviours or form memories by only one level of processing; this is much more direct than vision.
We are studying how smell is processed in fruit fly brains. Although their brains are smaller and simpler, there are many organisational similarities to vertebrates. One key advantage is that we can use genetics to identify the same neurons in the brains of different experimental animals. We have developed strategies to record electrically from identified neurons as flies smell different odours. We are also developing wiring diagrams that describe how neurons are connected at successive levels of processing and how this differs between the sexes. By combining this information we hope to understand the transition from sensation to action in this small brain.

Technical Summary

The long-term motivation of our work is to understand how neural circuits process sensory information and transform this into behaviour. We are particularly interested in behaviours that are encoded in the genome through the specification of the development and function of neural circuits. We use the olfactory system of the fruit fly as a model system.
Our strategy is to combine high-resolution neuroanatomy down to the level of single identified neurons with targeted in vivo neurophysiology and behavioural analysis. Olfactory receptor neurons project axons to form a highly stereotyped olfactory map in the first olfactory centre in the brain, the antennal lobe. Second order neurons, called projection neurons, relay this information to two higher olfactory centres, the lateral horn and the mushroom body. The mushroom body is required for olfactory learning but apparently dispensable for innate olfactory behaviour. We are therefore focussing our efforts on the lateral horn. We hypothesise that this poorly characterised brain centre is where odour information starts to be transformed into a representation appropriate to instruct behaviour.
Using genetic cell labelling and image registration to combine data from multiple brains, we have produced a comprehensive map of sex differences in the wiring of the fly brain. We identified sexually dimorphic higher order olfactory neurons that are likely to underlie sex-specific olfactory behaviour. Detailed analysis defined a novel circuit element, a bidirectional circuit switch in the brain, for the first time in any animal. This switch re-routes pheromone information between two target neuron populations and may underlie sex-specific behavioural response to pheromones.
Ongoing work includes complementary investigations of general odour processing in the lateral horn, where we find neurons with a huge range of tuning properties. The lab also continues to develop new technologies in support of our scientific questions, that should be of widespread utility. These include methods for ultra-rapid tissue labelling along with computational tools to map and compare neuronal structures.
Future work will dissect the developmental basis and behavioural significance of the sexually dimorphic switch we have identified. We will also follow the processing of non-pheromone odours that appear to have substantial innate odour significance. We will study behavioural and neuronal integration of coincident positive stimuli (such as food and pheromone) and stimuli of opposite valence. We will also investigate the relationship between learned and innate odour responses. Finally we will continue our work in genetic and computational methods development.
 
Description Biomedical Resource
Amount £24,214 (GBP)
Funding ID 105023/B/14/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Description EMBO Long Term Fellowship (SF)
Amount £63,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Molecular Biology Organisation 
Sector Learned Society
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2011 
End 01/2013
 
Description EMBO Young Investigator Programme
Amount € 45,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 2468 
Organisation European Molecular Biology Organisation 
Sector Learned Society
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2015
 
Description ERC Consolidator Grant
Amount € 1,990,791 (EUR)
Funding ID 649111 
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 07/2015 
End 06/2020
 
Description ERC Grant
Amount € 1,537,995 (EUR)
Funding ID ERC-2014-CoG-649111 
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 07/2015 
End 06/2020
 
Description ERC Starting Independent Researcher Grant
Amount € 1,750,000 (EUR)
Funding ID ERC-2007-StG211089 
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2008 
End 08/2014
 
Description Herchel Smith Studentship (AB)
Amount £129,147 (GBP)
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Description Marie Curie Fellowship (DG)
Amount € 195,455 (EUR)
Funding ID ISCA-IF-2016-748478 
Organisation European Commission 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2018 
End 08/2020
 
Description PhD Bursary Award (PH)
Amount £19,500 (GBP)
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Department Cambridge Home & EU Scholarship Scheme (CHESS)
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2015
 
Description PhD Fellowship (MD)
Amount € 57,600 (EUR)
Organisation Boehringer Ingelheim 
Sector Private
Country Germany
Start 10/2011 
End 09/2014
 
Description Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Fellowship (SC)
Amount £399,792 (GBP)
Funding ID DH120072 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2018
 
Description Sir Henry Wellcome Fellowship - Erika Dona
Amount £250,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 110232/Z/15/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 11/2020
 
Description Swiss National Foundation (DM)
Amount £134,825 (GBP)
Organisation Swiss National Science Foundation 
Sector Public
Country Switzerland
Start 04/2014 
End 06/2016
 
Description Wellcome Trust Collaborative Award/Cambridge University
Amount £160,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 203261/Z/16/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2020
 
Title Drosophila stocks for ultra fast tissue labelling 
Description For protein localization studies, enzymes can be fused to proteins in the same way as fluorescent protein tags such as GFP. Tissues can be fixed and exposed to chemical substrates that covalently modify the enzyme tags with fluorescent molecules. This approach avoids problems often associated with detecting fluorescent protein tags with antibodies while providing a fast detection method. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Published in Kohl, Ng et al 2014 (PNAS). Already supplied to at least 15 research groups. Now available from the public Drosophila stock centre at Bloomington (see URL) 
URL http://flystocks.bio.indiana.edu/Browse/misc-browse/chemtag.php
 
Title Viral vectors for ultrafast chemical labelling 
Description Genetically encoded fluorescent proteins and immunostainings are widely used to detect cellular or sub-cellular structures in thick biological samples. However, each approach suffers from limitations, including low signal and limited spectral flexibility or slow speed, poor penetration and high background, respectively. Here we overcome these limitations by using transgenically expressed chemical tags for rapid, even and low-background labeling of thick biological tissues. We constructed constitutive and Cre-ON AAV and demonstrated their use in mouse brain. Constructs have been deposited at Addgene - we are awaiting final confirmation that they are ready for distribution. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Kohl, Ng et al PNAS paper. Numerous requests from other groups with a variety of applications including studies of neuronal regeneration. 
 
Title Contributions to Virtual Fly Brain online database 
Description We have developed a variety of image processing and analysis that have been used to integrate large public datasets of Drosophila neurobiology, allowing simple online queries and visualisation by the research community. Thus includes image registration and subsequent processing of over 10 Tb of data corresponding to 16,000 individual neurons an 3500 genetic driver lines. All the data are made available through the virtual fly brain website. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact In the last 6 months, the virtualflybrain website has received 4000 unique visitors and 20,000 page views, increases of over 100% on the corresponding period in 2012. The main change on the site in the last 18 months has been the provision of the new data that we processed. 
URL http://virtualflybrain.org
 
Title Fruitless Neuron Dataset 
Description A complete, annotated set of 3d confocal images describing the anatomy of neurons expressing the gene fruitless in male and female animals. The full data set is just over 1 Tb and therefore distributed by hard drive to colleagues. A summary data set is available at: flybrain.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/frudata 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Identified most circuit level sexual dimorphisms in the fly brain. Identified dimorphisms likely to underlie differential responses to male pheromone between male and female flies. 
URL http://flybrain.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/frudata
 
Description Fruitless Neuron Mapping 
Organisation Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP)
Country Austria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contributed technical expertise in microscopy and image analysis for a large scale mapping effort of neurons implicated in male behaviour in the fly; data were generated in the lab of Barry Dickson at the IMP Vienna. My lab then carried out a related but distinct set of experiments in Cambridge using different techniques to examine the same neurons; these turned out to be particularly effective at identifying sexual dimorphisms in neuronal morphology.
Collaborator Contribution Shared data before publication.
Impact 2 papers in Current Biology in 2010 describing experimental work carried out in Cambridge and Vienna respectively.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Mapping connections between the larval mushroom body and lateral horn 
Organisation Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Department Janelia Research Campus
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution A visiting student based in my group in Cambridge will trace existing electron microscopy volume data from the Drosophila first instar larva. He will identify pathways of convergence between output neurons of the mushroom body (required for learned olfactory behaviour) and the lateral horn (suspected to be required for innate olfactory behaviour).
Collaborator Contribution Provide software infrastrcuture and image data for reconstruction.
Impact Started in October 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description Mapping of Ionotropic Receptor Pathways in the fly brain 
Organisation University of Lausanne
Department Center for Integrative Genomics
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We carried out 3d mapping of central neurons that receive input from the ionotropic receptor (IR) olfactory receptor family. This accounts for about 20% of olfactory input channels in the fly. We made two key findings. 1) although IR sensory neurons are initially segregated in the periphery, they are integrated in a higher olfactory processing area called the lateral horn. 2) IR84a sensory neurons, which detect a food-derived aphrodisiac, are very unusual in connecting to a pheromone processing area rather than the general odour processing area in the lateral horn.
Collaborator Contribution Identification of a dedicated neural pathway that responds to a food aphrodisiac. This has resulted in our identification of central brain neurons that respond to the same compound; we are now testing if these same neurons also integrate information about fly-derived pheromones detected by other sensory neuron classes.
Impact An olfactory receptor for food-derived odours promotes male courtship in Drosophila. Grosjean Y, Rytz R, Farine JP, Abuin L, Cortot J, Jefferis GS, Benton R. Nature. 2011 Sep 28;478(7368):236-40. doi: 10.1038/nature10428. Complementary function and integrated wiring of the evolutionarily distinct Drosophila olfactory subsystems. Silbering AF, Rytz R, Grosjean Y, Abuin L, Ramdya P, Jefferis GS, Benton R. J Neurosci. 2011 Sep 21;31(38):13357-75.
Start Year 2009
 
Description Mapping the Lateral Horn of Drosophila 
Organisation Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Department Janelia Research Campus
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We will collaborate primarily with Gerry Rubin and his laboratory. The proposed research will provide major insights into the structure and function of the lateral horn and its role in innate and learned behaviour. The main output will be a collection of Split Gal4 lines labelling different lateral horn populations. We will provide anatomical expertise and one student will run the screen for new Split Gal4 combinations at Janelia. We will also carry out behavioural analysis of positive lines from the screen.
Collaborator Contribution The Rubin lab will advise on the screening of split lines, provide basic lab infrastructure and make new transgenic lines when necessary (100 are already in progress). We will also have access to the FlyLight and FlyCore platforms at Janelia, who will carry out high resolution anatomical imaging and provide support for fly crosses.
Impact Project started in October 2014. Have already set up 500 crosses and begun screening.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Ultra fast chemical labelling 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Generated fly lines and viral constructs for ultra fast chemical labelling in thick tissue
Collaborator Contribution Carried out viral experiments in mouse brain to test constructs. We are continuing to develop and test new tools.
Impact Kohl, Ng et al PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1411087111
Start Year 2013
 
Title NBLAST 
Description Permits rapid, sensitive comparison of neuronal structure and construction of neuron family databases 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact This software has been a major driver for our own research. A preprint is already described below. 
URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/006346
 
Title NeuroAnatomy Toolbox (nat) 
Description The NeuroAnatomy Toolbox an R package for visualisation and analysis of biological image data, especially tracings of single neurons. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2015 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact On top of this we have built a second package nat.nblast, which implements our NBLAST neuron similarity tool (http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/006353). We have developed a number of web resources based on these approaches including an online neuron search tool (see http://jefferislab.org/si/nblast for details). 
URL https://github.com/jefferis/nat
 
Title catmaid R package 
Description This provides a bridge between the CATMAID web tool used for EM connectomics and statistical analysis of neuron shape and connectivity by the neuroanatomy toolbox package for the R statistical environment that we continue to develop. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact We have extended this work to enable high throughput identification of neurons traced out of EM volumes. 
URL https://github.com/jefferis/rcatmaid
 
Title elmr (Electron and Light Microscopy) R package 
Description This package allows data to be moved between Electron Microscopy (EM) brain volumes and light level template brains. It has been used to visualise neuron tracings from a whole Drosophila brain EM data set in conjunction with previous acquired data. This allows neurons to be compared and searched against light level data, enabling identifcation and quality control of newly traced neurons. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact This software was used to generate panels in 5/7 figures for the preprint listed below describing the whole fly brain volume and its application to neural circuits. The manuscript is currently in revision at Cell. 
URL https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/06/13/140905
 
Title gphys: Open source code for electrophysiology analysis 
Description We have released an R package enabling analysis and visulation of electrophysiological data. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2013 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The code was critical for the data analysis in an article Kohl, Ostrovsky et al (Cell 2013) 
URL https://github.com/jefferis/gphys
 
Description "Home in the Service of Science" artists in residence installation and performance 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Ben was involved in the "Home in the Service of Science" artists in residence installation and performance. This involved 3 performances over 3 days with extensive interaction with the public to explain our science in a fun and engaging way and to try and highlight areas the common aspects of home life and life in the lab.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Alex Bates - President of BlueSci 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact In 2018 Alex was the President of BlueSci, the science media society for the University of Cambridge. He stepped down Summer 2018 and is now the managing editor for just the magazine portion. They don't just engage with University of Cambridge people, but also the public, and recruit writers and artists more broadly than Cambridge.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Alex Bates became president of BlueSci Magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact My PhD Student, Alex became President of the BlueSci Magazine
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Alex Bates is the an Honorary Board Member of CSAR 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Alex Bates is an honorary Board Member of the Cambridge Society for the Application of Research and takes part in committee meetings. CSAR exists to encourage an appreciation of the application of research through lectures, visits, the CSAR PhD student awards and outreach to schools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cambridge Science Festival Talk at UTC "Sex, food and smell" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Gave a talk for the Cambridge Science Festival in 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Dana Visited North Cambridge Academy to talk to young girls about her research 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Dana visited a school and talked with young girls about her research as part of "Inspiring Women event at North Cambridge Academy Thursday Oct 20"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Dana attended two Science Showoff Gigs 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dana attended two Science Showoff Gigs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Dana participated in "speed networking" at a Science Outreach event at Murray Edwards College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Dana participated in "speed networking" at a Science Outreach event on March 21st at Murray Edwards College about careers in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Dana presented at the NeuroArt Exhibition of CAMBrain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dana presented at the NeuoArt exhibition of CAMBrain, and got the runner-up award
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://cambrainsociety.com/2017/01/11/cambrain-neuro-art-competition/
 
Description Danielle - Artists in residence lunch time conversations 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Artists in residence lunch time conversations - theme corridors
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Danielle - Participation in artists performance event 'Home in the Service of Science' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participation in artists performance event 'Home in the Service of Science'
wrote a commentary for the 'Home in the Service of Science' artist
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Danielle - Soapbox Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Danielle - Soapbox Science, Cambridge which featured in the Cambridge News
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Erika - STEM Conference at Hampton College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Last February Erika participated at a STEM Conference at Hampton College in Peterborough aimed at inspiring A-grade students and organised by STEMNET.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Financial Times Filmed Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Greg talks in the film about the work he does. A transcrip from teh video is as follows:

"The big challenge at the moment in trying to understand how brains actually control behaviour is to understand the network of connections within the brain, and how information flows through those networks while the animal is producing a particular behaviour.

And that's true whether you're talking about a fly - which is what we study - a worm, a mouse, or a human.

Even in a fly brain, which is just a millimetre across, Greg's team have a huge task on their hands, tracing the path of individual neurons through stacks of electron microscope images, and then painstakingly recreating all the connections in a computer model.

Greg, what did it take to produce this beautiful picture?

So it took the combined efforts of many different scientists with many expertise, there are contributions for over 150 people in this image. And there's about 30m clicks tracing neurons through this electron microscopy image data, that have turned into this image that we see here."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.ft.com/video/f79f255a-2b8f-468f-acd8-a83c1ea68fe1?playlist-name=editors-picks&playlist-o...
 
Description Financial Times Interview - Stable research funding drives Britain's 'Nobel Factory' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An article about the LMB in general where Greg Jefferis is mentioned with regards to neuroscience and his work involving mapping all the connections insdie the fly's brain.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ft.com/content/4309f1fc-f8a5-11e8-8b7c-6fa24bd5409c
 
Description LMB Non-scientific Staff Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact ~ 50 non-scientific staff attended a seminar in which I described the background and significance of our work in lay terms and described a few of our most recent results.

Received very positive feedback (even compared with the excellent speakers that had preceded me in this series).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description LMB Open Day 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our research group designed a public engagement activity introducing visitors to the study of brains and behaviour in Drosophila that involved hands on optogenetics and connectomics experiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description MRC LMB Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact over 2000 members of the public from Cambridge and the surrounding region (including quite a few from London). We estimate that at least 200 people visiting our workshop on the use of Drosophila to study neural circuits.

A huge amount of positive feedback from children and adults attending the open day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www2.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/news-and-events/public-engagement/lmb-open-day/
 
Description Medical science comedy cabaret evening 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Made a light hearted 15 min presentation to a lay audience about our area of research as part of a Medical science comedy cabaret evening. Other performers did stand up comedy, live demonstrations, songs etc. The event was organised in conjunction with the LMB open day.

Subsequently invited to appear on Naked Scientists radio show themed around olfaction.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www2.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/news-and-events/public-engagement/lmb-open-day/
 
Description Naked Scientist: Question of the Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Answered the listener-contribted "Question of the Week" for a Naked Scientist Podcast. The question concerned the relationship between perceived intensity and odour concentration.

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Radio Interview - Nov 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview and panel discussion on regional radio show then released as podcast with international following

forthcoming
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/podcasts/
 
Description Radio Interview JK Feb 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A student in my group was interviewed about his PhD experience and his very exciting results on sexually dimorphic circuitry. The interview was broadcast on regional radio (BBC Cambs), syndicated on ABC and then distributed by the naked scientist podcast which has an international following.

This initial activity has resulted in ongoing contact between my group and the naked scientists team.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/content/interviews/interview/1000119/
 
Description STEM in Song Video 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "STEM in Song" was a video produced where it involved engaging girls in science, technology, engineering and maths through music with St Catherine's College Girls' Choir. Erika Dona was involved with this and starred in the video.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7c4KMOWoZW4&list=PLQbPquAyEw4fM3elXgMBGpfEUHnc6ZyTI&index=6&t=0s
 
Description School visit: Murray Edwards College, careers in science day - Danielle 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact school visit: Murray Edwards College, careers in science day (21st March 2016)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016