Regulation of growth and metabolism

Lead Research Organisation: MRC National Inst for Medical Research

Abstract

Any animal, including human, must grow many times its original size as it develops from an embryo into an adult. This growth is, in part, achieved by an increase in the number of cells, a process known as cell proliferation. The overall aim of this work at the MRC National Institute for Medical Research is to identify the key genes that regulate cell proliferation. Discovering these new genes will further our understanding of what goes wrong in cancer, when cells proliferate inappropriately during adult life. Much of this work utilises the fruit fly (Drosophila) as an efficient gene discovery tool. When the DNA sequences of the Drosophila and human genomes were completed, it became clear that fruit flies possess at least 85% of the genes involved in human diseases. This strong evolutionary conservation, coupled with powerful genetic techniques and a short life cycle, explains why Drosophila research has such an impressive track record in finding the underlying causes of human diseases. Recent research at the National Institute for Medical Research has identified several new genes that are important for switching off cell proliferation in the adult Drosophila brain. Many of these genes work by preventing neural stem cells from producing too many neurons. We have also identified a role for dietary fat in the regulation of overall body growth. We find that a Drosophila internal organ, resembling the human liver, is essential for metabolising dietary lipid into molecules that can then stimulate growth. This work also opens up the possibility of using the power of Drosophila genetics to discover potential new drugs to treat human liver diseases.

Technical Summary

The aim of our work is to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating the growth of the embryo. Growth regulation involves the integration of many different positive and negative signals that can act locally, within one tissue, or globally, to control the overall size of the organism. We wish to identify the molecules and genetic pathways important for stopping cell growth and proliferation towards the end of embryonic development. In the long term, these might provide new therapeutic targets for cancer treatments. In addition, we are investigating how environmental influences such as the composition of the diet can impact on the genes regulating growth and metabolism. This work may provide new insights into the aetiology of human metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. The driver and gene discovery tool for much of our work is the genetic model organism Drosophila. Currently, we are focusing on two main approaches towards understanding growth regulation in Drosophila. In the first approach, we are studying how the growth of the central nervous system (CNS) is regulated. In particular, we are conducting genetic screens for genes regulating the time at which Drosophila neural stem cells (called neuroblasts) start and stop dividing. Several new neural-stem cell genes identified from these screens are currently being analysed. In the second approach, we are investigating how dietary fat intake influences growth and metabolism during development. As a first step towards this goal, we have identified a Drosophila cell type (the oenocyte) that is specialised for processing lipids and is essential for larval growth. Oenocytes carry out many of the functions of the human liver and can be used to model hepatic steatosis (fatty liver), a pathology associated with type II diabetes.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Contribution to UKSCI review
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Royal Brompton Hospital lung cancer consortium
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Improved grant applications for securing funding for clinical lung cancer research the Royal Brompton BRU and optimised questionnaires and procedures for recruiting patients for clinical research programmes.
 
Description Autism Speaks (Formerly NAAR) award 2007
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Organisation Autistica 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2006 
End 05/2007
 
Description Biochemical Society vacation studentship 2010
Amount £1,600 (GBP)
Organisation Biochemical Society 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2010 
End 05/2010
 
Description EMBO Long Term Fellowship 2008-2010
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Molecular Biology Organisation 
Sector Learned Society
Country European Union (EU)
Start 05/2008 
End 05/2010
 
Description EMBO Short Term Fellowship
Amount € 3,571 (EUR)
Funding ID ASTF 194-2012 
Organisation European Molecular Biology Organisation 
Sector Learned Society
Country European Union (EU)
Start 05/2012 
End 05/2013
 
Description EU Marie Curie IEF 2006-2008
Amount £114,935 (GBP)
Organisation Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions 
Sector Academic/University
Country Global
Start 05/2006 
End 05/2008
 
Description FCT, Portugese postdoctoral fellowship 2007-2008
Amount £22,000 (GBP)
Organisation New University of Lisbon 
Department Foundation for Science and Technology
Sector Academic/University
Country Portugal
Start 05/2007 
End 05/2008
 
Description Sara Lee Shupf Award
Amount £14,000 (GBP)
Organisation Weizmann Institute of Science 
Sector Academic/University
Country Israel
Start 05/2008 
End 05/2010
 
Description Uehara Postdoctoral Research Fellowship
Amount ¥4,000,000 (JPY)
Organisation Uehara Memorial Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Japan
Start 06/2015 
End 06/2016
 
Title BO-GAL4 transgenic Drosophila 
Description The BO-GAL4 transgene permits expression of genes in oenocytes, insect cells that can be used to model aspects of hepatic steatosis (Gutierrez, E., Wiggins, D., Fielding, B. and Gould, A.P. (2007). Specialized hepatocyte-like cells regulate Drosophila lipid metabolism. Nature 445, 275-280). 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2007 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Several groups worldwide have begun to model aspects of mammalian lipid metabolism using our oenocyte system. 
 
Title Drosophila model for organ sparing during IUGR 
Description A Nutrient Restriction protocol in Drosophila was developed that permits the selective growth of the developing CNS and other spared organs at the expense of less critical tissues. This provides a fly model of brain sparing during mammalian intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). A signalling pathway for CNS sparing involving the conserved receptor, Anaplastic Lymphoma kinase, was also identified. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2011 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A publication (PMID: 21816278 ) and subsequent requests for reagents from academic groups. 
URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S009286741100715X
 
Title Drosophila model for primary coenzyme Q deficiency 
Description Mutants lacking the function of less, the fly orthologue of human PDSS1and protocols for rescue by dietary supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 and other coenzyme Q variants. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A publication (PMID: 20889762) and subsequent requests for reagents from academic groups. 
URL http://dmm.biologists.org/content/3/11-12/799.long
 
Title Drosophila model for stress-induced lipid droplets 
Description We have developed and analysed a Drosophila model for the induction of lipid droplets in the neural stem cell niche of the developing CNS. This can be used to investigate the regulation and the function of lipid droplets in the context of oxidative stresses such as hypoxia. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Bailey AP, Koster G, Guillermier C, Hirst EM, MacRae JI, Lechene CP, Postle AD, Gould AP (2015). Antioxidant Role for Lipid Droplets in a Stem Cell Niche of Drosophila. Cell 163 340. (PMID: 26451484) 
URL http://www.agouldlab.com
 
Title Hoxb4 Monoclonal Antibody 
Description The I12 rat-mouse hybridoma produces monoclonal antibodies recognising the human, mouse and rat Hoxb4 protein. It was deposited at the Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank (http://dshb.biology.uiowa.edu/) in 1999. (This work was done as a collaboration between Alex Gould at MRC NIMR and Dr. R. Krumlauf, currently at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, USA.) 
Type Of Material Antibody 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Hoxb4 plays a central role in promoting hematopoietic stem cell expansion. Therefore, the I12 hybridoma has proved particularly useful for developing ex vivo methods for expanding human hematopoietic stem cells prior to injecting them into patients. See, for example: Amsellem S, Pflumio F, Bardinet D, Izac B, Charneau P, Romeo PH, Dubart-Kupperschmitt A, Fichelson S. Ex vivo expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells by direct delivery of the HOXB4 homeoprotein. Nat Med. 2003;9:1423-7. PMID: 14578882 
URL http://dshb.biology.uiowa.edu/
 
Title VDTS metabolomics method 
Description Volume determination with two standards allows absolute quantification and improved chemometric analysis of metabolites by NMR from submicroliter samples. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publication of: Volume determination with two standards allows absolute quantification and improved chemometric analysis of metabolites by NMR from submicroliter samples. Anal. Chem. 85, 12046-54. Ragan TJ, Bailey AP, Gould AP and Driscoll PC (2013) Inclusion of NMR platform in the new Crick Metabolomics STP (facility). 
URL http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ac403111s
 
Description Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute 
Organisation Cancer Research UK
Department Cancer Research UK London Research Institute (LRI)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We established a Drosophila model for human asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and used it to uncover the molecular mechanism by which brain growth is protected when nutrients are scarce. This work was published in the following paper: Cheng, LY; Bailey, AP; Leevers, SJ; Ragan, TJ; Driscoll, PC and Gould, AP (2011). Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Spares Organ Growth during Nutrient Restriction in Drosophila. Cell 146, 435-47.
Collaborator Contribution Advice and PI3Kinase reagents related to genetic studies in Cell (2011) paper.
Impact Multidisciplinary paper utilizing NMR metabolomics and Drosophila genetics in Cell (2011). Pubmed ID: 21816278. Cell (Press release, Preview and Podcast): http://www.cell.com/retrieve/pii/S0092867411007690 http://download.cell.com/images/edimages/podcasts/0804cell2011.mp3 Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology: http://www.nature.com/nrm/journal/v12/n9/full/nrm3177.html Science Editors Choice: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/333/6045/920.2.full?sid=a14a89d8-a7aa-40f2-b943-9ce673efed55 Science Signalling Editors Choice: http://stke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sigtrans;4/185/ec220 Francis Crick Institute: http://www.crick.ac.uk/news/science-news/2011/08/05/the-selfish-brain
Start Year 2008
 
Description Francis Crick Institute Metabolomics STP 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Hypothesis driven experiments and biological samples for metabolomics analysis
Collaborator Contribution NMR and mass spectrometry based analysis of polar and apolar metabolites
Impact Publications: PMID: 26451484 PMID: 29123106 PMID: 30757904
Start Year 2015
 
Description Harvard Medical School 
Organisation Harvard University
Department Harvard Medical School
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our team provides the expertise in lipid metabolism and designs and conducts all of the Drosophila experiments.
Collaborator Contribution The laboratory of C. P. Lechene at The National Resource for Imaging Mass Spectrometry provides the technical expertise with SIMS and access to a SIMS machine.
Impact Steinhauser, M.L, Bailey, A.P, Senyo, S.E, Guillermier, C, Perlstein, T.S, Gould, A.P, Lee, R.T and Lechene, C.P. (2012). Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry quantifies stem cell division and metabolism. Nature 481, 516-519
Start Year 2009
 
Description Linkoping University Medical School, Sweden 
Organisation Linkoping University
Department University Medical School Linkoping
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We conducted a detailed analysis of the genes required to form insulin-producing cells in the posterior of the Drosophila CNS. These have similarities to those required to form human pancreatic beta cells.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Stefan Thor contributed reagents and advice that culminated in the following paper: Miguel-Aliaga I, Thor S, Gould A.P.(2008). Postmitotic specification of Drosophila insulinergic neurons from pioneer neurons. PLoS Biol: 6, e58
Impact PLoS Biology paper, PubMed ID:18336071
Start Year 2006
 
Description NIMR Division of Mathematical Biology 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We conducted an in vivo analysis of the Q10 synthesis gene, Qless, in Drosophila and established a fly model of human primary CoQ deficiency disease.
Collaborator Contribution Modelling the structure of wild-type and mutant forms of the Drosophila Q10 synthetic enzyme, Qless. This contributed to the following publication: Grant, J; Saldanha, JW and Gould, AP (2010). A Drosophila model for primary coenzyme Q deficiency and dietary rescue in the developing nervous system. Disease Models & Mechanisms 3, 799-806.
Impact Multidisciplinary paper involving bioinformatics, mathematical modelling and genetics in Disease Models & Mechanisms (2010). Pubmed ID: 20889762.
Start Year 2009
 
Description NIMR, Division of Developmental Biology 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our team, in particular TJ Ragan and myself, provided expertise in metabolism and NMR-based metabolomics for this collaborative study on cardiac metabolism.
Collaborator Contribution The team of T. Mohun, in particular R. Breckenridge, conducted the majority of experiments for this collaborative study on cardiac metabolism.
Impact Breckenridge R.A, Piotrowska, I., Ng, K-E., Ragan, T.J., West, J.A., Kotecha S., Towers, N., Bennett, M., Kienesberger, P.C., Smolenski, R.T., Siddall, H.K., Offer, J.L., Mocanu, M.M., Yelon, D.M., Dyck, J.R.B., Griffin, J.L., Abramov, A.Y., Gould, A.P. and Mohun, T.J. (2013). Hypoxic Regulation of Hand1 Controls the Fetal-Neonatal Switch in Cardiac Metabolism. PLOS Biology 11: e1001666 (PMID: 24086110)
Start Year 2012
 
Description NIMR, Division of Mathematical Biology 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We conducted an in vivo analysis of the Drosophila sVWC expression patterns and made transgenic overexpression constructs.
Collaborator Contribution Mathematical modelling of the structures of a new family of secreted proteins in insects. This lead to a collaborative publication: Sheldon TJ, Miguel-Aliaga I, Gould A.P, Taylor WR, Conklin D (2007). A novel family of single VWC-domain proteins in invertebrates. FEBS Lett: 581, 5268-74.
Impact FEBS Lett. paper, PubMed ID: 18028914
Start Year 2006
 
Description NIMR, Division of Molecular Structure 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We established a Drosophila model for human asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and used it to uncover the molecular mechanism by which brain growth is protected when nutrients are scarce. This work was published in the following paper: Cheng, LY; Bailey, AP; Leevers, SJ; Ragan, TJ; Driscoll, PC and Gould, AP (2011). Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Spares Organ Growth during Nutrient Restriction in Drosophila. Cell 146, 435-47.
Collaborator Contribution NMR metabolomics analysis of Drosophila
Impact Multidisciplinary paper utilizing NMR metabolomics and Drosophila genetics in Cell (2011). Pubmed ID: 21816278. Cell (Press release, Preview and Podcast): http://www.cell.com/retrieve/pii/S0092867411007690 http://download.cell.com/images/edimages/podcasts/0804cell2011.mp3 Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology: http://www.nature.com/nrm/journal/v12/n9/full/nrm3177.html Science Editors Choice: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/333/6045/920.2.full?sid=a14a89d8-a7aa-40f2-b943-9ce673efed55 Science Signalling Editors Choice: http://stke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sigtrans;4/185/ec220 Francis Crick Institute: http://www.crick.ac.uk/news/science-news/2011/08/05/the-selfish-brain
Start Year 2008
 
Description Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism (OCDEM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We first identified the insect equivalent of heptocytes and then conducted an extensive genetic analysis of their functions, identifying over 20 new lipid metabolism genes. Many of these are conserved in humans.
Collaborator Contribution Analysis of fatty acids by gas chromatography by David Wiggins and Barbara Fielding. This collaborative data was included in an Article in Nature: Gutierrez, E., Wiggins, D., Fielding, B. and Gould, A.P. (2007). Specialized hepatocyte-like cells regulate Drosophila lipid metabolism. Nature: 445, 275-280.
Impact BBC new item (11th March2007), see http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6433463.stm MRC press release, see http://www.mrc.ac.uk/NewsViewsAndEvents/News/MRC003414 Nature paper PubMed ID: 17136098
Start Year 2006
 
Description Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre (fly CNS tumours) 
Organisation Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre
Country Australia 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Metabolomics Chemically defined Drosophila diet
Collaborator Contribution Droosphila genetics
Impact Histidine is selectively required for the growth of Myc-dependent dedifferentiation tumours in the Drosophila CNS. Francesca Froldi, Panayotis Pachnis, Milán Szuperák, Olivia Costas, Tharindu Fernando, Alex P Gould, Louise Y Cheng. The EMBO Journal (2019) e99895. DOI 10.15252/embj.201899895 PMID: 30804004
Start Year 2014
 
Description Southampton General Hospital (Lipidomics) 
Organisation Southampton General Hospital
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Our laboratory carried out hypothesis driven experiments and provided biological samples for lipidomics analysis
Collaborator Contribution Tandem mass spectrometry and data analysis of lipidomics samples
Impact Antioxidant Role for Lipid Droplets in a Stem Cell Niche of Drosophila. Bailey AP , Koster G, Guillermier C, Hirst EMA, MacRae JI, Lechene CP, Postle AD, Gould AP (2015). Cell 163, 340-353 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.09.020
Start Year 2013
 
Description University of Marseille, France 
Organisation Aix-Marseille University
Department Institute of Developmental Biology of Marseille Luminy (IBDM)
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our team provided the expertise and lab environment in which this collaboration on Drosophila CNS sparing in the visual system was initiated during the last year that C. Maurange worked with us as a postdoctoral fellow.
Collaborator Contribution As an independent PI at University of Marseille, C. Maurange completed the project together with a postdoctoral fellow, E. Lanet.
Impact Lanet, E, Gould, A.P and Maurange C. (2013). Protection of Neuronal Diversity at the Expense of Neuronal Numbers during Nutrient Restriction in the Drosophila Visual System. Cell Reports 3, 587-94. (PMID: 23478023)
Start Year 2009
 
Description University of Nevada (very long chain fatty acid metabolism) 
Organisation University of Nevada
Department Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Extensive genetic and phenotypic analysis in Drosophila of a new fatty acid metabolism pathway that inhibits signalling via PI3-Kinase, a key oncogene mutated in many different cancers.
Collaborator Contribution in vitro enzyme activity assays for one of the two faty acid enzymes in this collaborative study: fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FarO)
Impact Einat Cinnamon, Rami Makki, Annick Sawala, Leah P. Wickenberg, Gary J. Blomquist, Claus Tittiger, Ze'ev Paroush, Alex P. Gould (2016). Drosophila Spidey/Kar Regulates Oenocyte Growth via PI3-Kinase Signaling. PLOS Genet, 12, e1006154. (PMID: 27500738)
Start Year 2016
 
Description 1st Crick Symposium 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The first Crick symposium, which took place at the Wellcome Collection on 2 July, was on Metabolism in Health and Disease. It was organised by Alex Gould.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL https://www.crick.ac.uk/news/news-archive/2012/07/03/symposium-success/
 
Description BBC news item on Nature 07 paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC news item "Fruit flies provide liver hope" http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6433463.stm

Stimulated interest (and funding) in using Drosophila as a genetic model for aspects of human lipid metabolism and liver functions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
URL http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6433463.stm
 
Description Cell Podcast 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Bob Kruger from Cell discusses brain sparing with Alex Gould (from a Cell podcast - August 2011)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.agouldlab.com/current-lab-members.html
 
Description Crick Community Newsletter interview 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for The Crick Community newsletter, June 2012
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.agouldlab.com/interview-with-alex.html
 
Description Essay on Stem Cells 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wrote a Mill Hill Essay on "Stem cells: sorting out the hope from the hype" (2009):
http://www.historyofnimr.org.uk/mill-hill-essays/essays-yearly-volumes/2009-2/stem-cells-sorting-out-the-hope-from-the-hype/


Generated interest from members of the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
URL http://www.historyofnimr.org.uk/mill-hill-essays/essays-yearly-volumes/2009-2/stem-cells-sorting-out...
 
Description Francis Crick Institute News Item 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Francis Crick Institute Scientific news item:

http://www.crick.ac.uk/news/science-news/2011/08/05/the-selfish-brain

Asked to present research at the Francis Crick Institute Update in 2011.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.crick.ac.uk/news/science-news/2011/08/05/the-selfish-brain
 
Description Francis Crick Institute Update 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A talk at the Francis Crick Institute Update was attended by 50 people involved with the design, construction and management of the new Francis Crick Institute in central London: http://www.crick.ac.uk/

This series of talks is designed to inform/inspire the non-scientists involved in this huge project about what science is going to be housed inside the new building.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description History of NIMR Film 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The film is called National Institute for Medical Research: The Place The People The Science and it was completed in 2015. It was made by Taslima Khan. Alex Gould is interviewed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.historyofnimr.org.uk/film/
 
Description History of NIMR book "A century of Science for Health" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This book about the story of the MRC National Institute for Medical Research was published to mark the Institute's 100th anniversary in 2014. Alex Gould contributed to two chapters:
Chapter 19 - Reproduction, hormones and metabolism
Chapter 21 - Developmental biology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.historyofnimr.org.uk/a-century-of-science-for-health/100-years-of-science-for-health-the-...
 
Description MRC Annual Review 08/09 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I was interviewed by the MRC Press office about our recent work on using fruit flies to find out how neural stem cells work (Cell 2008).

Ridiculed for wearing a frivolous flowery shirt on the publicity photographs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description MRC Network May/June 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Research Roundup item in MRC Network May/June 2011 on Nature (2011) paper: "Food for thought: how dietary protein helps brain growth"

Generated interest from clinical and basic scientists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description MRC Press Release for Cell 08 paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact MRC Press Release: "Timer genes control brain size" http://www.mrc.ac.uk/NewsViewsAndEvents/News/MRC004610

Stimulated interest in using Drosophila as a genetic model for studying human neural stem and progenitor cells.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description MRC Press Release for Nature 07 paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact MRC Press Release and front-page web site item: "Fruit-fly fatty secrets shed light on liver disease" www.mrc.ac.uk/NewsViewsAndEvents/News/MRC003414

Stimulated interest (and funding) in using Drosophila as a genetic model for aspects of human lipid metabolism and liver functions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006
 
Description NIMR Centenary Symposium 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The talk was to scientists, ex-scientists and other employees of MRC NIMR over the years and led to much discussion about how the ideas and practice of science has changed over the past 100 years.

Contributions were made to a book and also a film on the history of NIMR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description NIMR/UCL Lab web pages 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Information about our research is available at the NIMR and UCL web sites:
http://www.nimr.mrc.ac.uk/research/alex-gould/

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/neuroscience/Page.php?ID=12RsearcherID=342

Raises the general awareness of our research and helps with recruitment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010
 
Description University of the Third Age (U3A) 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 200 people, mostly retired, attended a very lively U3A annual meeting on the subject of "You are what your mother ate"

These annual meetings will continue, despite the untimely death of the inspirational organiser Dr. Michael Sargent.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.nimr.mrc.ac.uk/u3a/
 
Description You Tube item on Nature 2012 paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact A video was placed on You Tube, made by NIMR, describing Multi-Isotope Imaging Mass Spectrometry as relevant to our Nature 2012 paper:
Steinhauser, M.L, Bailey, A.P, Senyo, S.E, Guillermier, C, Perlstein, T.S, Gould, A.P, Lee, R.T and Lechene, C.P. (2012). Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry quantifies stem cell division and metabolism. Nature 481, 516-519

208 hits after 3 months.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012