Genome Function

Lead Research Organisation: MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences

Abstract

The last 20 years have witnessed a formidable increase in the information about the genome, including the genomic sequence, the genes that are active in normal and pathological situations, and the molecular machinery involved. But advances in areas such as gene therapy and cell therapy require a deeper knowledge of genome function, as the conditions inside the cell nucleus are very different from those used in the laboratory. The human genome is found in 23 DNA molecules, or chromosomes, each with an average of 1500 different genes. For example, when a new gene is artificially introduced into the genome, we know little about how it may interfere with the expression of neighbouring genes and with the stability of the receiving genome. The different chromosomes fold in specific arrangements that are permissive for the activity of some genes, or maintain other genes silent. We study these processes using a variety of methods, including high-resolution imaging, molecular biology and biochemistry. We investigate how chromosomes and genes fold in the nucleus, and how they interact with the cellular machinery involved in the expression of genes. This work will allow us to better understand how the genome works and help devise more efficient and safer gene and cell therapies.

Technical Summary

We investigate the mechanisms by which the structural and functional organisation of the genome and transcription machinery in the mammalian cell nucleus contributes to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. This research will help to understand the processes of cell pluripotency, plasticity and differentiation. We work mainly with human and murine cell lines and tissues. We use a combination of biochemical, molecular biology and subcellular imaging methods to investigate long-range inter-chromosomal interactions, the dynamics and proteomic content of transcription factories, and epigenetic roles of poised RNA polymerase II forms. We are currently developing a novel high-throughput assay to describe and quantify whole-genome interactions in cell nuclei. This will provide quantitative information on genome folding inside the mammalian nucleus that will permit modelling of chromosome organisation and may in the future allow for prediction of more efficient and safer integration sites for gene therapy, diagnostic of stem cell properties in regenerative therapy and a better understanding of the chromosomal rearrangements that lead to cancer. As the technology has commercial potential, we are working towards filing a patent.|Objectives:|1. To investigate the functional and structural organisation of chromatin in interphase nuclei and how it influences gene expression and epigenetic processes;|2. To study the roles of poised RNA polymerase II complexes at silent genes in embryonic stem cells and the mechanistic interplay with Polycomb-dependent gene silencing;|3. To biochemically purify and characterise pol II factories towards devising genetic analyses to investigate how the organisation of RNA polymerase in transcription factories influences genome organisation and gene expression.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Management-led Internal Review on PhD Student Recruitment and Training
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description BBSRC Project Grant (Mechanisms of regulation of RNA polymerase II phosphorylation in embryonic stem cell pluripotency and neuronal differentiation)
Amount £407,817 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/H008098/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2010 
End 02/2013
 
Description Development Gap Fund
Amount £69,719 (GBP)
Organisation MRC-Technology 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2007 
End 01/2008
 
Description EMBO Short Term Fellowship
Amount £6,424 (GBP)
Organisation European Molecular Biology Organisation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Germany
Start 05/2008 
End 07/2008
 
Description FCT, PhD Studentship (MB)
Amount € 117,849 (EUR)
Organisation New University of Lisbon 
Department Foundation for Science and Technology
Sector Academic/University
Country Portugal
Start 10/2003 
End 09/2007
 
Description FCT, Phd Studentship (IdC)
Amount € 117,849 (EUR)
Organisation New University of Lisbon 
Department Foundation for Science and Technology
Sector Academic/University
Country Portugal
Start 10/2008 
End 09/2012
 
Description FCT, Phd Studentship (IdS)
Amount € 117,849 (EUR)
Organisation New University of Lisbon 
Department Foundation for Science and Technology
Sector Academic/University
Country Portugal
Start 11/2007 
End 10/2010
 
Description FCT, Phd Studentship (JD)
Amount € 117,849 (EUR)
Organisation New University of Lisbon 
Department Foundation for Science and Technology
Sector Academic/University
Country Portugal
Start 10/2010 
End 09/2013
 
Description FP7-International Training Network
Amount € 193,740 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Department Seventh Framework Programme (FP7)
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2009 
End 12/2012
 
Description Imperial College London Incentivizing the Faculty Scheme
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Imperial College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2010 
End 02/2013
 
Description MRC-BHF Cardiovascular stem cell research strategic development grant
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2011 
End 02/2014
 
Description Wellcome Trust, VIP award (to CF)
Amount £14,000 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2009 
End 11/2009
 
Title Cryo-FISH 
Description Improved method to visualise the position of genomic loci within mammalian cell nuclei. Cryo-FISH uses small samples that can be kept frozen infinitely. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2006 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Impact from own research: PMIDs: 16623600; 18369441; 18461481 Impact from research of others: PMID: 17033623 
URL http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/16623600
 
Title Datasets published in Brookes et al 2012 
Description We produced genome-wide datasets for ChIP-seq for RNAPII modifications (S5p, S2p, S7p, 8WG16), Polycomb protein Ring1B, and histone modificatio H2Aub1 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact PMID: 22305566 Datasets are available in GEO repository 
URL http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22305566
 
Title RNAPII-ChIP assay 
Description RNAPII-ChIP allows the robust mapping of phosphorylated forms of RNA polymerase II in mammalian chromatin both from cell lines, primary cells and tissues. The method is also applicable to mapping histone modifications and other chromatin binding factors. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2007 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Several laboratories around the world have requested the protocol and are currently using it. 
 
Title Brookes et al. 2012 - ChIP-seq datasets 
Description Examination of 4 different RNAPII modifications (S5p, S7p, 8WG16, S2p), and the histone modifications H2Aub1 and H3K36me3 in mouse ES cells. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact MAnuscript has been cited 66 times. 
URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE34518
 
Title Brookes et al. 2012 - mRNA-seq datasets 
Description Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing mRNA-seq and expression profile of mouse ES OS25 cells 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Manuscript has been cited 66 times. 
URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE34519
 
Title Dias et al. 2015 - ChIP-seq datasets 
Description Examination of different RNAPII modifications (S5p, S7p, 8WG16, S2p), and the histone modifications H2Aub1 and H3K36me3 in mouse ES cells. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Manuscript has been cited 10 times. 
URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE72876
 
Title FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples. 
Description FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Datasets for transcriptional start sites across a collection of human and mouse samples. 
URL https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5574368/
 
Title Ferrai et al. 2017 ChIP-seq and RNA-seq datasets 
Description Ferrai et al. 2017 ChIP-seq and RNA-seq datasets 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Description of promoter activations states and gene expression from pluripotent stem cells to early differentiation, and terminal dopaminergic neurons 
URL http://msb.embopress.org/content/13/10/946.long
 
Title Fraser et al. 2015 - CAGE and Hi-C datasets 
Description Raw reads for the ESC, NPC and Neuron Hi-C datasets generated for this study are available online from GEO, accession number GSE59027. CAGE data used in this study were produced as part of the FANTOM5 project, and all FANTOM5 sequence data have been deposited at the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) under accession numbers DRA000991, DRA002711, DRA002747 and DRA002748. Additional analysis, documentation and visualizations of the CAGE data are available at http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/5/tet/ under "ES-46C embryonic stem cells, neuronal differentiation, day00, biol_rep1.CNhs14104.14357-155I1" (ESCrep1); "ES-46C embryonic stem cells, neuronal differentiation, day00, biol_rep2. CNhs14109.14362-155I6" (ESCrep2); "ES-46C derived epistem cells, neuronal differentiation, day05, biol_rep1. CNhs14126.14378-156B4" (NPC) and "ES-46C derived epistemcells, neuronal differentiation, day14, biol_rep1. CNhs14127.14379-156B5" (Neurons). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Manuscript has been cited 27 times. 
URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE59027
 
Description ChIP-seq RNA polymerase II modification in ES cells 
Organisation Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU Munich)
Department Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM)
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have prepared and validated ChIP samples for several markers including RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, Polycomb repressor complexes and histone tail modifications. We have analysed the high-throughput sequencing data.
Collaborator Contribution High-throughput sequencing of ChIP samples. Collaborators provided scientific advice and performed data analyses. Collaborator performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Collaborator performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Collaborator provided reagents (antibody) and performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Bioinformatic analyses.
Impact PMID: 22305566 PMID: 22421158
Start Year 2008
 
Description ChIP-seq RNA polymerase II modification in ES cells 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have prepared and validated ChIP samples for several markers including RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, Polycomb repressor complexes and histone tail modifications. We have analysed the high-throughput sequencing data.
Collaborator Contribution High-throughput sequencing of ChIP samples. Collaborators provided scientific advice and performed data analyses. Collaborator performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Collaborator performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Collaborator provided reagents (antibody) and performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Bioinformatic analyses.
Impact PMID: 22305566 PMID: 22421158
Start Year 2008
 
Description ChIP-seq RNA polymerase II modification in ES cells 
Organisation Osaka University
Department Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have prepared and validated ChIP samples for several markers including RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, Polycomb repressor complexes and histone tail modifications. We have analysed the high-throughput sequencing data.
Collaborator Contribution High-throughput sequencing of ChIP samples. Collaborators provided scientific advice and performed data analyses. Collaborator performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Collaborator performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Collaborator provided reagents (antibody) and performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Bioinformatic analyses.
Impact PMID: 22305566 PMID: 22421158
Start Year 2008
 
Description ChIP-seq RNA polymerase II modification in ES cells 
Organisation Tokyo Institute of Technology
Department Bio-Frontier Research Center
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have prepared and validated ChIP samples for several markers including RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, Polycomb repressor complexes and histone tail modifications. We have analysed the high-throughput sequencing data.
Collaborator Contribution High-throughput sequencing of ChIP samples. Collaborators provided scientific advice and performed data analyses. Collaborator performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Collaborator performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Collaborator provided reagents (antibody) and performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Bioinformatic analyses.
Impact PMID: 22305566 PMID: 22421158
Start Year 2008
 
Description ChIP-seq RNA polymerase II modification in ES cells 
Organisation University of Bergen
Country Norway 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have prepared and validated ChIP samples for several markers including RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, Polycomb repressor complexes and histone tail modifications. We have analysed the high-throughput sequencing data.
Collaborator Contribution High-throughput sequencing of ChIP samples. Collaborators provided scientific advice and performed data analyses. Collaborator performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Collaborator performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Collaborator provided reagents (antibody) and performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Bioinformatic analyses.
Impact PMID: 22305566 PMID: 22421158
Start Year 2008
 
Description ChIP-seq RNA polymerase II modification in ES cells 
Organisation Wellcome Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We have prepared and validated ChIP samples for several markers including RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, Polycomb repressor complexes and histone tail modifications. We have analysed the high-throughput sequencing data.
Collaborator Contribution High-throughput sequencing of ChIP samples. Collaborators provided scientific advice and performed data analyses. Collaborator performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Collaborator performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Collaborator provided reagents (antibody) and performed experiments to characterize antibodies. Bioinformatic analyses.
Impact PMID: 22305566 PMID: 22421158
Start Year 2008
 
Description Complexity of chromatin folding is captured by the strings and binders switch model 
Organisation McGill University
Department Department of Biochemistry
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have contributed scientific knowledge, literature searches and lead the preparation of the manuscript and scientific discussions. We have written several joint reviews.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators performed computational analyses of publicly available genome-wide datasets and polymer modelling.
Impact PMID: 22988072 PMID: 24804566 PMID: 24802900 PMID: 23823730 PMID: 23802011 PMID: 23514144 PMID: 24802900 PMID: 24804566 PMID: 25764220 PMID: 26700852
Start Year 2011
 
Description Complexity of chromatin folding is captured by the strings and binders switch model 
Organisation University of Naples
Department Department of Physics
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have contributed scientific knowledge, literature searches and lead the preparation of the manuscript and scientific discussions. We have written several joint reviews.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators performed computational analyses of publicly available genome-wide datasets and polymer modelling.
Impact PMID: 22988072 PMID: 24804566 PMID: 24802900 PMID: 23823730 PMID: 23802011 PMID: 23514144 PMID: 24802900 PMID: 24804566 PMID: 25764220 PMID: 26700852
Start Year 2011
 
Description Distribution of RNA polymerase II in human cell nuclei 
Organisation University of Colorado Denver
Department School of Medicine Colorado
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We used the antibodies to investigate RNA polymerase II distribution in the interphase cell nucleus relative to functional landmarks
Collaborator Contribution Provided antibodies raised against phosphorylated forms of RNA polymerase II
Impact PMID: 16187066; 16467386
 
Description Flavopiridol 
Organisation Sanofi
Department Aventis
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have used the compound flavopiridol to characterize antibodies specific for RNA polymerase II phosphorylated forms.
Collaborator Contribution Sanofi-Aventis provided the laboratory with compound Flavopiridol.
Impact PMID: 18037880 PMID: 20052287 PMID: 22305566
Start Year 2006
 
Description H3K9/S10 methyl-phospho 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC Clinical Sciences Centre (CSC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have provided analyses and contributed to experimental design.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborators have lead this research project.
Impact PMID: 24430871
Start Year 2009
 
Description Mechanisms of RNA polymerase II Priming in HepG2 cells 
Organisation San Raffaele Hospital
Department San Raffaele Scientific Institute (SRSI)
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have identified large-scale repositioning of the uPA gene within the interphase cell nucleus, which accompany the induction. We have shown that this gene is associated with poised transcription factories prior to induction
Collaborator Contribution Characterized the expression and epigenetic state of the urokinase plasminogen-activator gene (uPA) in HepG2 cells, and provided cell samples.
Impact PMID: 20052287
Start Year 2006
 
Description Mechanisms of RNA polymerase II poising in ES cells - Ring1B KD cell line 
Organisation RIKEN
Department RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology
Country Japan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We characterized chromatin-bound Ring1B and H2Aub1 depletion after knockdown, and changes in RNA polymerase II phosphorylation.
Collaborator Contribution Provided conditional Ring1b knockdown cell line (with Ring1a knockout background) and Ring1b antibody. Provided conditional Ring1b knockdown cell line (with Ring1a knockout background) and Ring1b antibody.
Impact PMID: 18037880 PMID: 22305566
Start Year 2006
 
Description Novel RNA polymerase II post-translation modifications: CTD-K7me1 and CTD-K7me2 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have prepared and validated ChIP samples for novel RNA polymerase II modifications CTD-K7me1 and CTD-K7me2, developed mouse fibroblast cell lines that express CTD-K7-to-S7 mutant Rpb1. We have analysed the high-throughput sequencing data.
Collaborator Contribution Partners have produce antibodies and characterized them, have performed bioinformatics analyses, and produced ChIP-seq datasets.
Impact Dias JD, Rito T, Torlai Triglia E, Kukalev A, Ferrai C, Chotalia M, Brookes E, Kimura H1, Pombo A1 (2015) Methylation of RNA polymerase II non-consensus lysine residues marks early transcription in mammalian cells. ELIFE 10.7554/ELIFE.11215. (1joint corresponding authors)
Start Year 2009
 
Description Novel RNA polymerase II post-translation modifications: CTD-K7me1 and CTD-K7me2 
Organisation Tokyo Institute of Technology
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have prepared and validated ChIP samples for novel RNA polymerase II modifications CTD-K7me1 and CTD-K7me2, developed mouse fibroblast cell lines that express CTD-K7-to-S7 mutant Rpb1. We have analysed the high-throughput sequencing data.
Collaborator Contribution Partners have produce antibodies and characterized them, have performed bioinformatics analyses, and produced ChIP-seq datasets.
Impact Dias JD, Rito T, Torlai Triglia E, Kukalev A, Ferrai C, Chotalia M, Brookes E, Kimura H1, Pombo A1 (2015) Methylation of RNA polymerase II non-consensus lysine residues marks early transcription in mammalian cells. ELIFE 10.7554/ELIFE.11215. (1joint corresponding authors)
Start Year 2009
 
Description Proteomic analysis of mitotic RNA polymerase II complexes 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Department The Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC)
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have purified and fractionated RNA polymerase II complexes, prepared samples for mass spectrometry analysis, validated several candidate proteins.
Collaborator Contribution Performed mass spectrometry analyses of protein samples. Provided tissues and antibodies. Collaborators performed bioinformatic analyses.
Impact PMID: 22199231
Start Year 2006
 
Description Proteomic analysis of mitotic RNA polymerase II complexes 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have purified and fractionated RNA polymerase II complexes, prepared samples for mass spectrometry analysis, validated several candidate proteins.
Collaborator Contribution Performed mass spectrometry analyses of protein samples. Provided tissues and antibodies. Collaborators performed bioinformatic analyses.
Impact PMID: 22199231
Start Year 2006
 
Description Proteomic analysis of mitotic RNA polymerase II complexes 
Organisation The Jackson Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We have purified and fractionated RNA polymerase II complexes, prepared samples for mass spectrometry analysis, validated several candidate proteins.
Collaborator Contribution Performed mass spectrometry analyses of protein samples. Provided tissues and antibodies. Collaborators performed bioinformatic analyses.
Impact PMID: 22199231
Start Year 2006
 
Title Genome Architecture Mapping 
Description The present invention relates to the field of analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the genome, i.e., for genome architecture mapping (GAM). The invention provides a method of determining spatial proximity of a plurality of nucleic acid loci in a compartment such as the cell nucleus, by exploiting their co-segregation amongst fractions of that compartment, identified upon separation of the nucleic acid loci from each other depending on their localization in the compartment to obtain a collection of fractions, e.g., by cryo-sectioning the compartment; determining the presence or absence of the plurality of loci in said fractions; and determining the co-segregation of said plurality of loci. Co-segregation may then be analysed with statistical methods to determine spatial proximity. The method can be used e.g., for determining physical distance between a plurality of loci; and mapping loci and/or genome architecture, e.g., in the nucleus; identification of regulatory regions directing expression of a specific gene through spatial contacts; identifying the nuclear position of an exogenous nucleic acid in the nucleus and/or diagnosing a disease associated with a disturbed co-segregation of loci. 
IP Reference EP3031929 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2014
Licensed No
Impact Other patent applied for PCT/EP2015/079413 (WO/2016/092070)
 
Title Genome Architecture Mapping on Chromatin 
Description The present invention relates to the field of analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the genome, i.e., for genome architecture mapping on chromatin (GAM-ch). The invention provides a method of determining interaction of a plurality of nucleic acid loci in a compartment comprising nucleic acids, such as the cell nucleus, comprising separating nucleic acids from each other depending on their interaction in the compartment by crosslinking nucleic acids with each other directly or indirectly, fragmenting the nucleic acids of the compartment to obtain fragments and/or cross-linked complexes of fragments, and dividing the fragmented nucleic acids to obtain a collection of fractions such that every fraction contains, on average, less than one copy of every locus; determining the presence or absence of the plurality of loci in said fractions; and determining the co-segregation of said plurality of loci in the fractions. Co-segregation may then be analysed with statistical methods to determine interactions. The method can be used e.g., for identifying the frequency of interactions across a cell population between a plurality of loci; and mapping loci and/or genome architecture, e.g., in the nucleus, an organelle, a microorganism or a virus; identification of regulatory regions directing expression of a specific gene through spatial contacts; identifying the spatial contacts between loci that depend on their co-association with specific protein(s) or RNA and/or diagnosing a disease associated with a disturbed co- segregation of loci. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) can be combined with the method of the invention. 
IP Reference WO2016156469 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed No
Impact Not applicable.
 
Description Chromatin dynamics during neural differentiation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Internal seminar on 17 Feb 2012, at the Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology, Max Delbrueck Centre, Berlin, Germany.

No actual impacts realised to date.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL https://www.mdc-berlin.de/events/40551099/11254
 
Description Conference invited talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact conference presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Dynamic transitions in gene expression states during differentiation of ES cells to functional dopaminergic neurons. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We obtained feedback from our peers towards our research and its publication in scientific journals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.embl.de/training/events/2014/TRM14-01/
 
Description Fabrics of Life workshop, guest (AP) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Guest at a 'Fabrics of Life' workshop, which brings together art students and scientists. Ongoing activity.

N/Appl. Ongoing activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Interview for Television Program - Portuguese station RTP2 (AP) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview and filming with team leader. Interview focused on my research work, career, and challenges of combining work and family. Short interview with staff.

Possible impact on recruitment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006
 
Description MRC Volunteer at the Cheltenham Science Festival (KM) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact PhD student volunteered to help run hands-on activity

Increased awareness of MRC research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2011
 
Description MRC volunteer at the Cheltenham Science festival (MC) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Many people took literature on brain research, conducted at the MRC, away with them.

Increased public awareness of MRC research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Mechanisms of Polycomb repression are associated with poised RNAPII states during terminal neuronal differentiation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Carmelo Ferrai presented a poster that shared our work with colleagues at the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.cph-bioscience.com/conferences/stem-cell-niche-development-disease
 
Description Professional mentor, London (MC) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact E-mentoring an A-Level student - providing advice and guidance regarding science as a profession, higher education, study skills and work experience. Teaching the student to communicate in a professional manner.

The student was encouraged to apply to Oxford University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011
 
Description RS Pairing Scheme between scientist (MC) and MP 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The scheme involved a member of the group spending four days in Westminster and reciprocal visits with MP to the Clinical Sciences Centre.

Research staff member become interested in a career in science policy and the MP became aware of aspects of medical research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description School Visit - Abbotsfield Boys School, Hillingdon, Uxbridge (JS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact PhD student prepared and gave a 1 hour Masterclass entitled "Separating Proteins", including a short talk, a demonstration of SDS-PAGE and a question and answer session.

not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006
 
Description School visit, London (MC) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 2 classes of 30 students aged between 11-12 years old. The classes got the opportunity to meet a scientist, which sparked questions on career choices and university entry. This activity was also filmed for Teachers TV and I was interviewed. The interview focused on interactions between scientists and the public and my reasons for taking part in this kind of activity. This activity was also in collaboration with Professor Robert Winston and the students got a chance to meet and question a famous scientist.

The school have requested that I come back and help set up debates on more controversial areas of science such as animal testing and stem cell research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Scopic project (SX) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Provided scientific image for Scopic project: http://www.myscopic.co.uk

Raising the interest in scientific research in school children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Seminar to Students of the University of the Third Age (EB) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact PhD student delivered a 30 min seminar about stem cells and own research project to students from the University of the Third Age.

not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Steady, Ready, Go: mechanisms that prime RNA polymerase II for activation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We shared our work with our colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Biomedicine, at Muenster, Germany.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The differentiating landscapes of RNAPII 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We shared our work with our colleagues at the institute.

We received feedback from our colleagues and our presentation promoted a new collaboration that adds value to the BBSRC funded project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://www.mdc-berlin.de/41794582/en/bimsb/images_and_PDFs/BIMSB_retreat_2013_program.pdf
 
Description Transcriptional and Epigenetic Dynamics during ES cell differentiation in to dopaminergic neurons. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation sparked interest from our colleagues in the neurosciences field.

We received positive feedback about our work and strategy from our colleagues in the neurosciences field..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bnf-info.de/general_information
 
Description Virtual Lab. MRC Clinical Sciences Centre (KM, MC) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Training took place. Activity is ongoing.

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011