Maternal nutrition, fetal and childhood growth and programming of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes

Lead Research Organisation: MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit

Abstract

Developing countries have persisting problems with undernutrition in early life (undernourished mothers and low birthweight) alongside rising rates of overnutrition (obesity) in later life, due to economic growth, and epidemics of heart disease and type 2 diabetes. There is strong evidence from western populations that these disorders originate in early life; both are predicted by low birthweight and rapid childhood weight gain. This programme studies the relationship of maternal and childhood nutrition to risk of disease, and aims to develop preventive strategies through improvements in early nutrition. Working with teams in India and other developing countries, we i) are following up adults whose early growth was recorded, ii) have established new studies with detailed data on maternal diet and childhood growth, and iii) have initiated intervention studies to improve maternal nutrition and offspring health. We have confirmed that early-life undernutrition, when followed by rapid childhood weight gain, is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Maternal vitamin and mineral deficiency are common; and Vitamin B12 deficiency may be particularly important in India. In addition to increasing the risk of adult chronic disease, maternal undernutrition and low birthweight are associated with reduced muscle strength, bone quality and intelligence.

Technical Summary

Low-income countries in transition have high rates of undernutrition in early life (maternal undernutrition and intra-uterine growth restriction) alongside increasing overnutrition in later life (obesity) associated with economic growth and urbanisation, and growing epidemics of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The cluster of CVD risk factors known as the metabolic syndrome (central obesity, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and dyslipidaemia) is common in India, exacerbated by a South Asian body type characterised by a low lean body mass and BMI, and high percentage body fat (thin-fat phenotype). There is strong evidence from high income populations that these disorders originate in early life; all are predicted by small size at birth and accelerated weight gain in childhood. This research programme aims to identify environmental factors in low-income populations, acting in early life (maternal nutrition during pregnancy, and childhood nutrition and growth) and contributing to the aetiology of these disorders, and to develop strategies to improve the early environment and thus prevent disease. In collaboration with research groups in India and other developing countries, we i) are following up existing birth cohorts, ii) have established new prospective cohort studies in rural and urban settings to collect detailed exposure data in pregnancy and childhood, and iii) have initiated interventions aimed at improving maternal nutrition and long-term health in the offspring. Our studies have confirmed that early life undernutrition, when followed by rapid childhood and adolescent weight gain, are associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In women, this transition increases the risk of gestational diabetes, which also causes obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes in the next generation. Poor diet quality, leading to micronutrient deficiency, is common among poor rural and urban women, and is associated with lower birthweight. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in India for cultural reasons, and may be a particularly important nutritional deficit in this population: maternal vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with low birthweight, insulin resistance in the children, and increased maternal adiposity and gestational diabetes. In addition to increasing the risk of adult chronic disease, maternal undernutrition and low birthweight are also associated with reduced human capital including lower muscle mass and strength, bone mass and cognitive function in childhood and/or adult life, and an increased risk of low birthweight and stunting in the next generation.

Organisations

Publications

10 25 50

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Agnihotri B (2008) Trends in human birth weight across two successive generations. in Indian journal of pediatrics

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Antonisamy B (2009) Cohort Profile: the 1969-73 Vellore birth cohort study in South India. in International journal of epidemiology

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Bhawra J (2018) Results from India's 2018 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. in Journal of physical activity & health

 
Description Findings that have supported interventions in the first 1000 days
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Caroline Fall and Clive Osmond are members of the COHORTS collaboration, which has carried out research that supports the targeting of nutritional interventions for the prevention of undernutrition in pregnancy and infancy.
 
Description Genomic and lifestyle predictors of foetal outcome relevant to diabetes and obesity and their relevance to prevention strategies in South Asian peoples (GIFTS).
Amount £98,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 278917 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 12/2011 
End 11/2014
 
Description Mumbai Maternal Nutrition Study
Amount £551,753 (GBP)
Organisation Parthenon Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Guernsey
Start 03/2005 
 
Description Programme Grant: Randomised controlled trial of of micronutrient-dense food before and during pregnancy to prevent low birthweight; the Mumbai Maternal Nutrition Study
Amount £785,523 (GBP)
Funding ID 074048/Z/05/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Programme Grant: Relationship of growth in infancy and childhood to adult endothelial function and body composition: the New Delhi birth cohort
Amount £184,000 (GBP)
Funding ID PG/05/046/18730 
Organisation British Heart Foundation (BHF) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Wellcome Trust Project Grant (Early-life antecedents of type 2 diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome in young Indian adults)
Amount £472,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 083460/Z/07/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2008 
End 06/2011
 
Description Wellcome Trust Project Grant COHORTS 2
Amount £177,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 082554/Z/07/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2007 
End 06/2009
 
Description Wellcome Trust Project Grant Pune Mysore
Amount £391,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 079877/Z/06/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2006 
End 06/2008
 
Title Multiple cohort studies 
Description Data (including birth data, longitudinal growth data, and outcomes data including cardiovascular and metabolic health, bone health, cognitive function) from a number of birth cohorts in the UK and India 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2006 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Strong evidence of the importance of early life nutrition and growth on a wide variety of adult health outcomes. 
 
Title Use of stress response measurements in children 
Description Use of the Trier Social Stress Test in Indian children to measure cortisol and autonomic responses to streeful situations 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Too early 
 
Title Databases from 8 Indian birth cohorts 
Description Lifecourse data from 8 Indian birth cohorts. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Widening of research usage 
 
Description COHORTS collaboration 
Organisation Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel)
Department 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort
Country Brazil 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributions to study design, fieldwork training and quality control, data management, analysis and interpretation. Epidemiological and statistical expertise; Cohort-specific knowledge.
Collaborator Contribution Contribution to study design, data management, analysis and interpretation. Cohort data. Epidemiological, statistical, social science, economic expertise.
Impact 19297457, 19856426, 20007336, 21224276, 21325148, 22100968, 22121058, 23477997, 23541370, 23977075, 24064150, 21511113, 22100968, 25008854, 25186666, 25999096, 27765286. Abstracts presented at a major international meetings and published in peer-reviewed international journals. Multi-disciplinary partnership (epidemiology, paediatrics, statistics, social science, nutrition).
Start Year 2007
 
Description COHORTS collaboration 
Organisation Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP)
Country Guatemala 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Contributions to study design, fieldwork training and quality control, data management, analysis and interpretation. Epidemiological and statistical expertise; Cohort-specific knowledge.
Collaborator Contribution Contribution to study design, data management, analysis and interpretation. Cohort data. Epidemiological, statistical, social science, economic expertise.
Impact 19297457, 19856426, 20007336, 21224276, 21325148, 22100968, 22121058, 23477997, 23541370, 23977075, 24064150, 21511113, 22100968, 25008854, 25186666, 25999096, 27765286. Abstracts presented at a major international meetings and published in peer-reviewed international journals. Multi-disciplinary partnership (epidemiology, paediatrics, statistics, social science, nutrition).
Start Year 2007
 
Description COHORTS collaboration 
Organisation The New Delhi Birth Cohort Study
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributions to study design, fieldwork training and quality control, data management, analysis and interpretation. Epidemiological and statistical expertise; Cohort-specific knowledge.
Collaborator Contribution Contribution to study design, data management, analysis and interpretation. Cohort data. Epidemiological, statistical, social science, economic expertise.
Impact 19297457, 19856426, 20007336, 21224276, 21325148, 22100968, 22121058, 23477997, 23541370, 23977075, 24064150, 21511113, 22100968, 25008854, 25186666, 25999096, 27765286. Abstracts presented at a major international meetings and published in peer-reviewed international journals. Multi-disciplinary partnership (epidemiology, paediatrics, statistics, social science, nutrition).
Start Year 2007
 
Description COHORTS collaboration 
Organisation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Department Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributions to study design, fieldwork training and quality control, data management, analysis and interpretation. Epidemiological and statistical expertise; Cohort-specific knowledge.
Collaborator Contribution Contribution to study design, data management, analysis and interpretation. Cohort data. Epidemiological, statistical, social science, economic expertise.
Impact 19297457, 19856426, 20007336, 21224276, 21325148, 22100968, 22121058, 23477997, 23541370, 23977075, 24064150, 21511113, 22100968, 25008854, 25186666, 25999096, 27765286. Abstracts presented at a major international meetings and published in peer-reviewed international journals. Multi-disciplinary partnership (epidemiology, paediatrics, statistics, social science, nutrition).
Start Year 2007
 
Description COHORTS collaboration 
Organisation University of the Witwatersrand
Department Birth to Twenty
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributions to study design, fieldwork training and quality control, data management, analysis and interpretation. Epidemiological and statistical expertise; Cohort-specific knowledge.
Collaborator Contribution Contribution to study design, data management, analysis and interpretation. Cohort data. Epidemiological, statistical, social science, economic expertise.
Impact 19297457, 19856426, 20007336, 21224276, 21325148, 22100968, 22121058, 23477997, 23541370, 23977075, 24064150, 21511113, 22100968, 25008854, 25186666, 25999096, 27765286. Abstracts presented at a major international meetings and published in peer-reviewed international journals. Multi-disciplinary partnership (epidemiology, paediatrics, statistics, social science, nutrition).
Start Year 2007
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation Academic Medical Center
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation George Institute for Global Health
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation Harvard University
Department Harvard Medical School
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation Karolinska Institute
Department Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation Kuopio University Hospital
Country Finland 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo
Department Department of Internal Medicine
Country Japan 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation St George's University of London
Department Community Health Sciences Division
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation Sunder Lal Jain Hospital
Department Department of Paediatrics
Country India 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation Thomas Jefferson University
Department School of Medicine Thomas Jefferson
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation Trondheim University Hospital
Department Department of Internal Medicine
Country Norway 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation University College London
Department MRC Centre for Epidemiology for Child Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation University of Bristol
Department MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation University of California, San Diego (UCSD)
Department Department of Family and Preventive Medicine
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation University of Helsinki
Department Diabetes and Obesity Research Program
Country Finland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation University of Iceland
Department Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition
Country Iceland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description Earlyread Collaboration 
Organisation University of Saskatchewan
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed data, participated in interpretation of results
Collaborator Contribution Shared data for meta-analyses
Impact Publications: 19109117, 18689365, 22558399
 
Description INDECHO collaboration 
Organisation All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Epidemiological expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Data collection. Cardiology expertise.
Impact Multi-disciplinary collaboration (epidemiology, biostatistics, cardiology)
Start Year 2016
 
Description INDECHO collaboration 
Organisation Centre for Chronic Disease Control (CCDC)
Country India 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Epidemiological expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Data collection. Cardiology expertise.
Impact Multi-disciplinary collaboration (epidemiology, biostatistics, cardiology)
Start Year 2016
 
Description INDECHO collaboration 
Organisation Christian Medical College, Vellore
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Epidemiological expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Data collection. Cardiology expertise.
Impact Multi-disciplinary collaboration (epidemiology, biostatistics, cardiology)
Start Year 2016
 
Description INDECHO collaboration 
Organisation Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Science and Research
Country India 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Epidemiological expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Data collection. Cardiology expertise.
Impact Multi-disciplinary collaboration (epidemiology, biostatistics, cardiology)
Start Year 2016
 
Description INDECHO collaboration 
Organisation Sunder Lal Jain Hospital
Country India 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Epidemiological expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Data collection. Cardiology expertise.
Impact Multi-disciplinary collaboration (epidemiology, biostatistics, cardiology)
Start Year 2016
 
Description INDECHO collaboration 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism (OCDEM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Epidemiological expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Data collection. Cardiology expertise.
Impact Multi-disciplinary collaboration (epidemiology, biostatistics, cardiology)
Start Year 2016
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation Aga Khan University
Department Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation Emory University
Department Nutrition and Health Sciences
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b)
Country Bangladesh 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation Johns Hopkins University
Department Department of International Health
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation MURAZ Center
Country Burkina Faso 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation Mother and Infant Research Activities (MIRA)
Country Nepal 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation UNICEF
Department Nutrition Section UNICEF
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation University College London
Department Institute of Child Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation University of Copenhagen
Department Centre for Epidemiology and Screening
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation University of Copenhagen
Department Department of Human Nutrition, Exercise and Sports
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation University of Indonesia
Department Center for Health Research
Country Indonesia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation University of Southampton
Department Institute of Human Nutrition
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation World Health Organization (WHO)
Country Global 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group 
Organisation Xi'an Jiaotong University
Department Department of Public Health
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Data management, analysis and interpretation, report writing.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of data, contribution to data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 20120796, 20120794, 20120793, 20120795 Multidosciplinary collaboration: epidemiology, statistics, nutrition, public health, policy
Start Year 2006
 
Description Mumbai Maternal Nutrition Project 
Organisation Centre for the Study of Social Change
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Study design, research governance, epidemiological and statistical expertise. Epidemiological, statistical and nutritional expertise. Research governance.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in community-based research, including interventions, in low income settings in a developing country. Fieldwork and data management.
Impact Publications 19292744, and Chopra H et al 2012. 25332324, 25677713, 27281802, 28251804 PhD studentships. Medical student and Masters research projects. Presentations at national and international conferences.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Mysore Parthenon Cohort Study 
Organisation Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore
Department Epidemiology Research Centre
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Epidemiological and statistical expertise, study design, training of field team, mentorship, interpretation of data.
Collaborator Contribution Day-to-day liaison with cohort, fieldwork, data management, and analysis and interpretation. Publications. Fellowship for Dr GV Krishnaveni
Impact Publications and conference presentations 16929411, 16929412, 17143606, 17640759, 1773682, 18285809, 19236724, 19430084, 19690580, 19707742, 19918007, 19946010, 20032815, 20090113, 20335637, 20614102, 20852257, 21166711, 21228264, 21682572, 21731039, 21924491, 21978208, 22318657, 22558399, 22751963, 22829248, 22895107, 23297873, 23819872, 23920141, 24098836, 24146284, 24162586, 24609067, 24866058, 24986282, 25052622, 25478935, 26575994, 27520466. Multi-disciplinary (Epidemiology, Nutrition, Psychiatry, Endocrinology, Paediatrics). PhD Dr GV Krishnaveni 2005; Wellcome Trust Intermediate fellowship Dr GV Krishnaveni 2011; PhD studentship Dr SR Veena 2011.
Start Year 2006
 
Description New Delhi Birth Cohort Study 
Organisation All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributions to study design,fieldwork training and quality control, data management, analysis and interpretation. Epidemiological and statistical expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Day-to-day liaison with cohort subjects, fieldwork management, data management, analysis and interpretation. Publications. Membership of COHORTS collaboration. Membership of Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group,
Impact 18835958, 19015213, 20090113, 20660641, 21511113, 21682572, 22237812, 22537976, 23798637, 25008854, 25186666, 25999096, 26109024, 26831418, 27061677, 27115820, 27458798, 27484448, 27765286, 27863813. Abstracts presented at a major international meetings and published in peer-reviewed international journals. Multi-disciplinary study: epidemiology, statistics, diabetes, cardiology, paediatrics, genetics
Start Year 2006
 
Description New Delhi Birth Cohort Study 
Organisation Centre for Chronic Disease Control (CCDC)
Country India 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Contributions to study design,fieldwork training and quality control, data management, analysis and interpretation. Epidemiological and statistical expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Day-to-day liaison with cohort subjects, fieldwork management, data management, analysis and interpretation. Publications. Membership of COHORTS collaboration. Membership of Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group,
Impact 18835958, 19015213, 20090113, 20660641, 21511113, 21682572, 22237812, 22537976, 23798637, 25008854, 25186666, 25999096, 26109024, 26831418, 27061677, 27115820, 27458798, 27484448, 27765286, 27863813. Abstracts presented at a major international meetings and published in peer-reviewed international journals. Multi-disciplinary study: epidemiology, statistics, diabetes, cardiology, paediatrics, genetics
Start Year 2006
 
Description New Delhi Birth Cohort Study 
Organisation Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Science and Research
Country India 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Contributions to study design,fieldwork training and quality control, data management, analysis and interpretation. Epidemiological and statistical expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Day-to-day liaison with cohort subjects, fieldwork management, data management, analysis and interpretation. Publications. Membership of COHORTS collaboration. Membership of Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group,
Impact 18835958, 19015213, 20090113, 20660641, 21511113, 21682572, 22237812, 22537976, 23798637, 25008854, 25186666, 25999096, 26109024, 26831418, 27061677, 27115820, 27458798, 27484448, 27765286, 27863813. Abstracts presented at a major international meetings and published in peer-reviewed international journals. Multi-disciplinary study: epidemiology, statistics, diabetes, cardiology, paediatrics, genetics
Start Year 2006
 
Description New Delhi Birth Cohort Study 
Organisation Sunder Lal Jain Hospital
Country India 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Contributions to study design,fieldwork training and quality control, data management, analysis and interpretation. Epidemiological and statistical expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Day-to-day liaison with cohort subjects, fieldwork management, data management, analysis and interpretation. Publications. Membership of COHORTS collaboration. Membership of Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group,
Impact 18835958, 19015213, 20090113, 20660641, 21511113, 21682572, 22237812, 22537976, 23798637, 25008854, 25186666, 25999096, 26109024, 26831418, 27061677, 27115820, 27458798, 27484448, 27765286, 27863813. Abstracts presented at a major international meetings and published in peer-reviewed international journals. Multi-disciplinary study: epidemiology, statistics, diabetes, cardiology, paediatrics, genetics
Start Year 2006
 
Description Pune Children's Study 
Organisation KEM Hospital, Pune
Department Department of Paediatrics
Country India 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Contributions to study design, fieldwork training and quality control, data management, analysis and interpretation. Epidemiological, statistical and nutritional expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in long-term follow-up of birth cohorts, clinical and laboratory expertise. Day-to-day liaison with cohort members, fieldwork/data collection, data management, analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications: 24874906, 25940643 and several abstracts presented at a major international meetings and published in peer-reviewed international journals.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Pune Maternal Nutrition Study 
Organisation KEM Hospital Research Centre
Department Department of Diabetes
Country India 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Contributions to study design, fieldwork training and quality control, data management, analysis and interpretation.Epidemiological, statistical and nutritional expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in community-based research, including interventions, in rural and urban settings in a developing country. Day-to-day liaison with cohort subjects, fieldwork management, data management, analysis and interpretation.
Impact 16480528, 16735496, 17032446, 17116720, 17620450, 17653070, 17851649, 19005641, 19498084, 19636321, 19776185, 20090113, 20103791, 20216560, 20675085, 21682572, 21731039, 22109280, 22323413, 22829248, 22941936, 22941936, 22941936, 22323413, 23349157, 23757425, 23920141, 24162586, 24459167, 25052622, 26902699 Abstracts presented at major international meetings and published in peer-reviewed international journals. Multi-disciplinary study: diabetes, paediatrics, obstetrics, radiology, nutrition, epidemiology, statistics
Start Year 2006
 
Description Vellore Birth Cohort Study 
Organisation Christian Medical College, Vellore
Department Department of Biostatistics
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Epidemiological and statistical expertise
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in community-based follow-up of birth cohorts, laboratory expertise, statistical expertise. Study design, fieldwork, data analysis and interpretation.
Impact Publications (17229484, 18334789, 18684785, 20115937, 21712988, 22366083, 22421923, 23963770, 27823768) and presentations at national and international conferences.
 
Title Food based micronutrient supplements 
Description Development of a micronutrient-rich food supplement for poorly nourished pre-pregnant and pregnant women living in urban slums in India. Made from vegetables, fruit and milk. 
Type Preventative Intervention - Nutrition and Chemoprevention
Current Stage Of Development Early clinical assessment
Year Development Stage Completed 2006
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Clinical Trial? Yes
UKCRN/ISCTN Identifier ISRCTN62811278
Impact Intervention associated with increased birth weight and reduction in gestational diabetes. 25332324. 
URL http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN62811278
 
Title Vitamin B12 
Description Physiological doses of vitamin B12 for women and men before conception and (women) during pregnancy, to prevent adverse fetal programming 
Type Preventative Intervention - Nutrition and Chemoprevention
Current Stage Of Development Early clinical assessment
Year Development Stage Completed 2010
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Clinical Trial? Yes
Impact Trial ongoing. 
URL http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32921044
 
Description Caroline Fall: "The 'thin-fat' Indian and developmental origins of health and disease". Invited Keynote speaker, Wessex Paediatric Winter Meeting (organised by the Paediatric Innovation, Education and Research Network), Southampton General Hospital, 11th December 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "The 'thin-fat' Indian and developmental origins of health and disease". Invited Keynote speaker, Wessex Paediatric Winter Meeting (organised by the Paediatric Innovation, Education and Research Network), Southampton General Hospital, 11th December 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Caroline Fall: "The environmental and developmental origins of health and disease (WHO CEH module)" and "Birth cohorts in India: An overview". Invited plenary speaker, PHFI-CHEP Workshop on Children's Environmental Health, Gurgaon, India, 23rd November 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "The environmental and developmental origins of health and disease (WHO CEH module)" and "Birth cohorts in India: An overview". Invited plenary speaker, PHFI-CHEP Workshop on Children's Environmental Health, Gurgaon, India, 23rd November 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Caroline Fall: Body mass index from birth to adulthood and metabolic risk markers for cardiovascular disease. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Body mass index from birth to adulthood and metabolic risk markers for cardiovascular disease. The New Delhi Cohort Study. 14th Annual Sneha-India Conference, Lonavla, India, 4th

Greater awareness among clinicians, economists and policy makers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006
 
Description Caroline Fall: Cardiovascular disease - the role of development in early life 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Cardiovascular disease - the role of development in early life. Invited speaker. Symposium on Cardiovascular risk markers Royal Society of Medicine, London, May 19th 2006.

Greater awareness of the field among general scientific audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006
 
Description Caroline Fall: Changing dietary behaviour in disadvantaged women. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Symposium organised by the International Society for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease on Changing dietary behaviour in disadvantaged women.

Greater awareness among clinicians and other health professionals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Caroline Fall: Developmental origins of type 2 diabetes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Developmental origins of type 2 diabetes. 16th Annual meeting of the RSSDI (Research Society for the Study of Diabetes in India), Symbiosis College, Pune, India, March 2006.

Awareness of the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006
 
Description Caroline Fall: Early life origins of diabetes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at a Cafe Scientifique evening, Portsmouth

Greater public awareness.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Caroline Fall: Film on the Mumbai Maternal Nutrition Project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Used as a teaching aid for research workers, nutrition and epidemiology students, and for presentation to grant donors.

Too early.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012
 
Description Caroline Fall: Growth in utero and in childhood and type 2 diabetes. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Growth in utero and in childhood and type 2 diabetes. Meeting entitled: Diabetes and the South Asian diaspora. Organised by the South Asian Health Foundation. Royal College of Physicians, London, February 21st 2007.

Greater awareness among clinicians. Contact with this group led to a collaborative network for funding applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Caroline Fall: Interviews with journalists at FIGO conference, Rome 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wide public dissemination. The presentation reaced a large number of international obstetricians at their major annual conference. Presentation has been posted on the website of C3 for Health, for longer term dissemination to everyone interested in global health issues.

Requests to give further talks!
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Caroline Fall: Invited presentation at NERC workshop on 'Early life developmental effects: unifying evolutionary and biomedical perspectives', Falmouth, 9th to 12th September 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation at NERC workshop on 'Early life developmental effects: unifying evolutionary and biomedical perspectives', Falmouth, 9th to 12th September 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Caroline Fall: MRC Life Magazine article (Jun 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact An article advertising the David Barker Commemorative meeting, "The Future of the Science David Barker Inspired", organised by MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit and University of Southampton

Highlighting the commemorative event and work of the unit
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity
 
Description Caroline Fall: Maternal nutrition - getting the balance right. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Maternal nutrition - getting the balance right. Invited speaker, opening plenary session. 5th International Congress on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, Perth, Australia, November

Press conference. Greater awareness among clinicians, other health professionals and lay public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Caroline Fall: Press launch for Lancet series on maternal and child undernutrition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press conference.

Major impact on the policy of international health agencies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Caroline Fall: Television documentary BBC Horizon Aug 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Multiple e-mails from lay public and scientists around the world; requests for copies for teaching purposes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012
 
Description Clive Osmond: Inaugural lecture (May 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Clive Osmond gate his inaugural lecture on 29 May 2014. It was entitled "Painting with numbers: exploring life's wonders"

Increased awareness of the work of the MRC LEU
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity
 
Description Early life programming: a driver of the global diabetes burden? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Overview of DHaD research and diabetes. Invited speaker STENO conference, Copenhagen, 25th-27th May 2016 .
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Inter-generational influences on linear growth 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact "Inter-generational influences on linear growth". Invited speaker at meeting on Research interventions to improve linear growth in infants and children. World Health Organization, Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, Geneva, 21st March 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited presentation at the 2nd annual PRIDE meeting, University of Warwick. Prof Caroline Fall "The Mumbai Maternal Nutrition Project" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation at the 2nd annual PRIDE meeting, University of Warwick. November 2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited presentation at the annual review meeting of the GIFTS consortium. Prof Caroline Fall "The Mumbai Maternal Nutrition Project" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation at the annual review meeting of the GIFTS consortium, London, April 2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Launch of Southampton India Centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A day of presentations of research in Southampton related to India; presentations from all departments of the university. Attended by Indian High Commissioner and his team, major grant donors, media, staff and students from all faculties, general public. Official launch of University of Southampton India Centre for Sustainable Growth and Innovation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Press interviews with local and national radio, and major newspapers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact More than 20 interviews.

Greater public awareness.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010
 
Description Prof Caroline Fall: Disentangling the effects of weight and height gain in early life on chronic disease risk and human capital; data from 5 cohorts in low- and middle-income countries; the COHORTS collaboration 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of the work of the COHORTS collaboration at the 17th Annual meeting of Sneha-India, Mysore, India, 2013
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Pune Public Health Conference 2014, School of Health Sciences, University of Pune and Joint State Conference of IPHA-IAPSM (K Kumaran) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to public health conference and IPHA-IAPSM on maternal health and pre-conceptional health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The catch-up dilemma in low and middle-income countries; data from the COHORTS collaboration, MRC Unit seminar with Prof Clive Osmond 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar to colleagues in MRC Unit 11th December 2012 with Prof Clive Osmond
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The role of food-based approaches to improve pre-conceptional nutrition and birth outcomes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact "The role of food-based approaches to improve pre-conceptional nutrition and birth outcomes". Invited presentation in Symposium on 'Do we need preconception nutrition interventions to improve birth outcomes beyond the prevention of neural tube defects? Current knowledge'. EB2015 Annual meeting of the American Nutrition Society, Boston, March 29th 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015