Cellular rhythms, signalling and metabolic regulation

Lead Research Organisation: MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology

Abstract

Our internal circadian rhythm, or body clock, allows humans to anticipate the daily cycle of day and night, and controls many aspects of biology such as when we feel sleepy or when our digestive system is most active. Most people have experienced Jet Lag, when our internal clockwork gets out-of-sync with the day/night cycle in a different time zone, but far more serious conditions such as cancer, heart disease and neurological disorders are linked with shift work, when the clock is chronically disrupted. Because more than 10% of the adult population works on night shifts, understanding the clock mechanism is an important objective for preventing and treating disease.
At present, most scientific descriptions of this biological clock revolve around inter-linked genes (in the cell's nucleus) being turned on and off throughout the day, but this doesn’t properly explain why out internal clock runs at the speed it does. Indeed, we have even found that red blood cells (which contain no nucleus or DNA) have circadian rhythms in protein activity. This suggests that the real picture is more complex than is currently thought, and therefore needs more study so that we can better understand the links between our biological clock and human health.

Technical Summary

Circadian (about daily) rhythms are cell-intrinsic phenomena that permeate every level of biology, affecting many aspects of health and disease. In humans the sleep/wake cycle is overtly circadian-regulated, as are numerous aspects of physiology and metabolism. Circadian disruption, as occurs in shift work, increases the risk of chronic illnesses such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The mechanism and significance of cellular clocks is therefore an important biological question.

In previous work we have shown that, whilst cycles of nascent ‘clock gene’ expression are required for rhythmic behaviour and physiology, they are insufficient to account for circadian rhythms at the cellular level. To better understand the underlying clock machinery therefore, we break the problem down into three complementary questions:

Cause – What is the cellular clock mechanism? Using pharmacological, metabolic and genetic manipulations, with real-time reporters and mass spectrometry, we perturb the cellular clock in order to identify the minimal set of components they require.

Consequence – How do cellular clocks interact with other biological systems? Many biological processes are circadian-regulated but in few cases have the causal relationships, from cellular rhythm to phenotype, been clearly delineated. We investigate how internal timekeeping influences processes such as wound healing and neuronal function from a bottom-up perspective.

Comparative Chronobiology – How did biological clocks evolve? By comparing the daily rhythms in mammalian cells with circadian or ultradian rhythms in evolutionary distant eukaryotes, we can distinguish fundamental timekeeping components from species-specific adaptations and so gain insight from highly conserved molecular mechanisms.
 
Description Dutch Cancer Society (KWF)
Amount € 500,000 (EUR)
Funding ID BUIT 2014-6637 
Organisation Dutch Cancer Society (KWF) 
Sector Learned Society
Country Netherlands
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2016
 
Description EMBO Long-Term Fellowship (Marrit Putker)
Amount € 7,252 (EUR)
Funding ID ALTF-564-2014 
Organisation European Molecular Biology Organisation 
Sector Learned Society
Country European Union (EU)
Start 10/2014 
End 12/2014
 
Description EMBO Small Grant
Amount € 10,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Molecular Biology Organisation 
Sector Learned Society
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2018 
 
Description EMBO YIP Award
Amount € 15,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Molecular Biology Organisation 
Sector Learned Society
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2018 
 
Description LMB/AZ Blue Sky Fund
Amount £300,000 (GBP)
Organisation AstraZeneca 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2016 
End 07/2019
 
Description Physiological and molecular characterisation of circadian rhythms in red blood cells
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M021556/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Research Career Development Fellowship
Amount £364,842 (GBP)
Funding ID 093734/B/10/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2013 
End 01/2016
 
Title ALLIGATOR 
Description Summary: Genetically encoded luciferase is a popular non-invasive reporter of gene expression. Use of an automated longitudinal luciferase imaging gas- and temperature-optimized recorder (ALLIGATOR) enables longitudinal recording from bioluminescent cells under a wide range of conditions. Here we show how ALLIGATOR may be used in the context of circadian rhythms research. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Many other circadian research labs are in the process of adopting the assay methods we have developed. 
URL https://www.jove.com/video/56623/flexible-measurement-bioluminescent-reporters-using-an-automated
 
Title FLYGLOW 
Description In collaboration with Damian Crowther's group (University of Cambridge) we have developed a bioluminescence-based assay for simultaneous monitoring of sleep, cellular and rest/activity rhythms in freely-behaving individual fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). This novel method recapitulates the ageing and neurodegeneration-related deterioration in circadian timing and sleep consolidation observed in humans and will be useful for unpicking the causal relationships between aging, sleep, neuronal function and the molecular clockwork, in individual animals - which until now has not been technically feasible. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This method has been deposited on bioRxiv and will soon be published. 
URL http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2015/01/31/013730
 
Description Christian Frezza - Circadian metabolic analysis 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC Cancer Unit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have tested circadian and other phenotypes of cells with altered metabolism
Collaborator Contribution The Frezza lab contributed mass spec metabolomics analysis as part of this collaboration.
Impact Several papers now published
Start Year 2014
 
Description Fatima Labeed 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Discussion, experiments.
Collaborator Contribution Discussion, experiments.
Impact BBSRC grant, paper published in Nature Communications with another manuscript now in preparation.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Gerben van Ooijen 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department School of Biological Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Discussion, experiments in mammalian cells.
Collaborator Contribution Discussion, experiments in algal cells.
Impact Publications, speaker invitations, review invitations, press interest.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Helen Causton, New York 
Organisation Columbia University
Department Department of Pathology and Cell Biology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Discussion, experiments in mammalian cells.
Collaborator Contribution Discussion, experiments in yeast cells.
Impact Publication, press coverage, speaker invitations, review invitations.
Start Year 2013
 
Description John Blaikley & Ken Dunn - wound healing 
Organisation NHS Manchester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We lead the research project into circadian regulation of wound healing
Collaborator Contribution John Blaikley and Ken Dunn (Manchester) contributed clinical data from an anonymised NHS database.
Impact Paper published in Science Translational Medicine
Start Year 2015
 
Description John Blaikley & Ken Dunn - wound healing 
Organisation University of Manchester
Department Division of Infection, Immunity & Respiratory Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead the research project into circadian regulation of wound healing
Collaborator Contribution John Blaikley and Ken Dunn (Manchester) contributed clinical data from an anonymised NHS database.
Impact Paper published in Science Translational Medicine
Start Year 2015
 
Description Ken Wright, Boulder 
Organisation University of Colorado Boulder
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Biochemical circadian assays in human cells (in vitro)
Collaborator Contribution Physiological circadian assays in whole humans (in vivo)
Impact We have a paper under review at Science Translational Medicine and another in preparation.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Mark Kotter 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Cambridge Neuroscience
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Discussion, circadian and electrophysiological experiments with iNeurons
Collaborator Contribution Discussion, iNeurons and expertise
Impact None yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Patrick Chinnery 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We are working together to understand the interaction between mitochondrial dysfunction and circadian rhythms, we provide circadian expertise.
Collaborator Contribution We are working together to understand the interaction between mitochondrial dysfunction and circadian rhythms, Prof. Chinnery's group brings expertise on mitochondrial biology.
Impact A publication is in the early stages of preparation
Start Year 2017
 
Description BBC Cambridgeshire radio interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I did a 15 minute interview and call-in session on the BBC Cambridgeshire breakfast show. We had a number of callers who seemed very interested with body clocks and sleep research, and there were further comments online.

We reached a broad audience locally, sparked interest in the research, and I have been asked to appear on BBC radio Cambridgeshire several time subsequently.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description BBC world television interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was invited to do a 3 minute interview on BBC World, commenting on the BBC's Day of the Body Clock. This was broadcast worldwide and added to the array of information and health advice that was provided to the public concerning our internal body clocks.

I received a number of emails from members of the public asking for more information. I was not personally involved in planning this event, but I understand that it was very well received (e.g. large number of hits to the BBC's body clock webpage) and I am happy to have contributed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-27161671
 
Description Circadian rhythms exhibit at the Science Museum (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited by Connie Orbach at the Science Museum to contribute towards, and advise them upon, an exhibit about circadian rhythms (in their "who am I" series. We provided several graphics and time lapse videos, as well as contributing towards the text accompanying the exhibit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL https://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/see-and-do/who-am-i
 
Description Darwin Society Talk at Christ's College Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact I was invited by the Darwin Society to give a popular science talk about circadian rhythms.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://darwinsociety.soc.srcf.net/news/welcome/
 
Description Discussion with artists in residence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Members of my lab and I had several discussions with the LMB artists in residence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www2.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/homeinsci/2016/05/meet-the-artists/
 
Description Education in Chemistry (RSC) article on Circadian rhythms 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I worked with a Freelance science writer (Dr Emma Davies) to write an article on circadian rhythms and my lab's research, for publication in a magazine aimed at school children studying chemistry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://eic.rsc.org/feature/the-rhythm-of-life/3008281.article
 
Description Fresh Brew: Exploring Science, Social Impact, and the Third Wave of Coffee 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I took part in an expert panel discussion titled "Fresh Brew: Exploring Science, Social Impact, and the Third Wave of Coffee".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for The Conversation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I provided my thoughts on a recent publication in Current Biology to Josephine Lethbridge, a journalist at The Conversation: a news and analysis site sourced by academics for the public.

The published article online features a number of my quotes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.theconversation.com
 
Description LMB Open Day 2013 and 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Poster Presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact With Mick Hastings' group we presented a body clock exhibit. I also presented a short introduction to the cell biology division every hour during the day.

We saw several hundred people over the course of the day. Feedback from the public was very positive.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2017
 
Description LifeLab School Roadshow 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Estere Seinkmane, PhD student, visited Neale-Wade Academy in March on 25/09/18 and gave a 1h talk with interactive activities for ~30 Year 12 students on circadian rhythms and our group's research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Media engagement to accompany publication of Burke et al (2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The press release which accompanied Burke et al (Sci Trans Med, 2015) generated an enormous amount of media interest and was reported in most major news outlets e.g. national newspapers, BBC television and website, NPR news etc. I did several dozen interviews for various local, national and international radio stations and our work featured prominently in a number of print and online magazines.

It has an altimetric score of 665 which I understand is quite high.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://sciencetm.altmetric.com/details/4520000
 
Description Naked Scientists Interview (BBC radio and podcast) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I did an interview for Hannah Critchlow of the popular Naked Scientists podcast, also broadcast on BBC radio. The interview was in response to the "question of the week", from a member of the public, about sleep and biological rhythms.

The interview was well-received and I received a number of follow-up emails from members of the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/podcasts/qotw/show/20131001/
 
Description Naked scientists live interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was interviewed live on the naked scientists radio show & podcast. This was broadcast nationally and is syndicated internationally I am told.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/interviews/interview/1001670/
 
Description National media interviews during October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In October 2017, the Nobel Prize for Physiology was awarded for circadian rhythms, and then an paper was published in the Lancet about time-of-day effects on the outcome of open heart surgery. These both generated enormous media interest, to which end I did contributed to press releases from the Science Media Centre as well as undertaking a large number of live and recorded interviews (for radio, TV, newspapers, magazines and online). Outlets included BBC Radio 4 (Today programme), BBC Radio 2 (Jeremy Vine), talkRADIO, BBC one o'clock news, BBC World Service Radio (newshour), The Guardian, The Telegraph, BBC news website and Yahoo News.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Participated in Codemasters GameJam 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was invited by the Wellcome Trust to provide expert knowledge and ideas on sleep and circadian rhythms during a Codemasters GameJam:
"The Wellcome Trust works with people from across the games industry to inspire compelling games that engage players with bioscience and medical humanities. We are currently collaborating with a computer games studio called Codemasters. They are running an event, a GameJam, where new games are developed in a very short period of time. This year the Wellcome Trust has set the theme that the developers will use for inspiration, 'Body Clocks and the Experience of Time'. We are looking for researchers who would be interested in working with the games developers as they plan and create these new games, talking to them about the science they can draw inspiration from and answering questions about how they might use it."

This was a very productive day, and the programmers I talked with seemed very interested in incorparating some of what is known about sleep/circadian cycles into their games.

Several of the resultant games incorporated ideas that arose during our discussion. It may be anticipated that the participating game developers' increased interest and understanding of circadian/sleep research will spill over into subsequent games and thereby influence/educate the wider public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://blog.codemasters.com/gamejam/12/
 
Description Pecha Kucha Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was invited to speak at Pecha Kulcha 2 in Cambridge. Around 120 people were in attendance and gave me very positive feedback.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.pechakucha.org/cities/cambridge/presentations/circadian-rhythms
 
Description Presentations to undergraduate/postgraduate scientific societies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact In the last year I have given "pop science" talks at Newnham and Magdalen Colleges, as well as at Cafe Synthetique - which is open to the general public. I also spoke to visiting students from London International Youth Science Forum
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Presented Body Clock exhibit at UTC Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact My team presented a body clock exhibit at the opening day for the nearby University Technical College. The exhibit was attended by several hundred schoolchildren (ages 11-16) and their teachers/parents, and was very well received. We informed people about the specific nature of our research and the consequences for their health, as well as about careers in science more generally.

A number of attendees asked for more information and took home suitable reading (flyers/posters that were prepared previously). I imagine that we contributed directly to the number of students applying to UTC to study STEM subjects this year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://utccambridge.co.uk/utc_news/first-open-days-for-utc-cambridge/#
 
Description Press release and interviews for publication of Hoyle et al. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The publication of our paper on circadian rhythms and wound healing, and accompanying press release, generated an astonishing level of media interest. To satisfy this demand the first authors and I undertook dozens of live and pre-recorded interviews for regional, national and foreign radio and television stations, as well as both print and online newspapers and magazines. Here is a selection from some of the most prominent: BBC1 breakfast show (10 minute interview), ITV news (prerecorded interview), BBC news 24 (live interview), Alaraby (20 minute feature for Arabic TV) Deutschlandfunk (German Radio), LiveScience (US website), SVT (Swedish Television), CNN (US TV), SRF (Swiss TV), ARD (German TV), BBC Radio 2, BBC Radio 5Live, CBC Radio (Canadian Radio), Quartz (US/International), American Chemical Society Journal, Le Figaro (French newspaper), La Vanguardia (Spanish newspaper), Science & VIe (French pop science magazine), New Scientist magazine, Vice.com, STAT (US medical publication), Medical News Today (USA), Science update podcast, AARP (US website), Business Insider magazine, The Telegraph, BBC News website, Reuters, Cosmos Magazine, RR, Magazine, iNews, Daily Mail etc. For a comprehensive list see the Altetrics link below.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://sciencetm.altmetric.com/details/28622427
 
Description Public talk at the Cambridge Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave an hour long, well-attended talk on our research to the general public at the University Technical College, as part of the Cambridge Science Festival.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sciencefestival.cam.ac.uk
 
Description Reponse to local press enquiry about sleep 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I provided Rachel Allen from Cambridge News with my response to a recent press release from the British Sleep Council.

A piece was published in the local paper that featured some quotes from me.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.cambridge-news.co.uk
 
Description School visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We perform 1-2 visits to local schools each year, informing children about the science behind body clocks and sleep. Until recently I did this through the STEM network, but since moving to the MRC LMB we have been happy to be co-ordinated by the in-house public engagement strategy.

Feedback from schools has always been very positive.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006,2007,2008,
 
Description Science news article on our research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I did an interview with science news magazine for an article about our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.sciencenews.org/article/origin-biological-clocks
 
Description St. John's College Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I gave a presentation on my group's research as well as a supervision/workshop to sixth form students visiting St. John's College Cambridge Natural Sciences open day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.joh.cam.ac.uk/applications-now-open-free-subject-taster-days
 
Description Talks to Non-Scientists 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave several talks concerning body clocks and health, aimed at non-scientists in Cambridge during 2014-15. These were open to the public and well attended.

Each talk produced a large number of requests for more information as well as invitations to give further talks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Talks to scientific audiences at UK Universities 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave invited talks at the Open University, Warwick University and Cambridge University (Forster talk, PDN) during 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Taster sessions/mock supervisions on general Biology for University Postgraduate Outreach Scheme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Science taster sessions to introduce the supervision format to school students and their parents. Performed by Estere Seninkmane, roughly monthly.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Tour of the lab and institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact On an ad hoc basis, I and members of my team show small parties of students and other groups around the building, and explain the science we do. On one particularly memorable occasion, Alessandra Stangherlin in my group gave a tour to the snooker player Ronnie O'Sullivan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
 
Description University Postgraduate Outreach Scheme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Estere Seinkmane lectured twice on 24/11/18 as a part of "Subject Matters" open days as "Science taster session", for ~80-90 Year 10-11 students with their parents, discussing circadian rhythms and our group's research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018