Vaccines & Immunity Research MRC Unit, The Gambia

Lead Research Organisation: MRC Unit, The Gambia

Abstract

The Vaccines & Immunity research at the MRC Unit, The Gambia extends from basic research into mechanisms of disease and immunity in young children to the development of tests in the field that can help with diagnosing certain infections. We also conduct vaccine trials to international standards, which can show that a vaccine is not only safe but also able to prevent a particular disease. We carry out laboratory and epidemiological studies to determine the organisms that are carried in the nose and throat before and after a vaccine is given to see the impact not only on the active disease but also on carriage, which is likely to be a prerequisite for disease in some instances. We provide the data of this work to the WHO and other partners to help estimate the effects of a certain intervention and to translate the research to policy and practice. We work closely with the national TB and malaria programs to inform them of any significant findings that have public health implications. We conduct analytical studies of vaccine coverage and inform the EPI program of potential problems and the benefits of implementing additional vaccines and we critically assess the impact of new vaccines on the immunity of existing ones. All of our work also aims to build capacity in the region and contribute datasets from Africa to international organisations.

Technical Summary

Vaccines & Immunity represents one of the three identified key themes of research at the MRC Unit in The Gambia and is headed by Prof Kampmann. Our research portfolio within Vaccines & Immunity comprises the following three areas, which are headed up by 3 senior investigators: Infant Immunology (Dr E Clarke), Molecular Diagnostics (M. Antonio) and Tuberculosis research (J. Sutherland).
Our research covers basic laboratory science, translational research and clinical trials from phase I to phase IV:
1. we aim to understand basic immunological mechanisms of protection and susceptibility in children of different ages to a wide range of infectious diseases causing major morbidity and mortality in our regional context, such as TB, pneumonia, diarrhoea, congenital infections
2. we investigate mechanisms of carriage and invasion of a variety of bacterial pathogens (strep pneumo, staph aureus, haemophilus and other causes of neonatal bacterial infections). These results guide the development of protective vaccines and other interventions.
3. We conduct clinical trials at all clinical stages of vaccine development, aimed at preventing serious infections in resource-poor settings in particular (pneumococcal vaccines, T vaccines, HIV, malaria, polio)
Over the last 12 months, we have completed a large-scale phase 4 trial of intramuscular polio vaccination (Lancet Global health 2016) and started another pneumococcal vaccine trial. We have completed the evaluation of a novel preparation of a pneumococcal vaccine which has now progressed to licensure via the EMA. We have set up a platform for the conduct of maternal immunisation trials and led an international conference on the issue. Our basic research is describing the interactions between the neonatal microbiome and early immune responses and explores age-related development of innate immune mechanisms in vitro. The international collaborations have enabled us to establish a number of new immunological assays in the Unit. Please find detailed descriptions of projects in the Infant Immunology report and the TB-CC report.

Publications

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Adetifa IM (2013) Interferon-? ELISPOT as a biomarker of treatment efficacy in latent tuberculosis infection: a clinical trial. in American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine

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Afolabi MO (2015) A multimedia consent tool for research participants in the Gambia: a randomized controlled trial. in Bulletin of the World Health Organization

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Andreas NJ (2015) Human breast milk: A review on its composition and bioactivity. in Early human development

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Andreas NJ (2016) Role of human milk oligosaccharides in Group B Streptococcus colonisation. in Clinical & translational immunology

 
Title Develppment of a "Speaking Book" to explain chidlhood vaccines 
Description we developed a book that has recorded messages about childhood vaccines in teh two most prevalent languages in The Gambia 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact We are currently assessing impact on vaccine up[take and use of the book to generate better knowledge about childhood vaccines from caregivers and healthcare professionals post introduction in sentinel sites in The Gambia 
 
Description Advisory Board Maternal Immunisation
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Via setting up immunisation services in antenatal clinics we have improved uptake
 
Description ECDC advocacy workshop
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Raising the profile of paediatric tuberculosis in international organisations such as ECDC and WHO has led to the inclusion of recommendations specifically for children in the guidelines.
 
Description Implementation of prophylaxis for TB exposed children in 4 SSA countries
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Implementation of the recommended prophylactic therapy with INH has been hindered in most SSA countries due to lack of knowledge and experience. Engagement in our research project has enabled governmental organisations (National TB programs) to roll out IPT at sentinel sites and gain experience with a number of different approaches and assess the cascade of care where patients might get lost. This leads ot improvement of services for patients and families.
 
Description Introduction of MenAfriVac vaccine in the Gambia
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Following our multi-centre clinical trial for the safety and immunogenicity of the MenAfriVac vaccine, a vaccine against meningitis A, this vaccine is now introduced into he national immunisation schedule
 
Description Maternal Immunization Pharmacovigilance - Landscape Review - A Roadmap for Program Development in Low and Middle Income Countries
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact The document resulting from this advisory committee consultation is expected to be used to focus future work to measure health impacts in expectant mothers receiving vaccines in low and middle income countries as well as to direct the development of the otherwise fledgling regulatory framework globally
 
Description Member - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Expert Advisory Group on Single Dose HPV vaccine scheduling
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact The expert committee has been set up to drive the research and implementation agenda for single dose HPV vaccine schedules in Low and Middle Income Countries
 
Description NIH case-definition workshop
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
 
Description New classification of childhood tuberculosis
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact the NIH-commissioned workshop of which I was an invited member drafted a new case classification for research in childhood tuberculosis. This classification is now standard to attract funding for diagnostic-related research in this area.
 
Description Novartis maternal immunisation strategy board
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact the advice from the group of which I was an scientific member led to critical appraisal within industry which vaccines to push forward for maternal immunisation.
 
Description Participation in NIH/BMGF advisory meeting - Harmonization of Safety Reporting in Immunizations in Pregnancy
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact The meeting drove the further expansion of the use of harmonized terms for safety reporting in pregnancy
 
Description Pfizer GAVI advisory board
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact possible impact, as Nigeria haas now introduced the PcV vaccine which was advised by the board
 
Description Press panel RCPCH
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description WHO Consultation on the Research Agenda for Fractional Yellow Fever Vaccination
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description WHO advisory board
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact improvements in delivery of clinical services to children exposed to TB by advocating contact tracing for vulnerable groups in the WHO guideline document to which I contributed
 
Description WHO pre-qualification of a vaccine tested in the Gambia
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The licensure of the novel preparation of the conjugated pneumococcal vaccine willed to more affordable and wide distribution f this vaccine- Impact should be tangible in the next few years. WHO pre-qualification occurred because of the trial conducted by the Vaccines & Immunity Theme.
URL http://www.mrc.ac.uk/
 
Description guidelines for use of IGRA in children
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact our research has clearly identified the correct use of IGRA for the the diagnosis of TB in children. We were commissioned to publish our guidelines in a UK Education?actice Journal, which has an international audience
 
Description introduction of new vaccine in The Gambia EPI
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact In August 2013 the Government of The Gambia introduced the Rotavirus vaccine into the EPI schedule. This was amongst other things prompted by data from the MRC Unit showing that rotavirus made a significant contribution to morbidity and mortality in children in The Gambia. The lab work was led by Vaccinology (Dr Antonio)
 
Description work cited in international guidelines
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in systematic reviews
Impact rational use of resources
 
Description Al Thrasher Award
Amount $350,000 (USD)
Organisation Thrasher Research Fund 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 11/2014 
End 11/2017
 
Description Al Thrasher Award
Amount $350,000 (USD)
Organisation Thrasher Research Fund 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 04/2014 
End 04/2017
 
Description Assessment of case definitions for reporting the outcomes of maternal vaccination trials
Amount $25,000 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 10/2017 
End 12/2018
 
Description BMBF
Amount € 1,800,000 (EUR)
Organisation Government of Germany 
Sector Public
Country Germany
Start 06/2016 
End 06/2021
 
Description Clinical Trial
Amount $1,200,000 (USD)
Organisation Pfizer Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 06/2015
 
Description DGF
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 01/2018
 
Description EU/IMI
Amount € 30,000,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 04/2016 
End 04/2021
 
Description GCRF
Amount £580,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 04/2019
 
Description GCRF Vaccine network
Amount £2,600,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 06/2020
 
Description Global Health Wellcome Trust fellowship Dr LeDoare
Amount £55,000 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 09/2014
 
Description HIPC
Amount $8,000,000 (USD)
Organisation National Institutes of Health Clinical Center 
Sector Hospitals
Country United States
Start 01/2017 
End 01/2022
 
Description In kind contribution of vaccines and consumables
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Organisation Merck 
Sector Private
Country Germany
Start 05/2018 
End 05/2022
 
Description Investigator initiated proposal
Amount $350,000 (USD)
Organisation Pfizer Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2012 
End 03/2014
 
Description LAMP TB test
Amount £16,000 (GBP)
Organisation Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Switzerland
Start 11/2013 
End 06/2015
 
Description MRC Capital funds
Amount £150,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2013 
End 06/2013
 
Description MRC Program grant
Amount £2,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation MRC Harwell 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 01/2018
 
Description MRC mid-career grant
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2013 
End 06/2013
 
Description MRC studentship Dr Togun
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2012 
End 01/2016
 
Description Multi-dose PcV 13 Clinical Trial PI
Amount $2,000,000 (USD)
Organisation Pfizer Inc 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 01/2013 
End 03/2015
 
Description N/A
Amount $4,700,000 (USD)
Organisation PATH Vaccine Solutions 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 12/2016 
End 09/2018
 
Description Networks of Excellence EDCTP
Amount € 3,066,638 (EUR)
Organisation Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) 
Department European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 03/2017 
End 03/2020
 
Description Pfizer-MatImms Africa project
Amount £450,000 (GBP)
Organisation Pfizer Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 10/2019
 
Description PhD studentship Dr Battersby
Amount £370,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 098980/Z/12/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2013 
End 02/2016
 
Description PhD studentship Dr Egere
Amount € 20,000 (EUR)
Organisation Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU Munich) 
Sector Academic/University
Country Germany
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2016
 
Description PhD studentship Dr Saikou Bah
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2012 
End 09/2016
 
Description PhD studentship for Dr Basu-Roy
Amount £250,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 08/2016
 
Description Project grant Polio trial BMGF
Amount $2,000,000 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 01/2013 
End 07/2016
 
Description Screen-TB
Amount € 300,000 (EUR)
Organisation Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) 
Department European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 04/2016 
End 04/2019
 
Description Stanford University - The effects of the infant microbiome on the immune responses to vaccination
Amount $160,000 (USD)
Organisation Stanford University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United States
Start 04/2018 
End 04/2020
 
Description TBVAC2020
Amount € 480,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 12/2014 
End 12/2019
 
Description Wellcome Trust Career Development Fellowship
Amount £1,200,000 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Department Wellcome Trust Bloomsbury Centre
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2016 
End 05/2020
 
Description Wellcome Trust Training Fellowship
Amount £247,000 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Department Wellcome Trust Research Training Fellowship
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Title The development of a research platform within which to undertake maternal vaccination safety and immunogenicity trials in The Gambia 
Description Maternal vaccination trials in low income countries require the development of significant research infrastructure. IN particular we have established an antenatal ultrasound facility within which to undertake gestational ultrasound assessments (not otherwise available in the country) and a framework for the capture and reporting of safety outcomes 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The platform will be used for future research in this field in The Gambia and is also likely (based on a planned publication related to the development of the platform) to guide researchers elsewhere 
 
Title app 
Description designed an app tool to improve uptake of maternal immunisation 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact this tool is publicly available fro the app store and is not restricted to researchers 
 
Title design of a public health contact tracing model for TB control in the community 
Description the contact tracing model was developed by my TB research group to facilitate the linking of index cases to childhood contacts. it has been developed in collaboration with public health england and an adapted version also in use at the MRC Unit in The Gambia. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact contact tracing and chemoprophylaxis for children is now part of the activities of the National TB program in the Gambia 
 
Description British Columbia University 
Organisation University of British Columbia
Department Department of Pediatrics
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution provided support for field sample collections and vaccinations, plus laboratory facilities
Collaborator Contribution access to protocols
Impact publication, presentation at international meeting, visibility
Start Year 2014
 
Description GCRF Foundation award partner 
Organisation University of Bamako
Country Mali 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Grant Facilitates Recruitment site for childhood GCRF grant, MRC Gambia provides training
Collaborator Contribution Able to recruit patients to collaborative project
Impact ongoing
Start Year 2017
 
Description Harvard Levy lab 
Organisation Boston Children's Hospital
Country United States 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution exchange of staff and technology
Collaborator Contribution contributed research samples
Impact publication by Burl et al
Start Year 2010
 
Description Harvard Levy lab 
Organisation University College London
Department Institute of Child Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution exchange of staff and technology
Collaborator Contribution contributed research samples
Impact publication by Burl et al
Start Year 2010
 
Description ICH London Goldblatt lab 
Organisation University College London
Department Institute of Child Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution scientific exchange re pneumococcal immunisation policies, practice and research, sharing of reagents and assay development
Collaborator Contribution scientific exchange re pneumococcal immunisation policies, practice and research, sharing of reagents and assay development
Impact 1 shared PhD studentship, scientific workshop at MRC The Gambia input into senior appointments
Start Year 2012
 
Description IIDMM UCT 
Organisation University of Cape Town
Department Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine (IIDMM)
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution joint supervision of PhD students academic links in the field of TB grant money to UCT
Collaborator Contribution access to lab and field
Impact joint publications joint grant applications
Start Year 2009
 
Description Jos 
Organisation University of Jos
Department Department of Paediatrics
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We engaged Dr Ebonyi as our partner in the research project and devised the protocol and data system to be implemented on site. We shared our training materials
Collaborator Contribution The partners in Jos have enabled implementation of the GCRF work and facilitated close links with the Nigerian National TB Control Program and have led training activities in Nigeria for chidlhood TB as well as informed documentation of implementation of IPT.
Impact derived documents now used in National TB programs
Start Year 2017
 
Description Levy Lab 
Organisation Boston Children's Hospital
Department Levy Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution set up of systems vaccinology research for studies of EPI vaccines
Collaborator Contribution bioinformatics support
Impact several publications and a grant submission to the nIH
Start Year 2014
 
Description Mask Study 
Organisation University of Leicester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Mask study involves analysis of TB transmission and thus use of our TB case-contact platform to correlate patient transmission with infection status of the contacts.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of masks and analysis of all samples collected.
Impact Publications pending. Multidisciplinary project including microbiology and immunology
Start Year 2016
 
Description Merck Vaccines 
Organisation Merck
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution As part of a clinical trial of HPV vaccines we will provide serum samples to Merck to analyse on their multiplex based serology platform which has been used in past efficacy trial of the vaccine. The results will be provided to us (MRC Unit The Gambia) for analysis.
Collaborator Contribution As part of a clinical trial of HPV vaccines we will provide serum samples to Merck to analyse on their multiplex based serology platform which has been used in past efficacy trial of the vaccine. The results will be provided to us (MRC Unit The Gambia) for analysis.
Impact Nil as yet - trial underway
Start Year 2016
 
Description Novartis Vaccine development 
Organisation Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (NIBR)
Department Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health (NVGH)
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution generated data for pertussis seroprevalence
Collaborator Contribution funding for consumables
Impact manuscript in progress
Start Year 2011
 
Description Oxford Vaccine Group 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford Vaccine Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution mutual engagement in Vaccinology research
Collaborator Contribution joint supervision of PhD student
Impact new collaboration
Start Year 2014
 
Description PATH 
Organisation PATH
Country Global 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Path vaccine roadmap work
Collaborator Contribution scientific advice
Impact funding
Start Year 2016
 
Description Public Health Engalnd 
Organisation Public Health England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of clinical trial serum samples
Collaborator Contribution Processing of clinical trial serum samples for serological analysis
Impact Presentation of clinical trial results and World Health Organisation Meeting
Start Year 2012
 
Description RIVM Holland 
Organisation National Institute for Public Health and Environment (RIVM)
Department Centre for Infectious Diseases, Epidemiology and Surveillance
Country Netherlands 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution analysis of samples at MRC using RIVM technology, following successful tec transfer from RIVM results on pertussis of interest to RIVM epidemiologists
Collaborator Contribution facilitating Tec Transfer to MRC by hosting 2 technicians
Impact 1 manuscript submitted, 1 in preparation
Start Year 2011
 
Description Screen-TB 
Organisation University of Stellenbosch
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr. Sutherland is site-PI for a multi-site study on development of a rapid diagnostic test for TB. This involves recruitment of 200 patients with symptoms suggestive of TB but prior to diagnosis. These patients are then diagnosed for TB or other respiratory disorders (ORD) using GeneXpert and biomarkers for TB are determined. The second stage of the project will use 'real-time' finger-prick testing of patients at the outpatients clinic to validate our diagnostic test in a 'field' setting.
Collaborator Contribution Grant co-ordinator/PI
Impact Recruitment of patients will not begin until mid-2016. Outputs will occur by 2019.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Single dose HPV vaccine evaluation consortium 
Organisation Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH)
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development of the structure and reporting of the consortium. Ongoing membership of the clinical trials group and modelling group
Collaborator Contribution This is a consortium funded by BMGF to assess the evidence for one dose HPV vaccine scheduling. The consortium aims to produce the data required for SAGE review of an alternative schedule
Impact Nil currently
Start Year 2017
 
Description Staten Serum Institute Denmark 
Organisation The Statens Serum Institute (SSI)
Country Denmark 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution application of reagents in research studies
Collaborator Contribution availability of reagents to our research study
Impact joint publications
Start Year 2006
 
Description UCAD 
Organisation University Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar
Country Senegal 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Professor Mboup and Professor Gaye are partners in our West African Global Health Research initiative and a number of members of their respective departments are now involved in our research
Collaborator Contribution exchange of ideas and potential for join grant applications
Impact scientific workshops
Start Year 2016
 
Description University of Jos, Nigeria 
Organisation University of Jos
Department Department of Paediatrics
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution A paediatrician form Jos is developing a research project under my supervision and received funding via Imperial College in 2016. He is now also a collaborator on the Foundation GCRF award
Collaborator Contribution set up of validators cohorts for childhood TB research
Impact Foundation Award MRC
Start Year 2015
 
Description University of Munich 
Organisation Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU Munich)
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative grant award from the German ministry to conduct research into lung sequelae of TB
Collaborator Contribution LMU is the grant holder and chose my TB program at MRC and the TBCC as a partner site in this 5-counry multicentre study.
Impact the study is just starting, the website is being developed
Start Year 2016
 
Description Viral illnesses in infants and mothers in the PROPEL trial 
Organisation University of Cincinnati
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of samples
Collaborator Contribution Provision of laboratory supplies and expertise
Impact Awaited
Start Year 2015
 
Title 10 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine manufactured by the Serum Institute of India (generic for GAVI purchase) 
Description We have recently completed a phase 1/2 trial and a phase 3 licensure trial is now planned 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Vaccines
Current Stage Of Development Early clinical assessment
Year Development Stage Completed 2017
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Clinical Trial? Yes
Impact The phase 1/2 trial completed and the phase 3 trial planned aim to result in the licensure of the first generic pneumococcal conjugate vaccine specifically targeting those pneumococcal serotypes prevalent in low and middle income countries 
URL https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02308540?term=VAC017&rank=1
 
Title Multi-dose PCV preparation 
Description We conducted a clinical trial for an alternative formulation of a licensed vaccine 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Vaccines
Current Stage Of Development Market authorisation
Year Development Stage Completed 2014
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Clinical Trial? Yes
UKCRN/ISCTN Identifier 1234568
Impact GAVI supported 
 
Title Prevenar13 (licensed vaccine) for use in expectant mothers (unlicensed indication) 
Description Prevenar13 is licensed in infants, children and adults but is not licensed in pregnancy. This trial is testing the safety and efficacy against pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage of the vaccine in pregnant women and newborns 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Vaccines
Current Stage Of Development Late clinical evaluation
Year Development Stage Completed 2017
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Clinical Trial? Yes
Impact The trial is currently underway and data has yet to be analysed. 
URL https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02628886
 
Title polio interference trial 
Description the trial assessed if the co-administration of inactive polio (IPV) with routine vaccines given at 9 months of age would impact on the immunogenicity of any of the vaccines administered. We found some concerns re rubella and yellow fever titres, but whether they are clinically significant remains to be established- the publication is under review 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Vaccines
Current Stage Of Development Late clinical evaluation
Year Development Stage Completed 2015
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Clinical Trial? Yes
Impact the policy re polio was influenced by the preliminary data we presented to the WHO and the IPV vaccine is now recommended to be administered at 4 months rather than 9 months of age. 
URL https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01847872
 
Title polio needleless devices 
Description 2 needleless devices to administer vaccines are currently under evaluation within Vaccinology/Inf Immunology. funding: BMGF/PATH 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Medical Devices
Current Stage Of Development Late clinical evaluation
Year Development Stage Completed 2013
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Clinical Trial? Yes
Impact trial ongoing 
URL http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01847872
 
Title polio vaccine 
Description currently conducting new application of polio vaccine to be given i.m at 9 months with other EPI vaccines funding: BMGF 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Vaccines
Current Stage Of Development Refinement. Clinical
Year Development Stage Completed 2013
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Clinical Trial? Yes
Impact trial in progress 
URL http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01847872
 
Title MatImms app 
Description app to inform pregnant women about vaccines to be given in pregnancy and how they work 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact only just launched 
 
Description Community sensitisation events 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact The community sensitisation events are regularly conducted to inform past, present and future participants in our research on the results of previous studies and upcoming new research studies and clinical trials. They serve as a link to the community decision makers and are well supported by community members and MRC researchers.

Increased participation in clincial trials and ongoign research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2012,2013,2014
 
Description INMIS media interveiw 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact as part of the International Symposium for neonatal and maternal immunisations hick I organised in The Gambia I gave a television interview to the national media which was broadcasted on the same day
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Immunology workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 70 post-graduate students and 15 international faculty attended an immunology workshop for West Africa. This was the first time such an event had been held in the region and consisted of lectures and practical sessions. The students also presented posters with prizes for the top 3. The event was deemed highly successful and generated mentoring and networking.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Impact Science Report 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact IMPRINT was featured in the latest Impact Science Report. Our network PIs Beate Kampmann and Chrissie Jones talked about the "value of vaccination in pregnancy". They discussed our innovative and game-changing network activities as well as the network´s long-term global impact. Our IMPRINT fellow Alansana Darboe is also featured and shares how the IMPRINT fellowship will foster his research career. The article aimed at increasing our visibility and attract new members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://impact.pub/December2018-2digitaledition/
 
Description Inaugural lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Travel with T cells, now on YouTube

inerest in academic medicine by GCSE-level students, several University students requesting mentorship
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description London Maternity and Midwifery Festival 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact IMPRINT was promoted at the first London Maternity & Midwifery Festival that took place on February 13th 2018 with over 1600 participants. This national professional festival, with leadership speakers and exhibitions, is to be held annually to highlight developments in maternity and midwifery across the South East of the United Kingdom.

Our IMPRINT network member Beth Holder and a team from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine attended the event to promote MatImms, a free Smartphone App designed by leading experts of paediatric infectious diseases at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine that aims to improve vaccine information available to pregnant women, enabling them to make informed choices and encourages vaccination in pregnancy to protect newborn babies from preventable infections. MatImms collaborate with pregnant women alongside academic, clinical and policy partners such as Public Health England and antenatal services, in the UK and globally through the Centre for International Child Health.
Matimms is led by Professor Beate Kampmann.
We aimed to attract midwifes to our network and spark interest of the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.maternityandmidwifery.co.uk/events/london-2018/
 
Description MatImms App 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact we have designed an app to explain how vaccines work in pregnancy to women/interested people. this app can be downloaded free of charge from apple and android app stores.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Midwifery conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Open Day and midwifery conference at earls Court London, large exhibition of activities, promotion of our App for maternal immunisation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Open Forum MRC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact broader level of insight into the reserarch activities surrounding this theme, connecting up MRC and governmental activities

closer collaboration with National TB program and wider public support
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Opening a borehole 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I sponsored a borehole to be built at one of our community sites and had the pleasure of handing it over to the community, which was much appreciated and featured on national radio throughout the day of the event and beyond.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Partner: IMPRINT and the Vaccine Confidence Project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prof Heidi Larson, one of our network challenge leads also holds the position of the director of the Vaccine Confidence Project, based at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The purpose of the project is to monitor public confidence in immunisation programmes by building an information surveillance system for early detection of public concerns around vaccines. IMPRINT is featured as the Vaccine Confidence Partner on their website. We plan to open a call in the near future about patient and public engagement in vaccination, and the Vaccine Confidence project display gives us more visibility.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL http://www.vaccineconfidence.org
 
Description Project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact With our website, we aim to build a sustainable network of stakeholders from basic science, immunology, vaccinology, social sciences, industry, public health and national and international policy makers, to tackle the challenges in the best use of vaccines in pregnancy and in newborns, and in the long term to improve maternal and newborn health.
The website helps us to foster capacity for research and innovation within the UK and in developing countries and set up new collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL http://www.imprint-network.co.uk
 
Description School visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to speak at the Open Science week of a prestigious London School.
I have a talk on Ebola, which was well received. I had lunch with the students and many subsequent discussions arose.
Some have approached me since for questions how to get into medical school and how to go about a career in international health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description TB-sequel 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Kick-off meeting for health systems networks which funds 5 projects in Africa for capacity building and development. The discussions generated new avenues for future funding and ideas for sustainability of the research networks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description TB2016 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact TB2016 was adjunct to AIDS2016 and was the first time a TB meeting was attached to the internationally renowned AIDS consortium. The meeting included policy makers, activists, researchers and patients from around the globe. This resulted in increased awareness of TB which is directly related to the AIDS epidemic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Twitter Account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our Twitter account engages mainly scientists and the general public. We tweet about the topic of vaccination in general, retweet worldwide funding opportunities and engage with other GRCF funded networks on the topic of immunization. We also tweet about our own funding options. We attracted over 200 followers since Sept 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com/imprint_network
 
Description Workshop cum Expert Review Meeting on Maternal Immunization, New Delhi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Beate Kampmann, our network PI, Beth Holder, our challenge 1 co-lead and Sonali Kochhar, our challenge 5 co-lead, introduced IMPRINT at the "Workshop cum Expert Review Meeting on Maternal Immunization" September 10th in New Delhi, organized by the PRERNA Platform, KEM Hospital Research Centre Pune, with support from WHO-TDR Fellowship in Clinical Research and Development and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The meeting was attended by global and Indian public health, infectious disease, vaccine and clinical experts.

The objectives of the meeting were to:

- foster discussion among national and global leaders in maternal immunization to identify and prioritise research areas in maternal immunization in India
- initiate research proposals
- development in maternal immunization in collaboration with national and international partners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.prernaindia.in/images/mi.pdf
 
Description World TB Day community activities 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact For the World TB day on March 24th we coordinated joint activities with the NLTP of The Gambia in a coastal community. Schoolchildren and lay audience as well as healthcare workers and patents participated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.mrc.gm/mrc-unit-tb-research-world-tb-day-celebration/
 
Description podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact this Imperial College podcast served to inform the audience about a recently published paper and my role was to put it in context of the wider scientific agenda in this area

facilitated interpretation of research findings to a wider audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012