Neighbourhoods and Health

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow

Abstract

A growing number of studies have shown that where people live is important for their health, even after individual socio-economic circumstances (such as income and employment status) are taken into account. However, less is known about what aspects of the local social and physical environment matter most for health and the ability to lead a healthy life, when these factors might matter (e.g. neighbourhood conditions in childhood or at older ages), and for whom (e.g. women, unemployed people, people living in more rural areas). Policies which focus solely on changing individual health behaviours (e.g. diet and physical activity) have had limited impact, in some cases further widening the health gap between rich and poor, whereas those which have focussed solely on environmental improvements, such as housing, without a corresponding change to individual financial resources, educational or employment opportunities, may have limited impact. Our programme of research offers the opportunity to shed light on how neighbourhood ‘gets under the skin’ and inform policy and the design of interventions.

Technical Summary

Interest in the role of neighbourhood in influencing health has burgeoned since the early 1990s, with research showing that although ‘who you are’ explains a lot of geographical variation in health outcomes, there is also an effect of ‘where you are’. Less is known however about which features of the residential neighbourhood influence health, the plausible timing of exposures (time lags and different stages of the lifecourse), differential exposures and vulnerability (e.g. age, social position, gender and rurality) and the meaning and use of local amenities and facilities. The aim of this programme is to further our understanding of the ways in which aspects of the local social and physical environment interact to influence health and the ability to lead a healthy life. In this programme we focus on three main influences of the local neighbourhood: (i) what’s in a place (facilities, amenities and people), (ii) what a place is like to live in (perceptions and use of area) and (iii) how people interact with each other. Through these three themes we will explore pathways between these influences and health and health behaviours and the extent to which the social and the physical interact. Our strategy for the next five years is to build on existing strengths and, in the main, to capitalise on existing or already funded data sets, concentrate on health outcomes and behaviours which are major public health burdens (e.g. mental health, obesity, smoking, physical activity, diet) and those aspects of the social and physical environment which are amenable to policy intervention (e.g. housing, transport, retail, land use, air pollution).

Publications

10 25 50
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Ball K (2015) Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and fruit and vegetable consumption: a seven countries comparison. in The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity

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Dall PM (2013) Step accumulation per minute epoch is not the same as cadence for free-living adults. in Medicine and science in sports and exercise

 
Description Evidence review re GoWell
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Glasgow Housing Association input to policy and practice
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description GoWell invited response to Local Government and Regeneration Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/parliamentarybusiness/CurrentCommittees/29854.aspx
 
Description Growing Up in Scotland
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Poverty Commission
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description SDQ results presented to Gov enquiry into the childhood origins of social inequality
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description SEPA Citizen Science
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
 
Description consultation on Place Standards for Scotland
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
 
Description invited to give expert input to health impacts on housing improvements
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description GoEast: Studying the Impacts of Regeneration and the Commonwealth Games Legacy
Amount £719,997 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Scotland 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2012 
End 03/2017
 
Description Physical Activity Among Young People in Glasgow Secondary Schools.
Amount £12,144 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Scotland 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2014 
End 03/2015
 
Title Scotland wide database 
Description database of location of range of facilities and amenities across Scotland e.g. supermarkets, land use, housing characteristics, parks and green space. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact unique dataset which will inform our analysis and will be made available to others when ready 
 
Title bikeability database and methods 
Description developed method of assessing how bikeable an area is 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact provided data to intervention study - enhanced their work 
 
Title children in Glasgow 
Description dataset containing location of range of facilities to support childrena nd their carers e.g. playareas and libraries 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Year Produced 2011 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact am providing dataset to colleagues at Glasgow Centre for Public Health to help populate their datset whcih is available to professionals and public. 
 
Title data on transport networks 
Description We have developed a GIS-based public transport model for Scotland which incorporates Ordnance Survey Integrated Transport Network (ITN) map data and Department for Transport public transport schedules. The model represents typical weekday, Saturday and Sunday operations (12914 routes with multiple scheduled services on each route). 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact A major thrust of the work of our project over the last year has been to generate the transport accessibility measures- approximately 12,000 journeys have been calculated across Scotland. 
 
Title database on PA facilities and categories 
Description developed and maintain dataset on facilities for physical activity across Scotland, including novel ways to categorise faciliies 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact informing peer reviewed papers 
 
Title database on food outlets 
Description compiled database of food outlets across Scotland 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact collaborators in another study- able to progress quicker as we could provide the data 
 
Title method for greenspace accessibility 
Description method for automatically computing access points for greenspace 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact novel methodology, useful for analysis especially in relation to national datasets 
 
Title Scotland wide database 
Description database of location of range of facilities and amenities across Scotland e.g. supermarkets, land use, housing characteristics, parks and green space. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact unique dataset which will inform our analysis and will be made available to others when ready 
 
Title bikeability database and methods 
Description developed method of assessing how bikeable an area is 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact provided data to intervention study - enhanced their work 
 
Title children in Glasgow 
Description dataset containing location of range of facilities to support children and their carers e.g. playareas and libraries 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact AE providing dataset to colleagues at Glasgow Centre for Public Health to help populate their dataset which is available to professionals and public. In 2015 dataset was updated and is now ready for linking to data on childrens development and use in publications 
 
Title data on transport networks 
Description We have developed a GIS-based public transport model for Scotland which incorporates Ordnance Survey Integrated Transport Network (ITN) map data and Department for Transport public transport schedules. The model represents typical weekday, Saturday and Sunday operations (12914 routes with multiple scheduled services on each route). 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact A major thrust of the work of our project over the last year has been to generate the transport accessibility measures- approximately 12,000 journeys have been calculated across Scotland. 
 
Title database on PA facilities and categories 
Description developed and maintain dataset on facilities for physical activity across Scotland, including novel ways to categorise faciliies 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact informing peer reviewed papers 
 
Title database on food outlets 
Description compiled database of food outlets across Scotland 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact collaborators in another study- able to progress quicker as we could provide the data 
 
Title method for greenspace accessibility 
Description Data analysis technique 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact novel methodology, useful for analysis especially in relation to national datasets 
 
Description ENABLE- NPRI project 
Organisation St George's University of London
Department Division of Population Health Sciences and Education
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution joint research project
Collaborator Contribution co-investigators
Impact mulidisciplinary project, outputs include conference presentations and development of research instruments
Start Year 2011
 
Description ENABLE- NPRI project 
Organisation University of Bristol
Department Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution joint research project
Collaborator Contribution co-investigators
Impact mulidisciplinary project, outputs include conference presentations and development of research instruments
Start Year 2011
 
Description ENABLE- NPRI project 
Organisation University of Melbourne
Department Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry & Health Sciences
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution joint research project
Collaborator Contribution co-investigators
Impact mulidisciplinary project, outputs include conference presentations and development of research instruments
Start Year 2011
 
Description Food outlets around schools 
Organisation University of Canterbury
Department Department of Geography
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution developed and analysed data set on food outlets around schools
Collaborator Contribution expertise
Impact published peer reviewed paper
Start Year 2010
 
Description Food outlets around schools 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department Institute of Geography
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution developed and analysed data set on food outlets around schools
Collaborator Contribution expertise
Impact published peer reviewed paper
Start Year 2010
 
Description GCPH 
Organisation Glasgow Centre for Population Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution joint project on food outlets around Glasgow schools, joint project on use of greenspace
Collaborator Contribution obtained funding support, conducted research project, wrote up results, presented to local and national government audience
Impact multidisciplinary collaboration involving nutritional scientists, policy makers, environmental health officers from local government, presentations and reports as outcomes
Start Year 2011
 
Description Glasgow Caledonian University 
Organisation Glasgow Caledonian University
Department Institute for Applied Health Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution joint research project,
Collaborator Contribution collaboration in alcohol related project
Impact project reports, development of research instruments
Start Year 2011
 
Description Growing up in Scotland 
Organisation National Centre for Social Research
Department Scottish Centre for Social Research (ScotCen)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution providing input into questionnaire design, developing range of contextual indicators for attachment to study participants
Collaborator Contribution providing inforamtion and access to study
Impact development of data set ready for analysis
Start Year 2010
 
Description Neighbourhood assessments re children 
Organisation King's College London
Department MRC Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre (SDGP)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution collaborated in putting on workshop for international conference, developed and analysed data set
Collaborator Contribution developed workshop,
Impact conference presentations, draft papers
Start Year 2011
 
Description Neighbourhood assessments re children 
Organisation University of California, Irvine
Department Department of Psychology and Social Behavior
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution collaborated in putting on workshop for international conference, developed and analysed data set
Collaborator Contribution developed workshop,
Impact conference presentations, draft papers
Start Year 2011
 
Description University of Aberdeen 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Department Public Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution collaborators on a project, also submitted joint tender
Collaborator Contribution expertise
Impact 1 paper, 3 reports, 4 presentations
Start Year 2012
 
Description University of Southern Denmark 
Organisation National Institute for Public Health Denmark
Country Denmark 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution joint funding application co-edited book
Collaborator Contribution input into funding application and co-edited book
Impact funding application , awaiting outcome
Start Year 2011
 
Description University of Southern Denmark 
Organisation University of Southern Denmark
Department Institute of Public Health
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution joint funding application co-edited book
Collaborator Contribution input into funding application and co-edited book
Impact funding application , awaiting outcome
Start Year 2011
 
Description Urban Studies at Glasgow University 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department Urban Studies
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution joint project
Collaborator Contribution peer reviewed paper joint application for studentship
Impact paper(s) multidisciplinary
Start Year 2011
 
Description collaboration with McMasters University Hamilton Ontario 
Organisation McMaster University
Department Institute for Environment and Health (IEH)
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution developed joint projects
Collaborator Contribution input into joint projects/publications
Impact ppapers, multidisciplinary
Start Year 2009
 
Description . Greenspace and MVPA in urban and rural Scottish adolescents: A study using accelerometry, GPS, and GIS. PMC et al 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dissemination of results of pilot study to a wider audience

Increased of awareness of the potential of this kind of study
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description BBC interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact AE invited into BBC radio Scotland news programme to discuss research on food outlets around schools

requests for more information form other journalists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Centenary: Glasgow Science Centre 2013 TR 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Meet the expert event: designing a public health application for smart-phones, 30 members of the public (children) [invited presentation]

Not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description City Health Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Gave invited talk on Mapping the Social and Physical environment, audience comprised researchers, policy makers, senior health board colleagues and the third sector

invited to collaborate on study
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Cumberland Lodge presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact conference attended by policy makers, MPS, acdemics and practitioners
January 2014, Cumberland Lodge Windsor
'People, Places and Health'

invitation to collaborate in further research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.cumberlandlodge.ac.uk/Programme/Recent+events/Social+Determinants+of+Health
 
Description Ellen Amsterdam Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact presenation at international conference
Ellen Glasgow
'How was a 'normal' life experienced by two cohorts born twenty years apart, and what had this meant for their health?,'

Society for Longitudinal and Lifecourse Studies, Amsterdam, September 2013

highlighted project to international audience, networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description GIS conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact gave talk- questions and discussion afterwards

invited to submit paper to special issue
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.gla.ac.uk/conferences/gisruk/
 
Description Glasgow Social Media Analysis, Methods and Ethics Conference FT 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact College of Social Sciences, University of Glasgow: "Challenging Conventions: Towards a discipline-grounded reflexivity in new media research"

Networked with others interested in new media research innovation at Glasgow University
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.gla.ac.uk/schools/socialpolitical/research/sociology/socialmediaanalysis/
 
Description GoWell annual event - ran workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 50 people attended workshop- good discussion - participants included members of the public, staff in housing associations, and other policy and practice colleagues in public bodies

follow up questions about our research later
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description ICUH Manchester 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact International Conference on Urban Health
Manchester, March 2014

increase in awareness of research programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.icuh2014.com/
 
Description MRC centenary celebrations: Glasgow Science Centre 2013 PMC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Meet the expert event: designing a public health application for smart-phones, 30 members of the public (children) [invited presentation]

.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description NPRI evaluation interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact provided input into evaluation of NPRI- interview and written report

evidence sued to inform future planning of NPRI project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation of the design and implementation of a Health app PMC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation to members of RSS

Example shown of how apps can contribute to/guide healthier living
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Presentation to the Built Environment and health Group (BEH) at the Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, NYC PMC 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Poster Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation of initial results on a a pilot study to academic peers in the field

Suggestions for future work, and potential collaboration opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description SEPA citizen science advisory group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact participated in workshop to start off advisory group on citizen science on air quality

contiuned involvement in group- may lead to funding stream
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description SPHSU Research Skills 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 30 people attended research skills semianr given by Paul McCrorie and Scott Macdonald on measuring physical activity and using GPS

knowledge of the topics increased among peers and PhD students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description School visits 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact gave presentation in 6 schools as part of GoSchools study - pupils gained more knowledge of research issues and the research process

pupils agreed to participate in longitudinal study on the impact of Glasgow Commonwealth Games
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Sunday newspaper story 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact gave several interviews to sunday newspaper about our work on food outlets around schools

more press coverage and requests for further information - raised awareness of our research and our Unit
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, Aberdeen, "Healthy school food policy - what impact is it having?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, Aberdeen, "Healthy school food policy - what impact is it having?"
Fiona Crawford, Anne Ellaway

increased awareness of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description The Royal Environment Health Institute of Scotland (REHIS) Conference, "The Food Environment Around Secondary Schools", 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact presentation to Environmental health professionals

increased awareness of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Thriving Places meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 30 people, practitioners, policy makers and health professional, attended a meeting where we presented information and participated in discussion on the issues around evaluating complex interventions.

follow up to participate in further activities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Wheatley Group presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact invited to present to 15 senior staff in local housing and regeneration forum - shared information about GoWell and provided input to planning of new housing evaluation

follow up request for more information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description presentation at Scottish Faculty of Public Health conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact presentation to range of audience
'Too healthy to see? Views of fast food vendors in lower income neighbourhoods; Scottish faculty of Public Health conference

geenrated interest in teh project and the topic
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description presentation to Glasgow City Council members 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact gave presentation to local councillors on our work on how place influences health and ability to lead a healthy life

lots of interest and follow up contact
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description presentation to GoWell Steering Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact talk on the distribution of gambling, tobacco and alcohol licenses around Glasgow and the GoWell areas

debate and questions- further contact on additional sources of data
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description pupil work experience 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A pupil from one of the schools in a deprived area we study asked to undertake work experience in our Unit as they hoped to study medicine. Dr Paul McCrorie worked with the student, helping them with the equipment we use to measure phsycal activity and the location of that - via accellerometry and Geographical Positioning Systems.

visit was highlighted in news page on GoWell

quote from pupil:
"I also went to the Medical Research Council and spent time with a researcher looking at physical activity in school children. I was able to use a device that you put around your waist to measure physical activity - we had a walk around town and then plugged it into a computer when we went back to the office and were able to see the results. That was really interesting."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.gowellonline.com/news/352_gowell_east_schools_intern
 
Description welfare reform seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact gave presentation on our research on the impact of welfare reform. lots of questions and discussion afterwards and follow up.

the audience comprised policy people from local and national government, practitioners in poverty alliances, housing associations, general pratitioners, Health Scotland

follow up requests for information and more presentations to other groups
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014