MICA: Development of a rapid in-vitro multi-drug test device to predict response to combined drug chemotherapy in leukaemia patients, before treatment

Lead Research Organisation: University of the West of England
Department Name: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences

Abstract

This project is to develop a rapid and inexpensive screening device that predicts how a patient will respond to leukaemia chemotherapy within hours. The test will initially be used for Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML), a potentially fatal cancer in which white blood cells multiply rapidly and unchecked in the bone marrow and blood. AML patients are usually treated with the anticancer agent cytarabine (Ara-C) in different doses or combined with other agents including Fludarabine, to increase the effectiveness of Ara-C. Up to 40% of patients do not respond to first course of chemotherapy treatment; lack of response is only seen after weeks when a patient may have suffered severe side effects. The nature of AML means it is vital to treat it as soon as possible; a delay of weeks can have severe consequences. This project will develop a quick and simple multi-drug test device based on blood or bone marrow samples BEFORE the start of treatment, to show response to COMBINED drugs used for treatment. The results of the multi-drug test will ensure that a patient receives the right combination of chemotherapy drugs, in the correct dose, to meet their needs and so prevent any delay in effective treatment. The test device will be particularly useful to patients whose leukaemic cells are sensitive to low doses of chemotherapy, allowing them to be treated with minimum drug doses, with less side effects. For elderly patients, where AML incidence and mortality rates are increasing, and where other health conditions may rule out aggressive chemotherapy, this screening test could be particularly timely.
We have previously devised, published and patented details of a rapid test to measure response of AML patient blood or bone marrow samples, within 8 hours, to the SINGLE drug Ara-C. The test uses a bioluminescent bacterial biosensor that has been genetically modified to give increased light output in response to the active form of Ara-C within leukaemic cells; it gives an accurate measure of drug uptake and conversion to the active drug form. We have used our biosensor test on 71 patient samples and shown good agreement with a standard laboratory cytotoxicity test and a test efficiency of 83% when compared with 53 known patient outcomes. The single drug test will be extended to include other commonly used chemotherapeutics and the amount of patient cells per test reaction will be minimised, so that multiple drugs can be tested on a small clinical sample, vital for bone marrow testing, where sample volume is limited. Preliminary studies indicate that our device predicts the effectiveness of combined Ara-C/fludarabine chemotherapy. The test device will be extended to include other relevant drug combinations to exploit its full usefulness for AML treatment.
The main aims of this project are to find the optimum conditions for a multi-drug test device that will predict how a patient responds to clinically relevant doses of combined drug chemotherapy, within 12 hours, using minimal number of patient cells. Also to validate the test device by retrospective testing of 500 clinical samples to correlate biosensor assay results with patient outcomes. This will produce a test device with a simple protocol suitable for routine laboratory use, which will be brought to 'regulatory approval' stage.
The main application of our test device is in AML, to rapidly predict effectiveness of combined drug chemotherapy BEFORE treatment begins. Benefits include determining the most suitable treatment for an individual patient. Those with cytarabine resistant cells can be given effective combined chemotherapy that will enhance survival outcomes; patients with responsive cancer cells can be effectively treated with lower drug dose, reducing acute and long-term side effects including severe infection, infertility, secondary cancer, whilst enhancing quality of life and saving costs of hospitalisation.

Technical Summary

This project addresses a need for an in-vitro multi-drug test device that predicts response to combined drug chemotherapy BEFORE treatment, to allow selection of best dose and combination for individual Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) patients. Currently, standard dose aggressive chemotherapy is given at diagnosis but up to 40% of patients do not respond. Over 50% of new AML diagnoses are in the over 60's and prognosis is poor. Co-morbidity and intolerance to side effects are seen with standard dose chemotherapy, giving a need for in-vitro tests to predict response to low dose, less aggressive, chemotherapy.
We have devised a same-day test to measure response of AML blood or bone marrow samples, to the mainstay AML drug, cytarabine. The test predicts patient response with an efficiency of 83%. Our target product is a in-vitro multi-drug test device that predicts response to COMBINED chemotherapeutics. The device uses bioluminescent bacterial biosensors that give a quantitative measure of the active form of chemotherapeutic drugs within leukaemic cells. Drugs such as fludarabine are used in combination, to increase the effectiveness of cytarabine. Preliminary studies show that our device predicts effectiveness of combined cytarabine/fludarabine chemotherapy.
Our technology is accurate, robust and cost effective, with few reagents, suitable for routine laboratory use; end point detection is by low light camera with analysis and interpretation software. The results will inform clinicians quickly on the best treatment options BEFORE patients begin treatment, and reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality.
Our development plan is:
i) optimising biosensor response and test protocols for combined chemotherapy tests
ii) scaling down reagent volume and reducing the number of leukaemic cells per test reaction, to get more tests from a single clinical sample
iii) validating on 500 clinical samples with known outcomes to provide data for regulatory submissions.

Planned Impact

Patients with AML and their healthcare teams, including clinicians, laboratory workers and Acute Healthcare Trusts will benefit directly and immediately from this research. Patients will benefit from receiving tailored treatment that will specifically target an individual's cancer. The multi-test device will provide a 'drug response profile' to combinations and doses of chemotherapeutics, to inform patient treatment decision making. Patients with highly responsive cancer cells can be given effective low dose chemotherapy with subsequent reduced side effects, including reduction in hospitalisation, time off work, risk of secondary malignancies and infertility(1). Those with cytarabine resistant cells can be given effective combined chemotherapy(2). The rising numbers of elderly AML patients will be key beneficiaries. These patients may have health conditions that rule out aggressive chemotherapy; test results that indicate effectiveness of low dose chemotherapy will be vital for their treatment.
Patients will also benefit from receiving test results in the first 24 hours of diagnosis, a time of maximum anxiety for patients and their families. Rapid results that indicate the most effective chemotherapy will help with difficult decisions about treatment that have to be made within hours of diagnosis for this rapidly progressive disease. The multi-drug test device will reduce patient anxiety and contribute to improved patient reported outcomes.
Healthcare providers will benefit from targeted chemotherapy leading to reduced hospitalisation of patients with adverse side effects and possible reduction in additional courses of chemotherapy(3). Routine haematology laboratory staff will not require specialised training to obtain results from the in-vitro multi-drug test device(4). Other benefits for haematology laboratories include the relatively low cost of the test device, small volume of test material required, simplicity of assay protocol, reagents with a shelf life of >1 year, lot-to-lot and run-to-run variability of <10% and a sample analyser with a small footprint that can be placed on lab bench-tops for routine use.
In the long term, the bioluminescent biosensor assay technology could be used to predict response to chemotherapy in a range of haematological malignancies, including chronic leukeamias, lymphomas and myelomas and also in solid tumours, where minor adjustments of the assay protocol would allow rapid testing of biopsy material for response to an array of relevant drugs. This is a platform technology; the biosensor is capable of response to a number of cytotoxic drugs including zidovudine(5) used for HIV treatment and could also be used for therapeutic drug monitoring.
The multi-test device has the potential to contribute to the health of patients diagnosed with haematological and solid tumour cancers by rapidly predicting response to different doses and combinations of chemotherapy. It could also be extended for therapeutic drug monitoring in treatment of viral diseases.

1.Redaelli A, Stephens J, Brandt S, Botteman M, Pashos C (2004)'Short- and long-term effects of acute myeloid leukemia on patient health-related quality of life' Cancer Treatment Reviews 30, 103-117
2.Yamamoto S, Yamauchi T, Kawai Y, Takemura H, Kishi S, Yoshida A, Urasaki Y, Iwasaki H, Ueda T.(2007) Fludarabine-mediated circumvention of cytarabine resistance is associated with fludarabine triphosphate accumulation in cytarabine-resistant leukemic cells. Int J Hematol. 85(2):108-15
3.Redaelli A, Botteman M Stephens J, Brandt S, Pasho (2004) 'Economic burden of acute myeloid leukemia:a literature review' Cancer Treatment Reviews 30, 237-247
4.Alloush HM, Anderson E, Martin AD, Ruddock MW, Angell JE, Hill PJ, Mehta P, Smith MA, Smith JG, Salisbury VC. (2010) A bioluminescent microbial biosensor for in vitro pretreatment assessment of cytarabine efficacy in leukemia. Clin Chem. 56(12):1862-70.
5.Patent Application Number PCT/GB2009/00196
 
Description Above and Beyond Charities UH Bristol NHS Trust
Amount £13,666 (GBP)
Organisation NHS Bristol 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description Great British Bioscience Festival Exhibit Funding
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2014 
End 11/2014
 
Description Higher Education Innovation Fund
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation Higher Education Funding Council for England 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 01/2015
 
Description Industry funded vacation studentship
Amount £1,400 (GBP)
Organisation Randox Laboratories 
Sector Private
Country Global
Start 06/2014 
End 07/2014
 
Description Innovate UK SBRI Stratified Medicine
Amount £149,928 (GBP)
Funding ID 65725-463302 
Organisation TSB Bank plc 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 09/2016
 
Description Short project with Industry
Amount £38,409 (GBP)
Organisation Aqualis ASA 
Sector Private
Country Norway
Start 06/2012 
End 04/2013
 
Description Short project with industry
Amount £5,554 (GBP)
Organisation Celator Pharmaceuticals 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 04/2014 
End 06/2014
 
Description UWE Early Career Researcher funding (for lead researcher)
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of the West of England 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2013 
End 07/2014
 
Description UWE QR (Internal) funding
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of the West of England 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2013
 
Title Daunorubicin biosensor 
Description We have developed an additional bioluminescent bacterial biosensor that will respond to clinically relevant concentrations of Daunorubicin. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The new Daunorubicin biosensor will enable predictive in-vitro testing of Leukaemia patient blood and bone marrow samples for response to a combination of drugs, when used alongside our current Cytarabine biosensor. 
 
Title Daunorubicin resistant cell line 
Description We have generated and fully characterised a cell line showing increased resistance to daunorubicin. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The stable daunorubicin cell line is essential for full validation of our daunorubicin biosensor 
 
Title KCL clinical samples 
Description We have gained access to an additional biobank of AML patient blood and bone marrow samples from King's College Hospital, London 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This will enable us to increase the number of patient samples that can be tested with the biosensor assay and correlated with patient outcomes. 
 
Title NAAT 2011 Reported_Improved assay 
Description A ralid assay to predict sensitivity to cytarabine treatment 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2011 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The assay is being developed as a marketable kit by Randox laboratories 
 
Title NAAT 2012 reported_Bio-marker 
Description The assay is capable of presicting response to a number of drugs used in AML chemotherapy 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The assay will be marketed for clinical use 
 
Title NAAT 2012 reported_Database 
Description Bank of frozen AML patient blood and bone marrow samples 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact These samples are needed for validation of biosensor assays 
 
Title UWE Bio-Bank 
Description Database of over 300 clinical samples from patients in the South West of England diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) and Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), fully characterised with diagnosis, cytogenetics, treatment and day 28 outcome data (remisison/non-remission). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Key resource for validation & CE marking by Industrial collaborator Randox Laboratories Ltd. 
 
Description BCCA 
Organisation British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA)
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our research team has arranged a material transfer agreement (MTA) and analysed 20 AML patient lyophilised blood samples from the biobank at British Columbia Cancer Centre, using the newly developed cytarabine biosensor assay
Collaborator Contribution The partners ( British Columbia Cancer Centre Haematology Unit) have signed an MTA and supplied 20 lyophilised clinical samples. They have also agreed to release clinical outcome data for the samples
Impact Additional assay validation data
Start Year 2013
 
Description Celator 
Organisation Celator Pharmaceuticals
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We used our biosensor for detection of ara-CTP following exposure to CPX-351 (new drug debeloped by Celator) and potentiation of action by fludarabine in cell lines. The results generated by our biosensor contibuted to the adoption of CPX-351 onto 1 of the arms of the current AML18 Phase 3 clinical trial.
Collaborator Contribution Our industrial and clinical partners have not contributed to the Celator collaboration at this stage.
Impact The results generated by our biosensor contibuted to the adoption of CPX-351 onto 1 of the arms of the current AML18 clinical trial. The collaboration is between UWE and a small pharma company (Celator) that manufactures the novel AML chemotherapeutic drug, CPX-351.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Guys and St Thomas's 
Organisation Guy's Hospital
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Arrangements being made for analysis of clinical AML samples
Collaborator Contribution Supply of clinical AML samples
Impact No samples analysed yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description KCL 
Organisation King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (NCH)
Department Department of Paediatric Haematology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Our research team has arranged a material transfer agreement (MTA) and analysed 6 AML patient lyophilised blood samples from the biobank at King's College Hospital, using the newly developed cytarabine biosensor assay
Collaborator Contribution The partners (King's College Hospital Haematology Unit) have signed an MTA and supplied 6 lyophilised clinical samples. They have also agreed to release clinical outcome data for the samples
Impact The collaboration has resulted in setting up a further MTA (currently under negotiation) for the supply of fresh AML patient samples from King's College Hospital
Start Year 2012
 
Description NIHR DEC Imperial College 
Organisation NIHR Diagnostic Evidence Co-operatve
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our biosensor is being validated by this co-operative.
Collaborator Contribution Our Industrial Partners (Randox) have been awarded Innovate UK SBRI funding to enable an economic evaluation of the biosensor platform by DEC prior to marketing.
Impact none yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description University of Bergen 
Organisation University of Bergen
Country Norway 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution members of our research team have visited the University Haematology Lab and carried out our rapid assay on cell lines and clinical samples from the lab.
Collaborator Contribution Suppy of clinical samples and cell lines
Impact Data for assay validation
Start Year 2013
 
Title NAAT 2011 Reported_Tools/guidelines which may improve patient care or generate healthcare cost savings 
Description A biosensor used in a rapid assay 
IP Reference WO2010015844 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Yes
Impact development of a rapid assay platform
 
Title AML18 Clinical Trial 
Description Our biosensor has been adopted for use on 70 clinical samples from AML18. The testing will commence on completion of the MTA with Cardiff University 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Medical Devices
Current Stage Of Development Late clinical evaluation
Year Development Stage Completed 2016
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact This product (AML biosensor) has been used to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutics for treatment of AML 
URL http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/21669/
 
Title NAAT 2012 reported_Diagonstic test 
Description The rapid assay system for predicting response to AML chemotherapy is currently being validated 
Type Diagnostic Tool - Non-Imaging
Current Stage Of Development Initial development
Year Development Stage Completed 2012
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact The assay system can be used to assess novel chemotherapy 
 
Description 2011 Recorded_Patients/Public Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Good discussion about broad research area afterwards from general public

Request to give similar talk in anther region
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Bristol Bright Night 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact High level of interest in our research

Lab visits
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL http://www.bristol.ac.uk/public-engagement/events/2015/bristol-bright-night-2015.html
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our exhibit, displaying glowing bacteria an telling the public about our research with bioluminescence, was selected as the representitve BBSRC exhibit at the Festival. The stand was manned by 6 members of our team at all times and the festival attracted over 180,000 visitors, running from the 2nd-7th June 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cheltenhamfestivals.com/science/
 
Description European Haematology Association Conference presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact networking with the research community

Further contacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Festival of Nature 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The event ran on 3 days, the first for local schools and the second and third for the general public. Hundreds of people had the chance to look in the darkened 'bug booth' at bioluminescent bacteria and ask questions and make comments on twitter.
The Festival ran 12th-16th June 2013
and 13th - 15th June 2014
and 12th 14th June 2015

good comments on twitter about how fascinating the bacteria were
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015
URL http://www.bnhc.org.uk/festival-of-nature/
 
Description Great British Bioscience Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The event was sponsored by the BBSRC and attended by over 6,500 visitors. It ran for 6 days and our stand, manned by 6 team members at all times, had an enourmous amount of interest. As a result we were asked to rpresent the BBSRC at the Cheltenham Science Festival
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/engagement/exhibitions/gb-bioscience-festival/
 
Description Invited speaker at International Society for Biluminescence and Chemoluminescence meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Networking with research community

invitation to writh book chapter
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description MadLab Bioluminescence Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The workshop and demonstration resulted in many questions from the generel public who attended

Increased public interest in applications of bioluminescence and genetic engineering
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description NAAT 2011 Reported_Academic presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Suggestions for collaborative projects from University of Plymouth (venue of the talk)

Visits to our research lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description NAAT 2012 reported_Health professionals seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact The presentation sparked interest in our rapid assay system. A demonstration stand was also laid on by Randox Laboratories

Clinical samples supplied to the project by South Thames haematologists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Open day demonstrations 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prospective UWE students and their parents attended three UWE open days (March, Oct , Nov 2013, March, Oct 2014) had a chance to view bioluminescent bacteria in the dark 'bug booth' and ask questions

generated interest from prospective students and their parents, particularly those interested in Biomedical research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Radio Interviews 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interview on local hub radio resulted in a further interview on regional radio

More interest in UWE research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Schools workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Each year we run 2 schools workshop days and 1 summer school, centred around bioluminescent bacteria. There are 3 workshops a day, each attended by 30 students. As well as giving the students hands on experience, we discuss applications of glowing bacteria, highlighting their possible use for predicting response to chemotherapy.

After the first workshops, schools signed up for workshops every year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006,2007,2008,
 
Description Social Science in the City 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact lengthy discussions within small groups

lab visits
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www1.uwe.ac.uk/hls/research/socialscienceinthecity/events.aspx
 
Description Wellcome trust exhibit in At-Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The visitors who took part in the 'Meet the Scientist' sessions had the chance to discuss issues around GM and biomedical research with me and other members of the research team. The visitors who took part in the workshops had an opportunity for 'hand on' experience

During the course of the exhibition, there were 17 'Meet the Expert' sessions with an estimated 2,416 people being involved. These informal opportunities for visitors to talk to scientists, some of whom were directly involved in research, were very well received. The ability to pitch the scientific information at different levels, according to the visitor, made these sessions extremely accessible to all. An evaluative survey was conducted on a small cross-section of those visitors involved (Fig .1)

Male 52 % Female 48 %
Adult 68 % Child 32 %
Did you find the event enjoyable? (scale of 1-4)
1. Very Enjoyable 64 %
2. 36 % 3.0 %
4. Not enjoyable 0 %

Did you learn anything from this event? (scale of 1-4)
1. Learned lots 68 %
2.28 % 3. 4 %
4. Did not learn 0 %

Is this a good way for scientists to communicate with the public?
Yes 100 % No 0 %

Is this a suitable venue for the event? (scale of 1-4)
1. Very Suitable 60 %
2.40 % 3. 0 %
4. Not suitable 0 %

Fig .1 Results of an evaluative survey to determine what visitors thought of the 'Meet the Expert' sessions.

The 'Lighting up biomedical research' workshops were aimed at Key Stage 3 & 4, with a view to these continuing once the project had finished. Free workshop pilot tester sessions were run from 24th- 26th February 2004, and involved 3 schools and a total of 84 people. At the end of each workshop both teachers and students were encouraged to fill in feedback forms to help At-Bristol develop the workshops further (Fig .2).

Statement
Disagree Neutral Agree
This workshop has helped me to understand how the lux genes are involved in bioluminescence.
1 % 4 % 95 %
This workshop has helped me to understand the process of genetic modification.
4 % 10 % 86 %
This workshop has improved my practical skills
4 % 19 % 78 %
This workshop has made me think about the ethical implications of genetic technology
1 % 10 % 89 %
This workshop has been useful for my GCSE studies.
4 % 25 % 71 %
This workshop has been a worthwhile experience
0 % 3 % 97 %

Fig .2 Results of feedback forms filled in by students at the end of each workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006
 
Description Western Eye article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact An interview with me, talking about our research was published in the UWE student newspaper

None recorded
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description iNet Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The talk was attended by approx. 30 delegates from SME's in the South West and sparked questions and more discussion over lunch afterwards.

Follow up enquiries were made by 2 of the SME's
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012