Role of DNA methylation in imprint maintenance in differentiated human cells

Lead Research Organisation: University of Ulster
Department Name: Sch of Biomedical Sciences

Abstract

Summary
The phenomenon of genomic imprinting lies at the heart of a significant number of childhood disease syndromes, including disorders such as Beckwith-Weidemann Syndrome (BWS), Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) and Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) type I. Each of these syndromes involves a gene which is imprinted, that is to say is normally only active from one of the two chromosomes in the cell, either the one inherited from the father via the sperm, or the one inherited from the mother via the egg, the genes thus being "imprinted" with a memory of which parent they came from. Patients with imprinted disease syndromes have increased risks for further problems such as diabetes (TNDM) or Wilms' tumour (BWS) in later life as well. The mechanism by which one copy of a gene becomes inactivated, while its identical partner in the same cell nucleus remains active, is still under active research. We know that chemical tags added to the DNA, called DNA methylation, are involved in marking the inactive copy of the imprinted gene, but it is not known whether this is sufficient in all cases to turn off the gene, or whether the proteins associated with the DNA, called histones, are more important. While such mechanistic questions can be addressed in experimental animals such as mice, human studies have either used cells from patients, where it is not possible to tell if the changes seen in the DNA methylation or the histones are causative, or have manipulated DNA methylation levels using drugs in cancer cell lines, which are not genetically stable and thus a poor model.
We have developed human cell lines which are non-cancerous and genetically stable, with normal imprinting, and then selectively reduced the levels of DNA methylation only. These cells appear to show loss of imprinting of the genes which cause BWS and PWS and most likely all other imprinted regions, but are unaffected at non-imprinted regions. They have altered growth characteristics and appearance, in line with theories that imprinted genes have important roles in regulating growth and nutrition. They thus represent a unique resource for exploring the importance of DNA methylation versus histone status in regulating imprinted genes and by cross-comparing to cells from BWS patients and others, it should be possible to establish which is more likely to be causative. The cells are a potentially valuable tool for determining the side-effects of pharmacological inhibitors of DNA methylation currently being used in the clinic. We can also use the cells to look for previously unrecognised imprinted genes, which may be linked to additional disorders. Additionally we can use the cells to carry out further mechanistic work, including attempting to identify the factors involved in establishing imprints, which would in turn be candidates for causative agents in these diseases.

Technical Summary

Imprinted genes are exemplars of epigenetic control and are highly dependent on DNA methylation for their regulation. Abberant imprints are the cause of a number of human growth and neurodevelopmental syndromes and are a frequent occurrence in cancer. Despite this, functional assessment of the role of the maintenance methyltransferase in regulating imprints in humans has been lacking. By using stably integrated small hairpin RNA targeting the DNMT1 gene in hTERT-immortalised cells we appear to have generated the first normal human cell lines lacking imprinting at both paternally and maternally methylated ICR due to targeted loss of methylation. These provide a unique resource for examining the effects of loss of maintenance methylation on imprinted genes. We aim to characterise these cells more fully using genome-wide assays of DNA methylation and gene expression, a bank of targeted pyrosequencing assays designed specifically to interrogate the imprinted loci and the use of chromatin immunoprecipitation. This should greatly inform the clinical and research community as to the effects of loss of maintenance methylation in normal cells and help to establish if imprinted disorders are primarily caused by chromatin or DNA methylation changes. Additionally, we will use these cells to benchmark 5'-aza-2'-deoxcytidine (Aza) treatment with the effects of DNMT1 depletion in a normal cell line, of direct clinical relevance for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes and potentially for other disorders. Further hypomorphic cell lines will be created to determine if cells from different tissues share a common response to loss of maintenance methylation: we will also attempt to re-establish methylation at an imprinted locus in these and other imprint-free cells by rescue experiments. Finally, the experiments may identity novel imprinted regions in humans.

Planned Impact

Academics in the areas of epigenetics and stem cell biology both UK and world-wide will benefit from this research by greater knowledge of the role of maintenance methylation in immortalised human cells and the consequences of removing it. Measuring the sensitivity of imprinted genes to disruption will be of benefit to clinicians carrying out IVF treatments and may help to inform policy makers with regards to IVF safety. Identification of new imprinted genes, or of new control elements or genes involved in imprinted disorders will be of benefit to the clinician and potentially to patients, who could benefit from potential new tests for loss of imprinting. Likewise, better understanding of the effects of demethylating drug treatments has clinical relevance to patients with myelodysplastic syndromes who could benefit from improved clinical management in the short term and potentially from better drugs with more specific targeting in the long term. Policy-makers at NICE may be able to use the knowledge gained to better inform clinical reccomendations and drug manufacturers benefit from improved drugs and better market share. The modified hTERT lines may be of commercial value. The general public may see improvements in clinical care and we aim through our proposed outreach plans to increase the public's understanding of imprinting.

Publications

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Ayuso M (2021) Low birth weight female piglets show altered intestinal development, gene expression, and epigenetic changes at key developmental loci. in FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

 
Description Consultation on Rare Diseases
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Investment of £3.3m in a Northern Ireland Genomic Medicine Centre
URL http://www.northernireland.gov.uk/news-dhssps-291015-health-minister-announces
 
Description Epigenetics in Health and Disease Workshop
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Approx. 100 participants including clinical practitioners, principal investigators, postgraduate students and visiting researchers. Talks were on a range of topics including psychology, nutrition, genomics, brain imaging, and epidemiology. There was uniformly positive feedback from participants and we have had numerous requests to repeat the workshop.
 
Description Northern Ireland Rare Disease partnership
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Pyrosequencing training course
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Trained 10+ researchers from diverse backgrounds in the theory and practice of pyrosequencing for analysis of DNA methylation
 
Description 3x MSc studentships
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Danielle, David, Adele 
Organisation Government of Northern Ireland 
Department Department for Employment and Learning Northern Ireland (DELNI)
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2013 
End 06/2015
 
Description Department for Employment and Learning Northern Ireland (DELNI)-PhD studentship GP (£ 30000; 2016 - 2019)
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Northern Ireland 
Department Department for Employment and Learning Northern Ireland (DELNI)
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 09/2019
 
Description Department for Employment and Learning Northern Ireland (DELNI): - PhD studentship CS (£ 30000; 2016 - 2019) (£ 30000; 2016 - 2019)
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Northern Ireland 
Department Department for Employment and Learning Northern Ireland (DELNI)
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 09/2019
 
Description Enabling Award
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Funding ID STL/5043/14 
Organisation Public Health Agency (PHA) 
Department HSC Research and Development
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2015
 
Description Epigenetics Initiative
Amount £399,542 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/N000323/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description Future Minds NI
Amount £100,782 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/T046562/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2020 
End 06/2021
 
Description HDHL EpiBrain: Epigenetic effects of B-vitamins on brain health throughout life
Amount £583,195 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S020330/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2021
 
Description HSC TRUST RESEARCH FUND 2012/13
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Western Health and Social Care Trust 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2012 
End 01/2014
 
Description Improving mental health among at-risk young people in a challenging border region
Amount € 699,804 (EUR)
Funding ID CHI/5433/2018 
Organisation Northern Ireland HSC R&D 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 03/2022
 
Description Integrity and inheritance of genome methylation
Amount £24,000 (GBP)
Funding ID IE160973 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Description Interdisciplinary PhD studentship
Amount £36,750 (GBP)
Organisation Northern Ireland Office 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 08/2020
 
Description PhD studentship SJM
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Northern Ireland 
Department Department for Employment and Learning Northern Ireland (DELNI)
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2014 
End 08/2017
 
Description Research Challenge Fund
Amount £24,996 (GBP)
Organisation Ulster University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 01/2018
 
Description Short Term Scientific Mission
Amount € 2,100 (EUR)
Funding ID COST-STSM-ECOST-STSM-FA1201-081214-052048 
Organisation European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) 
Department COST Action
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 12/2014 
End 12/2014
 
Description Small grant
Amount £600 (GBP)
Organisation Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland (HSCNI) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 06/2014
 
Description Training Grant- SJM
Amount £1,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Genetics Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2015 
End 11/2015
 
Description Training Grant- SJT
Amount £1,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Genetics Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Description Travel Award- RI
Amount £750 (GBP)
Organisation The Genetics Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2015 
End 09/2015
 
Description Travel Grant
Amount £750 (GBP)
Organisation The Genetics Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2014 
End 06/2014
 
Description Travel Grant
Amount £750 (GBP)
Organisation The Genetics Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 10/2014
 
Title Demethylated normal human cell lines 
Description We have developed a number of human immortalised cell lines which are chromosomally stable and non-transformed but that lack methylation at imprint control centres. These can be used to help study the mechanistic basis of loss of imprinting in humans, which is responsible for a number of human syndromes including Beckwith-Weidemann Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome and more. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - in vitro 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These cell lines have formed the basis for a number of publications or been included in others, for example Rutledge et al Development 2014, O'Neill et al Epigenetics & Chromatin 2018. They also provide a viable alternative to animal models for investigating mechanisms of imprinting, thus helping to reduce animal usage. 
 
Title 450k and HT12 array datasets from novel human cell lines 
Description Data on methylation state as analysed by 450K array and on transcription (HT12 array) in human cell lines with depletion of DNMT1 as per grant goals. These were deposited in the publicly-available database GEO at the NIH under accession code GSE90012. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Contributed to two papers, O'Neill et al Epigenetics & Chromatin 2018, Mackin et al 2018 
URL https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE90012
 
Title CandiMeth 
Description DNA methylation microarrays are widely used in clinical epigenetics and are often processed using R packages like ChAMP or RnBeads by trained bioinformaticians. However, looking at specific genes requires bespoke coding which wet-lab biologists or clinicians are not trained for. This leads to high demands on bioinformaticians, who in turn may lack insight into the specific biological problem. We therefore wished to develop a tool for mapping and quantification of methylation differences at candidate genomic features of interest, without using coding, to bridge this gap. We generated the workflow CandiMeth (CANDIdate METHylation) in the web-based environment Galaxy. CandiMeth takes as input any table listing differences in methylation generated by either of the popular R-based packages above and maps these to the human genome. A simple interface then allows the user to query the data using lists of gene names. CandiMeth generates 1)Tracks in the popular UCSC genome browser with an intuitive visual indicator of where differences in methylation occur between samples, or groups of samples 2) Tables containing quantitative data on the candidate regions, allowing interpretation of significance. In addition to genes and promoters, CandiMeth can analyse methylation differences at LINEs and SINEs. Cross-comparison to other open-resource genomic data at UCSC facilitates interpretation of the biological significance of the data and the design of wet lab assays to further explore methylation changes and their consequences for the candidate genes. CandiMeth (RRID:SCR_017974; Biotools:CandiMeth) allows rapid, quantitative analysis of methylation at user-specified features without the need for coding and is freely available, with extensive guidance, at CandiMeth GitHub repo. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We use this extensively in our work, and it has helped underpin new grants with colleagues in other disciplines such as the JPI EpiBrain award. 
URL https://github.com/sjthursby/CandiMeth
 
Title Supporting data for "CandiMeth: Powerful yet simple visualization and quantification of DNA methylation at candidate genes" 
Description DNA methylation microarrays are widely used in clinical epigenetics and are often processed using R packages like ChAMP or RnBeads by trained bioinformaticians. However, looking at specific genes requires bespoke coding which wet-lab biologists or clinicians are not trained for. This leads to high demands on bioinformaticians, who in turn may lack insight into the specific biological problem. We therefore wished to develop a tool for mapping and quantification of methylation differences at candidate genomic features of interest, without using coding, to bridge this gap.
We generated the workflow CandiMeth (CANDIdate METHylation) in the web-based environment Galaxy. CandiMeth takes as input any table listing differences in methylation generated by either of the popular R-based packages above and maps these to the human genome. A simple interface then allows the user to query the data using lists of gene names. CandiMeth generates 1)Tracks in the popular UCSC genome browser with an intuitive visual indicator of where differences in methylation occur between samples, or groups of samples 2) Tables containing quantitative data on the candidate regions, allowing interpretation of significance. In addition to genes and promoters, CandiMeth can analyse methylation differences at LINEs and SINEs. Cross-comparison to other open-resource genomic data at UCSC facilitates interpretation of the biological significance of the data and the design of wet lab assays to further explore methylation changes and their consequences for the candidate genes.
CandiMeth (RRID:SCR_017974; Biotools:CandiMeth) allows rapid, quantitative analysis of methylation at user-specified features without the need for coding and is freely available, with extensive guidance, at CandiMeth GitHub repo. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Extensive use of the software within the group and by our collaborators 
URL http://gigadb.org/dataset/100753
 
Description Collaboration with the Van Andel 
Organisation Van andel Research Institute (VARI)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We generated isogenic human cell lines deficient in UHRF1, a unique resource which was of interest to Dr. Scott Rothbart at the Van Andel. Scott supplied us with plasmids to rescue the mutants with, which saved us buying these in. In turn, he has offered to do ChIP-seq on the cell lines to look at UHRF1 and H3K9me2/3 patterns.
Collaborator Contribution Plasmids for rescue and ChIP-seq as detailed above
Impact Preprint in BioRxiv and submitted to print journal, awaiting outcome:- UHRF1 suppresses viral mimicry through both DNA methylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms RE Irwin, CA Scullion, SJ Thursby, ML Sun, A Thakur, SB Rothbart, GL Xu, CP Walsh doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.31.274894
Start Year 2015
 
Description EU Short Term Scientific Mission 
Organisation University of Milan
Department Centre for Stem Cell Research (UNISTEM)
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of materials and training of personnel, coauthoring of a Short-Term Scientific Mission (STSM)
Collaborator Contribution Our partners in Italy Profs. Fulvio Gandolfi and Tiziana Brevini coauthored the STSM. One of their postgraduate students visited out lab and brought material with her for analysis.
Impact Successful STSM application. Their group brought expertise in reprogramming of fibroblast cells into pancreatic-like cells, we brought expertise in epigenetic analysis. Although this did not result in a joint publication, we continue to interact and collaborate through a COST Action initiative and through Prof. Fulvio we had a second Italian visitor Laura Masala who contributed to our Epigenetics and Chromatin paper on the cell lines we are using.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Newton mobility exchange 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences
Department Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of personnel to learn techniques and scientific approaches
Collaborator Contribution Training in pyrosequencing for assessing DNA methylation
Impact Four exchange visits have already occurred, two to China and two from China, involving the PIs, an RA and a PhD. We are currently working on a number of outputs as a result.
Start Year 2017
 
Title CandiMeth- a software tool for quantifying and visualising DNA methylation changes 
Description DNA methylation microarrays are widely used in clinical epigenetics and are often processed using R packages like ChAMP or RnBeads by trained bioinfomaticians. However, looking at specific genes requires bespoke coding which wet-lab biologists or clinicians are not trained for. This leads to high demands on bioinfomaticians, who in turn may lack insight into the specific biological problem. We therefore wished to develop a tool for mapping and quantification of methylation differences at candidate genomic features of interest, without using coding, to bridge this gap. We therefore generated the workflow CandiMeth (CANDIdate METHylation) in the web-based environment Galaxy. CandiMeth takes as input any table listing differences in methylation generated by either of the popular R-based packages above and maps these to the human genome. A simple interface then allows the user to query the data using lists of gene names. CandiMeth generates 1)Tracks in the popular UCSC genome browser with an intuitive visual indicator of where differences in methylation occur between samples, or groups of samples 2) Tables containing quantitative data on the candidate regions, allowing interpretation of significance. In addition to genes and promoters, CandiMeth can analyse methylation differences at LINEs and SINEs. Cross-comparison to other open-resource genomic data at UCSC facilitates interpretation of the biological significance of the data and the design of wet lab assays to further explore methylation changes and their consequences for the candidate genes. CandiMeth allows rapid, quantitative analysis of methylation at user-specified features without the need for coding and is freely available through Github 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2020 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The software has been used in a number of our published papers (many listed against this award), done in collaboration with colleagues from a range of disciplines, and is empowering those in the life sciences to carry out their own analyses of epigenetic alterations without the need for extensive bioinformatics support. 
URL https://github.com/sjthursby/CandiMeth
 
Description Canadian Epigenetics conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Good feedback on project work, and discussions regarding possible new collaborations

Engaged in phone conversations regarding potential exchange of patient-derived cell lines
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Cell Symposia Stem Cell Epigenetics Conference - Sitges, Barcelona 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The conference brought together experts who work broadly over a diverse range of epigenetic topics and stem cell types, providing a forum in which interdisciplinary discussions promoted cross-collaboration between experts in these areas and sparked new ideas that will hopefully accelerate progress in the field. The purpose was to engage with attendees at all career levels, to discuss and present research and as a networking opportunity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://cell-symposia-stem-cell-epigenetics.com/
 
Description Departmental Seminar- Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave an overview of our work and results from the MRC and ESRC/BBSRC grants with a few to the collaborative work to be undertaken as part of our Royal Society Newton Exchange grant
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Molecular Biology Techniques - Pyrosequencing Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A workshop was held in the Walsh laboratory to introduce new students, existing staff and other interested members of the University to participate in a week long event of seminars focused on background to molecular biology, techniques involved in analysis of DNA methylation and pyrosequencing alongside lab-based workshops with a work booklet provided to all attendees and also on-hand help as and when required.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Radio interview (BBC Radio Foyle) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Broadcast reached a wide audience in our local region, as it is part of a popular radio show

Good engagement with public and feedback from production team very positive.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00wdbc5
 
Description Rare Disease Day, Northern Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Karla O' Neill, postdoc on the grant, presented a poster and answered questions regarding our research and imprinting disorders

The Rare Disease Day and Rare Disease Network (in which we also participate) have led to a Draft NI implentation Plan for Rare Diseases which is currently at the consultation phase.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nirdp.org.uk/rare-disease-day-2014-booking-now-open
 
Description Soapbox Science Ireland (public engagement event - women in science) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On 20th June 2015, eminent women scientists from UK and Ireland talked to the general public about their work and passion for Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Medicine (STEMM) on the Belfast streets. The event's mission was to help eliminate gender inequality in science by raising the profile, and challenging the public's view, of women and science. The event was well attended by renowned UK/Ireland women scientists, postgraduate and undergraduate students, who had a chance to disseminate their research to the public in an interactive and engaging manner. This sparked questions from the general public coming from men, women and children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://soapboxscience.org/soapbox-science-2015-ireland/
 
Description Statistical approaches for epigenetics: Challenges and potential solutions workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The aim of this workshop was to bring together statisticians and epigeneticists to present and discuss statistical challenges faced in the field of epigenetic epidemiology. The focus was on current approaches, their strengths and limitations and the discussion of solutions to outstanding problems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The Genetics Society Studentship Retreat 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Organised and ran retreat for 33 students returning from summer laboratory placements, held at the John Innes Centre Norwich, Prof. Enrico Coen (FRS) hosting. The placement bursaries were funded by the Genetics Society and the journal Genes and Development. Students gave presentations, carried out team activities including scientific writing, biotech brain-storming etc and were advised on postgraduate training and applications

Very positive feedback from the students, who represent some of the brightest and most motivated genetics students nationally. Many are now considering postgraduate work. This includes a number of medical students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description The Genetics Society studentship retreat 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact The group activities were well-received and the discussions on post-graduate pathways and pitfalls. The students also reported enjoying hearing about different types of research in Genetics. A number of the students were international, as the awards are not confined to UK students.

The students responded very favorably this year as well and many indicated that they were now actively considering postgraduate training
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.genetics.org.uk/Funding/GeneticsSocietySummerStudentships
 
Description The Irish Society of Human Genetics Conference (Dublin) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The Irish Society of Human Genetics Meeting promoted research and education in human genetics from a wide spectrum of individuals professionally involved in human genetics and molecular medicine whether in research, education, clinical service or other professional activity. The purpose was to disseminate our research to this group of experts, to network and keep up to date with those in the field of genetics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Wellcome Trust conference Epigenomics of Common Diseases 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact useful discussion with several other scientists regarding how to solve particular problems with bioinformatics and cell lines

Some collaborative efforts are now underway
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014