Experimental Human Pneumococcal Carriage to determine optimal protection from carriage and mechanisms of mucosal immunisation against disease

Lead Research Organisation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Department Name: Clinical Sciences

Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia, meningitis and otitis media in children world-wide. In adults, pneumococcal pneumonia is a common and increasing cause of hospital admission with substantial mortality in the elderly. In addition, pneumococcal infections cause exacerbations of chronic lung disease, particularly COPD and asthma. An important paradox in pneumococcal infection, however, is that in the vast majority of people these bacteria are occasionally found harmlessly inhabiting the naso-pharynx. This harmless state, termed pneumococcal carriage, boosts immunity to pneumococcal disease and is therefore of some benefit but can also be the means by which infection is transmitted. Pneumococcal carriage is considered to be the key to controlling disease as it is the means of transmission and the prerequisite of disease.

Vaccination is the most important and effective intervention in the prevention of pneumococcal disease but the weapons in this armoury are still far from optimal in terms of expense and coverage of pneumococcal types. Current vaccines have, however, demonstrated that effective prevention of both pneumococcal carriage and disease is possible in young children, with indirect benefit to unvaccinated adults resulting from reduction of circulating pneumococcal carriage. It is less clear how current vaccines should be used directly in adults, or those with chronic disease. It is also unclear by what mechanism vaccines alter carriage and which vaccines are most effective in this regard. There are many new vaccines at early stages of development and studies of how they influence carriage could be important in choosing between possible alternatives.

This Experimental Human Pneumococcal Carriage (EHPC) Programme Grant will make use of studies in healthy volunteers and patients with increased risk of pneumococcal disease to determine the immune responses in health that are protective against pneumococcal carriage. We have developed a method, unique in the world, for inoculating humans safely in order to establish carriage experimentally and have now tested it in over 300 subjects without adverse effects. This model of natural carriage can be used to (a) discover how healthy subjects make immune responses to carriage, (b) discover how subjects with risk factors (age, chronic lung disease) make responses to carriage and how this is different from healthy people, (c) test new vaccines for their effect in experimental carriage and (d) discover how the host alters the biology of the bacteria while it is being carried. Testing new vaccines using EHPC can be done more quickly and at a fraction of the cost of clinical studies (100 subjects rather than many thousands) and so several vaccines can be tested during this Programme, in parallel with the discovery science. This Programme also offers an opportunity for partnership with commercial entities or charities sponsoring particular new vaccines and these funding options will be explored with MRC.

In summary, This EHPC Programme will run and coordinate the maximum use of a unique human pneumococcal challenge model to study host/pathogen interactions critical to the prevention of pneumococcal disease by vaccination. We will use a variety of pneumococcal strains to challenge human volunteers, both healthy and with risk factors for pneumococcal disease, in order to determine factors underlying susceptibility and protection from disease. We will manage a portfolio of commercial vaccine development studies using the human challenge model in parallel with the science discovery programme.

Technical Summary

Pneumococcal disease remains a research priority world-wide with high mortality from meningitis, pneumonia and sepsis and high morbidity and expense from otitis media. Conjugate vaccination programmes have shown that both carriage and disease can be prevented leading to substantial direct and additional very large herd benefits by reduction of carriage. There could be important additional gain, however, from bringing protein vaccines to licensure in order to gain from wide strain coverage, reduced production expense and potential combination with conjugates.

This Experimental Human Pneumococcal Carriage (EHPC) Programme will coordinate maximum use of a human pneumococcal challenge model to study host/pathogen interactions critical to the prevention of pneumococcal carriage and disease by vaccination. We will use a variety of pneumococcal strains to experimentally challenge human volunteers with bacteria. We will recruit both healthy subjects and those with risk factors for pneumococcal disease in order to determine both pathogen and host factors that determine susceptibility and correlates of protection. We will manage a portfolio of commercial vaccine development studies using the human challenge model in parallel with the science discovery programme.

The EHPC platform itself requires a complex, expensive integrated team including clinical, microbiological and immunological teams. In order to fully exploit the scientific potential of the platform, we have established collaborations with 20 other laboratories, predominantly in the UK. Our collaborators bring outstanding international expertise, a shared vision of global vaccination against pneumococcal disease and the offer of practical help in accessing the necessary additional resources to apply cutting-edge technology to the samples this model will generate.

Planned Impact

This Programme is about vaccine development. The Programme will impact scientists, commercial partners and the public across the translational spectrum and will eventually benefit the most vulnerable populations that suffer with the high burden of pneumococcal disease.

1) Impact on scientists
See section above.

2) Impact on commercial sector
There is a logistic roadblock to novel vaccine testing as discussed in the Case for Support. This programme will make early clinical testing of novel vaccines a reasonable prospect and so alter the risk-benefit balance for companies considering novel vaccine programmes. Commercial partners will be able to investigate whether their vaccine candidates can protect against carriage in a phase 1-2 trial involving a relative small number of subjects. The information on increased susceptibility of the elderly and asthmatics to pneumococcal diseases will also be very relevant for the development of novel vaccines that will benefit these groups.

3) Impact on susceptible populations and vulnerable minorities
The development of a novel and more effective pneumococcal vaccine will benefit susceptible populations. The most susceptible groups of adults, particularly the elderly and patients with asthma and COPD will benefit from a more direct vaccine discovery approach. The global burden of pneumococcal disease and carriage is highest in vulnerable least-economically-developed-countries (LEDC) due to malnutrition, HIV burden and co-infections. This Programme does not directly address these populations but progress in vaccine discovery will alter the prospects for countries currently lacking a pneumococcal vaccine strategy.

3) Impact on vaccine policy
There is current controversy regarding the efficacy of current polysaccharide-based vaccines, particularly in adults. Preferred vaccines would prevent transmission by blocking carriage; some of the data required in these decisions could be obtained by focused studies using EHPC to determine the prevention of carriage by new vaccines.

4) Impact on general public
Public involvement. Our public engagement programme will disseminate knowledge on pneumonia and benefits of vaccination during news releases from our group, school talks, and social media (twitter and facebook). LSTM have a strong past record of successful public engagement and are committed to improving the public understanding of science. We will encourage our collaborators on this programme grant to take part in our public engagement activities.

5) Impact on all staff and students
Students: Samples and data generated during this programme grant will enable several PhD projects to be developed both at the Respiratory Infection group at LSTM and in our collaborators laboratories.
Staff: The parallel commercial Work Package in the Programme will allow staff ordinarily in an academic environment to learn more of the regulatory and other challenges that form part of bringing a new vaccine to licensure. This Programme will also give the opportunity for short-term internship and exchange visits between collaborators laboratories and the Respiratory Infection group at LSTM.

Publications

10 25 50

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Adler H (2017) Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide Immunity in the Elderly. in Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI

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Adler H (2017) Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide Immunity in the Elderly. in Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI

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Bos L (2016) ESICM LIVES 2016: part one Milan, Italy. 1-5 October 2016 in Intensive Care Medicine Experimental

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Collins AM (2015) First human challenge testing of a pneumococcal vaccine. Double-blind randomized controlled trial. in American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine

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Connor V (2018) Hands are vehicles for transmission of in novel controlled human infection study. in The European respiratory journal

 
Description Additional Funding allocations for NHS Service Support
Amount £13,515 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Department Comprehensive Clinical Research Network (Coordinating Centre) – NIHR
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description Allecra - A Phase 1 Open Label, Single Centre Study to assess the concentration of AAI101 and Cefepime in Epithelial Lining Fluid and Plasma in Helathy Volunteers
Amount £55,178 (GBP)
Organisation Allecra Therapeutics SAS 
Sector Private
Country France
Start 10/2017 
End 10/2018
 
Description Antigen Discovery NIH SBIR Grant
Amount $224,000 (USD)
Organisation Antigen Discovery Inc 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 03/2018 
End 02/2019
 
Description BactiVac Catalyst Funding Project: Identification of correlates of protection against pneumococcal colonization
Amount £55,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Birmingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 08/2019
 
Description Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation - Supplement Grant
Amount $80,000 (USD)
Funding ID OPP1117728 
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 08/2016 
End 08/2017
 
Description Effect of Live Attenuated and Inactivated Influenza vaccines on Experimental Human Pneumococcal Carriage
Amount $2,518,294 (USD)
Funding ID OPP1117728 
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 11/2014 
End 06/2017
 
Description Enhancing mucosal immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae by nasal administration of live strains attenuated in virulence
Amount £523,377 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/N02687X/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2016 
End 04/2019
 
Description Experimental Human Pneumococcal Challenge model for vaccines effect on Carriage
Amount £2,800,000 (GBP)
Organisation Pfizer Global R & D 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 12/2018 
End 12/2022
 
Description Hand to nose transmission of streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy participants - pilot study
Amount £96,000 (GBP)
Organisation Unilever 
Department Unilever Research and Development
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
 
Description HiC VAC - Human Challenge Vaccine Network
Amount £2,300,000 (GBP)
Organisation Imperial College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 07/2021
 
Description MRC Funding - DPFS
Amount £53,166 (GBP)
Organisation Immunobiology Ltd, Babraham, UK 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
 
Description MRC Proximity to Discovery funds
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 08/2018
 
Description Medical Research Council Proximity to Discovery (P2D): Pneumococcal proteome microarray for identification of novel serotype-independent vaccine candidates against pneumococcus
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 08/2018
 
Description Phase II: Hand washing intervention to decrease transmission of pneumococcus from hands to nose using controlled human infection
Amount £830,000 (GBP)
Organisation Unilever 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
End 12/2019
 
Description Unilever Hand Transmission Study
Amount £680,704 (GBP)
Organisation Unilever 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 01/2019
 
Description Vaccine Fapesp MICA : Pulmonary Delivery of a Targeted Mucosal Nanocarrier Vaccine for Pneumonia
Amount £456,762 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/P022758/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 02/2020
 
Description Workshop to explore regulation and ethics of CHIMS in LMICs
Amount £48,400 (GBP)
Funding ID 208265/Z/17/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 09/2017
 
Description Collaboration with Liverpool John Moores University - Nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery of vaccines 
Organisation Liverpool John Moores University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have been working together with the team at LJMU to optimize nanoparticles for the delivery of PspA antigens. We have provide laboratory support for this project as well as clinical samples.
Collaborator Contribution The team at LJMU have performed characterisation of particles loaded with PspA
Impact Three publications have already resulted from this partnership and a new grant from the Medical Research Council/FAPESP awarded to Dr Imran Saleem in 2017
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with University College London - Mucosal Pathogens Research Unit (MPRU). 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution ?
Collaborator Contribution Based at the UCL Division of Infection & Immunity, the MPRU has forged partnerships with the Universities of Edinburgh, Liverpool, Oxford & Southampton, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and BUGs Bioscience in the UK with research centres in Kenya, Malawi, Mali, South Africa and The Gambia. The research programme will improve disease intelligence; develop new measures of immunity; test novel Interventions including vaccines; respond to outbreaks; and engage in a two-way dialogue with the public & policymakers.
Impact The award of a Global Health Research Unit will establish an internationally leading research partnership led by African & International Scientists, pursuing scientific excellence, training young scientists and improving the health of people in poorer countries through vaccination and other interventions.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with University of Sao Paulo (Helder Nakaya) for bioinformatic analysis 
Organisation University of Sao Paulo
Country Brazil 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our team has provided immunology data obtained during EHPC studies
Collaborator Contribution The team at University of Sao Paulo has performed computacional analysis to identify differential expression between volunteers protected vs non protected from pneumococcus.
Impact An award to Helder Nakaya from the University of Sao Paulo to visit LSTM in 2017 (awarded in 2016) . The data from this collaboration was used for 2 grant applications (one will be submitted to the MRC in May 2017).
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collboration with University College London - Experimental Medicine Grant 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Study design, attending and organising meetings with DEFRA, creating and writing study documentation (protocol, lab manual, Trial Master File set up)
Collaborator Contribution ?
Impact ?
Start Year 2016
 
Description Controlled Human Infection Models Consortium - Gates Foundation 
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution n/a
Collaborator Contribution D Ferreira was invited to be a member of the BMGF CHIM Scientific Leadership group. The panel discussed how this consortium could facilitate CHIM research by sharing information, SOPs, protocol and agents for infection.
Impact CHIM are currently available for a range of enteric, respiratory, and vector-borne diseases, and have played a key role in the development of some of the vaccines we use today. The wider use of CHIM could further accelerate development of candidate vaccines, in part by the early elimination of some candidate vaccines while advancing others to field efficacy trials. CHIM studies are also an important source of information about immune responses to infection and vaccination.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Human Infection Challenge (HIC) Vaccine Network (HIC VAC) 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Board member
Collaborator Contribution The networks mission is to support, develop and advocate the use of Huamn Infection Challenge (HIC) to improve understanding about infections and the diseases they cause, leading to better vaccines and treatmetns. The network will 1. develop an interactive network of investigators, providing mutual support 2. Develop regulatory and ethical frameworks to support human challenge studies in the UK and Low and Middle income Countries (LMIC) 3. Support applications to science funders by member of the network.
Impact 5 pump priming grant applications Increased collaborations network
Start Year 2017
 
Description Human Infection Challenge (HIC) Vaccine Network (HIC VAC) 
Organisation Translational Health Science And Technology Institute
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Board member
Collaborator Contribution The networks mission is to support, develop and advocate the use of Huamn Infection Challenge (HIC) to improve understanding about infections and the diseases they cause, leading to better vaccines and treatmetns. The network will 1. develop an interactive network of investigators, providing mutual support 2. Develop regulatory and ethical frameworks to support human challenge studies in the UK and Low and Middle income Countries (LMIC) 3. Support applications to science funders by member of the network.
Impact 5 pump priming grant applications Increased collaborations network
Start Year 2017
 
Description Human Infection Challenge (HIC) Vaccine Network (HIC VAC) 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Board member
Collaborator Contribution The networks mission is to support, develop and advocate the use of Huamn Infection Challenge (HIC) to improve understanding about infections and the diseases they cause, leading to better vaccines and treatmetns. The network will 1. develop an interactive network of investigators, providing mutual support 2. Develop regulatory and ethical frameworks to support human challenge studies in the UK and Low and Middle income Countries (LMIC) 3. Support applications to science funders by member of the network.
Impact 5 pump priming grant applications Increased collaborations network
Start Year 2017
 
Description Human Infection Challenge (HIC) Vaccine Network (HIC VAC) 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Board member
Collaborator Contribution The networks mission is to support, develop and advocate the use of Huamn Infection Challenge (HIC) to improve understanding about infections and the diseases they cause, leading to better vaccines and treatmetns. The network will 1. develop an interactive network of investigators, providing mutual support 2. Develop regulatory and ethical frameworks to support human challenge studies in the UK and Low and Middle income Countries (LMIC) 3. Support applications to science funders by member of the network.
Impact 5 pump priming grant applications Increased collaborations network
Start Year 2017
 
Description Human Infection Challenge (HIC) Vaccine Network (HIC VAC) 
Organisation Wellcome Trust
Department Malawi-Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme
Country Malawi 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Board member
Collaborator Contribution The networks mission is to support, develop and advocate the use of Huamn Infection Challenge (HIC) to improve understanding about infections and the diseases they cause, leading to better vaccines and treatmetns. The network will 1. develop an interactive network of investigators, providing mutual support 2. Develop regulatory and ethical frameworks to support human challenge studies in the UK and Low and Middle income Countries (LMIC) 3. Support applications to science funders by member of the network.
Impact 5 pump priming grant applications Increased collaborations network
Start Year 2017
 
Description Medical Research Council: Human Infection challenge vaccine (HIC-vac) network Imperial College 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Intellectual input, use of equipment and facilities at LSTM such as confocal microscope
Collaborator Contribution Their expertise, intellectual input, skills in analysis
Impact N/A
Start Year 2017
 
Description New Collaboration with Alder Hey Childrens Hosptial 
Organisation Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Study design, writing protocols, microbiology support and nurse training.
Collaborator Contribution Alderhey will provide 50 nasal samples from healthy children (1-5yrs)
Impact Outcomes will be: A primary end point for the comparison of frequency of monocytes in masal microbiopsies of children carrying pneumococcus and those who dont. As well as a seondary outcome: Determination of carriage presence and density by lyta qPCR an culture and Determination and classification of viral infection by multiplex PCR in children that carry pneumococcus or not. Quantification of 30 cytokines in nasal lining fluid of children carrying pneumococcus or not.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Unilever Collaboration 
Organisation Unilever
Department Unilever Research and Development
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Designed a pilot study and created new method of inoculting hands and transfering to nose, Analyisis of the data set and created study documentation (lab protocol, study protocol).
Collaborator Contribution Partial funding for this pilot study - support with protocol design and concept.
Impact Ongoing new collaboration for new Randomised Controlled Trial. Presentation at work at BTS, ATS and Mid Term Programme Grant Meeting.
Start Year 2016
 
Description 11th International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases, Melbourne, AU 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dissemination of project outputs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 9th International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases, ISPPD-9, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk to disseminate research findings and discussion of future collaborative activities

tbc
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description A visit to LSTM from Helder Nakaya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Helder Nakaya visited LSTM to discuss the analysis for the RNA-Seq for the LAIV1 study, and to discuss the integrative analysis of other samples collected.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Academic visit and Talk at Butantan Institute and University of Sao Paulo. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Postgraduate, undergraduate students and principal investigators attended these two seminars which sparked questions and discussion afterwards. This visit initiated the visit of two academics from Brazil to the LSTM in 2017 (Helder Nakaya and Alessandra Schanoski).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Academic visit to Butantan Institute and Univeristy of Sao Paulo 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Daniela Ferreira visited the University of Sao Paulo and the Butantan Institute for discussions with Eliane Miyaji, Helder Nakaya and Maria Leonor regarding Jessica Owugha's publication - MRC/FAPESP - bilateral agreement: Multiple-epitope vaccine to confer serotype-independent protection against pneumonia. The collaborators also discussed the Pulmonary Delivery of a Targeted Mucosal Nanocarrier Vaccine for Pneumonia project, which is a follow on piece of work as a result of the FAPESP project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Bing Bang Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Big Bang North West enables young people to discover the exciting and rewarding STEM-based careers available in their local area via fun interactive activities.

The team showcased their 'Breathtaking Pneumococcus' exhibit which used a giant floor-based Snakes and Ladders game to tell the story of the immune cells and bacteria present in people's nasal passages.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.lstmed.ac.uk/research/public-engagement/big-bang-north-west
 
Description Boston Children's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of project outputs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Controlled Human Infection Model Workshop - Malawi. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact This workshop aimed to explore the particular methodological, ethical and regulatory issues associated with CHIM in Malawi. The workshop discussed the benefits and barriers to CHIM studies and how the EHPC model would be delivered in Malawi.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description EHPC Newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our newsletter has been distributed to various audiences to provide information about the work we are doing and the studies we have running. We have also provided case studies from our Ambassadors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Facebook page 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Facebook page advertises studies and informs on latest study developments, currently over 60 members and a footprint of over 1000 people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.facebook.com/LivRRC/?ref=aymt_homepage_panel
 
Description Freshers Events 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact The team attending various University fresher events across liverpool in a recruitment drive for our Asthma, Ages and New Strains studies. These events were very successful and a large portion of our volunteers came from these events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International Clinical Trials Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our team held an exhibit stand and provided information regarding our studies and the work we do in preventing pneumonia. The team spoke to members of the public how to get involved.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases - Conference Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Collaboration between Rick Malley, Daniela Ferreira and Eliane Miyagi to screen a library of >60 pneumococcal proteins for correlates or protection against carriage acquisition.

Discussions between Immbio and Daniela Ferreira led to an agreement to analyze IL-17 responses to PnuBioVax from a phase I clinical trial.

Initial contacts between Tim Mitchell and Daniela Ferreira groups to collaborate on neutrophil function in elderly individuals and experimental carriage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description John Moores University Re-Freshers Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Re-Freshers fair for university students - 2000 footfall with 80+ requests for further information on enrolling onto clinical studies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description LAIV Recruitment Events / Activities targeted: - University Library; University of Liverpool Freshers Fairs; Liverpool John Moores Freshers Fair; Liverpool Hope University Freshers Fairs; University of Liverpool Sports Fair; Crown Place and Greenbank Halls of Residence; Vine Court Halls of Residence. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact From these engagement activities we gained 1700 contacts for further discussions, leading to potential entry into our studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Liverpool Allergy Road Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our team attended the Liverpool Allergy Road show in a recuriement drive for our Asthma Study. We showcased our work and talked to potential volunteers and the public about our active studies and how to get involved.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.allergyshow.co.uk/liverpool/
 
Description Liverpool Pint of Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact The Pint of Science event brought some of the most brilliant scientists together to discuss their latest research and findings. Members of our team went along to showcase our work and talk to members of the public about how to get involved in our studies and contribute in Pneumonia Research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://pintofscience.co.uk/about/
 
Description Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine - Open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Visitors were given the opportunity to talk to researchers and educators as well as current and previous students about their experiences of studying at LSTM. There were a number of demonstrations from research staff highlighting the work carried out in the laboratories on site and in numerous countries overseas.

The afternoon was a great success, providing an opportunity for prospective students to discover more about our courses and research options and, most importantly, giving them the chance to talk to teaching staff and current students and alumni about their experiences of studying here.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.lstmed.ac.uk/news-events/news/lstm-postgraduate-open-day
 
Description Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine AGM Tour 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Members and guests that attended the AGM were given a tour of LSTM's new Liverpool Life Sciences Accelerator building, where our reserach team is based. The team provided a tour of the newly established Accelertor Research Clinic currently for non CTIMP studies. We also provided a tour of our labortory facilities and gave members and guests the opportunity to ask questions about the work we are doing here in Liverpool in improving vaccines against pneumonia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description MRC Mid Term Programme Grant Collaborators Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We held a Programme Grant meeting including representatives from funders (WT, MRC and BMGF), vaccine developers as well as several collaborators. The purpose of this meeting was to share the scientific advancements of the EHPC model, trials and laboratory results, as well as providing information on what our team has planned over for the next 2 years.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Dissemination of project results
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to Undergraduate and Post Graduate Students at the University of Sao Paulo 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Daniela Ferriera gave a talk about how controlled human infection model can accelerate Pneumococcal Vaccine development to undergradiate and postgraduate students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Radio Advertisements for healthy trial volunteers to take part in EHPC studies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This activity resulted in enquiries from the general public about how they can get involved in clinicial trials associated with EHPC

We were able to recruit several volunteers to our studies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Twitter Feed (@Liv_RRN) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Twitter feed used to encourage study participation and inform donors and collaborators of current policy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description University of Liverpool Freshers Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact University freshers fair. A stand was hired to allow nurses and clinical staff to engage with students and encourage enrollment on clinical studies for LAIV and EHPC
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description University of Tokyo - EHPC collaboration meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A meeting between LSTM and Tokyo university to discuss the a joint grant application to the MRC DPFS as part of a new collaboration to develop mucosal vaccines based on PspA antigen. This collaboration resulted from the visit of Dr Ferreira to Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo) as part of the MRC/FAPESP award.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, The Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Dissemination of project outputs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description World Pneumonia Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On team joinined forces with the Respiratory specialists in the Royal Liverpool Hospital and held a one day Roadshow. We had interactive stands in the main foyer of the Royal Liverpool University Hospital promoting our work and talking to volunteers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description XII European Meeting on the Molecular Biology of the Pneumococcus, Europneumo, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk to disseminate research findings during this conference. Breakfast meeting with approximately 20 EHPC collaborators to discuss the EHPC Programme planned activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015