Brain imaging and cognitive ageing in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: III

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Centre Cogn Ageing and Cogn Epidemiology

Abstract

As human populations age across the planet, increasingly significant resources will be needed to manage and care for some older people. Cognitive ageing, the process by which some cognitive abilities decline in older age, is of particular concern, leading as it does to reduced quality of life, loss of independence, and, in its later stages, increased risk of dementia. Characterising the biological causes of cognitive ageing is therefore important if we are to reduce the burden of ageing at both the individual and societal level.

In this proposal we request funds to collect and analyze brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and carotid artery Doppler ultrasound data from participants of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. They are a large group of relatively healthy community-dwelling subjects in their late seventies. This cohort is unique in having cognitive data from youth (a well-validated measure of IQ obtained at age 11 years), and repeat cognitive testing, brain imaging, genetic, epigenetic, lifestyle, psychological, social and other important information obtained from ages 70, 73, 76 years, and to be collected at age 79.

By undertaking a third wave of brain MRI and carotid ultrasound scanning, we will have detailed imaging data spanning most of the eighth decade of life (73 to 79 years) during which risk of dementia increases. Longitudinal imaging data obtained at three time points in older age is rare and will allow a thorough exploration of changes in brain structure with age (e.g. loss of brain grey and white matter), how these changes relate to cognitive ability measured across the whole life course, and what factors (e.g. genetics, diet, exercise, etc.) are most responsible for these changes. Understanding these relationships is an important step in helping to develop strategies to slow age-related cognitive decline, and in characterising what role cognitive ageing plays in heralding dementia.

The present application is for minority funding for a project that also has funding from Age UK for the collection of the cognitive, medical, biomarker, and psychosocial data and their collation and analyses.

Technical Summary

Studying the changes in brain structure that accompany older age may be useful for understanding cognitive ageing and reducing the risk of dementia in the elderly. We seek funds to acquire a 3rd wave of brain MRI and a 2nd wave of carotid Doppler ultrasound data from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, a large group of relatively healthy subjects in their late seventies. This cohort has a wide range of phenotypic data available from older age (at 70, 73, 76; 79 to be done) including cognitive, genetic, epigenetic, lifestyle, etc. Uniquely, they also have a measure of childhood intelligence from age 11. These subjects have already undergone brain MRI at ages 73 and 76, and vascular imaging at age 73. Repeat brain MRI and ultrasound scanning at age 79 will provide multi-time-point longitudinal imaging data across the eighth decade of life. This will be used to investigate associations between older age brain structure, vascular, genetic and other risk factors, and cognitive ability across the life course.

This 3rd wave of brain MRI will be undertaken on the same GE 1.5T clinical scanner as used in the first two examinations. The imaging protocol will consist of structural, diffusion tensor (DT), magnetization transfer (MT) and quantitative T1-mapping sequences. The structural scans will be analyzed to provide measures of brain atrophy, cortical thickness and white matter hyperintensity volume. The DT, MT and T1 data will be used to segment a range of major white matter tracts and provide measures of the integrity of these structures.

These imaging data will be analyzed using methods such as structural equation and longitudinal latent growth curve modelling to examine associations, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, with cognitive, genetic, epigenetic, lifestyle, and other phenotypic data to provide insights into the factors driving non-pathological cognitive ageing. The carotid Doppler ultrasound data will be used as outcome and predictor variables.

Planned Impact

Key beneficiaries from this project will be older people and older people's groups, carers, health and social care practitioners and policymakers, academics and the wider public. A knowledge exchange (KE) strategy is already in place and has an excellent track record of engagement with these diverse groups. CCACE has a dedicated KE Officer (funded by the University of Edinburgh) and one of his main foci is the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. This is an unusual resource and ensures regular and effective public engagement and KE activity. We have also co-developed a formal Joint Impact Plan with our primary funders, Age UK. This is a detailed framework for current and future KE activities which reflects our mutual ambitions to realise the potential for impact beyond academia throughout the lifetime of the project period. We are committed to maintaining our successful KE strategy to improve understanding of cognitive and brain ageing and identifying which potentially preventable factors affect brain health and cognitive function.

For older people, carers and public health providers, our research has the potential to lead to interventions to prevent or ameliorate age-related cognitive decline and provides clinical benefits through the development of methods for more accurate diagnosis of dementia. For third sector organisations, our research will provide benefits in terms of advice and support they can offer to older people who are concerned about cognitive ageing and brain health. It is hoped that our findings will ultimately contribute to future healthcare policy, which will ideally serve to prolong the amount of time in old age during which individuals remain cognitively healthy and independent.

We will continue to proactively engage directly with policy makers at a national and local government level and indirectly through our 3rd sector close partners such as Age UK, Age Scotland and Alzheimer Scotland and public sector organisations such as NHS Health Scotland and Edinburgh City Council. Age UK's direct engagement with older people is critical to successful exchange of Disconnected Mind-generated knowledge with the public. This is particularly pertinent for medium and short-term impact. Research findings so far signal that in the future, people will be able to take informed decisions to influence their own brain and cognitive health and that there are significant messages for public health (e.g. physical fitness and brain white matter integrity). Lifestyle factors, controllable physical factors and social factors are most likely to be the focus of Age UK's KE activity. Regular contact between Age UK and the research team allows Age UK to disseminate new findings to the wider Age UK family through audience-appropriate Insight and Evidence briefings. These, in turn, allow various parts of Age UK to use this knowledge for the benefit of older people in the form of services, products and influencing activities. These include publications such as overview articles for the general public and for policy makers and through co-produced key stakeholder workshops which aim to raise awareness of brain and cognitive ageing and their determinants.

As well as our joint work with charities, we will continue to engage with policy makers through Cross-party Groups, committees, policy-focussed meetings, networking events and consultations. We will also seek to engage policy makers through our programme of stakeholder workshops. We will continue to engage with schools, families and the media using presentations, workshops, museum and science festivals, our presence on policy committees, art collaborations (previous examples include theatre, portraits, short films and a CCACE-published book of short stories) and via our established online following. CCACE has been particularly successful in engaging individuals and groups through integrated online content.

Publications

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Del C Valdés Hernández M (2015) Brain iron deposits and lifespan cognitive ability. in Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

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METACOHORTS Consortium. Electronic Address: Joanna.wardlaw@ed.ac.uk (2016) METACOHORTS for the study of vascular disease and its contribution to cognitive decline and neurodegeneration: An initiative of the Joint Programme for Neurodegenerative Disease Research. in Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association

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Pellegrini E (2018) Machine learning of neuroimaging for assisted diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia: A systematic review in Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring

 
Title Brain Box 
Description Brain Box is a portable workshop/festival resource to excite children and adults about the brain, how it works and the changes it goes through in a lifetime. It is a resource for guided workshops, festivals, exhibitions and events that would over time develop an online "personality" tweeting about its day with photo's, comments and quotes: see me on Twitter @brainboxone 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact To date, the Brain Box has received funding from the MRC Regional Communications Fund and, despite still being at the development stage, is planned to appear at workshops as part of the Edinburgh International Science Festival 14-18 April 2015. 
URL http://www.twitter.com/brainboxone
 
Description Age UK/AARP Global Council on Brain Health expert meeting (Gow)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact The Global Council on Brain Health convenes experts who then produce reports on factors affecting cognitive and brain function. These are widely distributed so that people's knowledge and actions (e.g. lifestyle changes) are based upon the best available empirical evidence. This is done in part via Age UK, the largest UK ageing charity with a very wide reach to older people in the UK and internationally.
URL http://www.ageuk.org.uk/professional-resources-home/research/about-age-uk-research/the-global-counci...
 
Description Forum "Influencing the trajectories of ageing" - Ian Deary
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact The Academy of Medical Science brought together international experts on the influences on human and other animal ageing systems. These were presented in a forum conducted under Chatham House rules. There was an invited audience of about 60 experts in total. Each of the presentations-including Ian Deary's-was summarised and compiled in a report that was made available as an online PDF, communicated to the news media, and is intended to influence policy makers on the important issue of how to optimise the trajectories of human health across the full life course.
URL https://acmedsci.ac.uk/more/news/trajectories-of-ageing-balancing-longevity-and-health
 
Description Government Office for Science "Evidence and Options for Preserving Cognition Through Life" - Ian Deary
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL http://www.ccace.ed.ac.uk/node/336
 
Description Evaluating Longitudinal Changes in the Human Structural Connectome in Relation to Cognitive Aging
Amount $502,543 (USD)
Funding ID 1R01AG054628-01A1 
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 09/2017 
End 04/2022
 
Description How do peripheral and central vascular markers relate to cognitive decline? - Deary
Amount £91,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 01/2017
 
Description INTERpreting epigenetic signatires in Studies of Early Life Adversity (interSTELA) - Deary
Amount £199,512 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/N000382/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2017
 
Description NIA - Human structural connectome
Amount $2,384,683 (USD)
Funding ID R01AG054628 
Organisation National Institute on Aging 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2022
 
Description Project grant - JPND (Deary)
Amount £592,325 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/N027558/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Department MRC Human Nutrition Research Unit
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2016 
End 04/2019
 
Description The Disconnected Mind: Phase 4
Amount £1,058,650 (GBP)
Organisation Age UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 03/2022
 
Title Image analysis method - hippocampal shape modelling 
Description In collaboration with the Korean Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, we have developed a novel method for hippocampal shape modelling. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Cox SR*, Valdés Hernández MC*, Kim J, Royle NA, MacPherson SE, Ferguson KJ, Muñoz Maniega S, Anglaban D, Aribisala BS, Bastin ME, Park J, Starr JM, Deary IJ, MacLullich AJM, Wardlaw JM. Associations between hippocampal morphology, diffusion characteristics, and salivary cortisol in older men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.01.027. Kim J, Valdés Hernández MC, Royle NA, Park J. Hippocampal shape modelling based on a progressive template surface deformation and its verification. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2015 Jun;34(6):1242-61 Valdés Hernández MC, Cox SR, Kim J, Royle NA, Muñoz Maniega S, Gow AJ, Anglaban D, Bastin ME, Park J, Starr JM, Wardlaw JM, Deary IJ. Hippocampal morphology and cognitive functions in community-dwelling older people: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Neurobiol Aging in press. 
URL http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6990617/?reload=true
 
Title Image analysis method - new automated segmentation tool for multifocal basal ganglia hypointeisities 
Description A new tool for automated segmentation of multifocal basal ganglia T2*-weighted hypointensities 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Glatz A, Bastin ME, Kiker AJ, Deary IJ, Wardlaw JM, Valdés Hernández MC. Automated segmentation of multifocal basal ganglia T2*-weighted MRI hypointensities. Neuroimage 2015 Jan 105: 332-346. 
 
Title New method of perivascular space segmentation on brain MRI 
Description MRC-funded imaging team on the LBC1936 developed a new method of perivascular space segmentation, which shows good concordance with neuroradiological assessments. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Ballerini L, Lovreglio R, Valdés Hernández MC, Gonzalez-Castro V, Muñoz Maniega S, Pellegrini E, Bastin ME, Deary IJ, Wardlaw JM. Application of the ordered logit model to optimising Frangi filter parameters for segmentation of perivascular spaces. Procedia Comp Sci 2016 90:61-67. 
URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050916311899
 
Title Brain Images of Normal Subjects (BRAINS) Imagebank 
Description The Brain Images of Normal Subjects (BRAINS) imagebank is an integrated repository project sponsored by the University of Edinburgh and the Scottish Imaging Network: A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) collaborators. The purpose of BRAINS is to provide sharing and archiving of detailed normal human brain imaging and relevant phenotypic data, to create better estimates of the range of normal brain size and integrity across the life-course. The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 and 1936 brain imaging data along with limited clinical data has been added to this resource. BRAINS is a living imagebank where new data will be added when available. Initially BRAINS will contain existing data from n=763 healthy volunteer subjects, range neonatal and 19-81 years of age, from projects in 3 centres. A further n=2119 subjects aged from prenatal to 90 years old with existing records from 15 other projects in Scotland are currently being collected, collated and quality control (QC) checked. Additional completed and ongoing studies of normal individuals will be uploaded as they become available. The data include several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, including T1, T2, T2*, fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), in DICOM and NIfTI format, and a wide range of linked metadata, such as age, history, physiological measures (e.g. blood pressure), cognitive ability, and perinatal information (neonatal data). Data access is governed by a steering committee comprising the PIs of the contributing studies, experts in ethics, law and governance, and lay representatives. Applications for data access can be made online, and will be granted by the steering committee subject to the completion of a formal Data Access Agreement. http://www.brainsimagebank.ac.uk/ 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The initial publication which describes the resource was: "A brain imaging repository of normal structural MRI across the life course: Brain Images of Normal Subjects (BRAINS)" Dominic E Job, David A Dickie, David Rodriguez, Andrew Robson, Cyril Pernet, Mark Bastin, James P Boardman, Alison D Murray, Trevor Ahearn, Gordon D Waiter, Roger T Staff, Ian J Deary, Susan D Shenkin, Joanna M Wardlaw. NeuroImage. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.01.027 PMID: 26794641. We have developed seven age-specific atlases of T1 brain MRI from 25 to 92 years, which have been made available on the BRAINS website. Dickie, David Alexander; Job, Dominic E.; Rodriguez, David; Robson, Andrew; Danso, Samuel; Pernet, Cyril; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Shenkin, Susan D.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.. (2016). Brain Imaging of Normal Subjects (BRAINS) age-specific MRI atlases from young adults to the very elderly (v1.0), [dataset]. University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh Imaging, CCBS, BRAINS Imagebank. http://dx.doi.org/10.7488/ds/1369. 
URL http://www.brainsimagebank.ac.uk
 
Title Liewald-Cox Heatmapper - Dave Liewald, Simon Cox 
Description Developed by the CCACE database manager Dave Liewald and CCACE Associate Simon Cox, the Heatmapper tool allows the quick and simple creation of high resolution figures to illustrate associations between variables of interest and sub-regions of the brain's cortex. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Beta version will be released in Spring 2016, and the first outputs are part of a publication in preparation: Cox SR, Bastin ME, Ritchie SJ, Dicke DA, Liewald DC, Munoz Maniega S, Redmond P, Royle NA, Pattie A, Valdes Hernandez MdelC, Corley J, Aribisala BS, McIntosh AM, Wardlaw JM, Deary IJ. Brain cortical characteristics of lifetime cognitive ageing. It will also be used to illustrate the results of future cortical analyses conducted by CCACE members in both the LBC and UK Biobank cohorts, and also used more widely by other researchers once it becomes available via the CCACE website. 
 
Description "Financial Abuse of Older People" - Stuart Ritchie 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact February 18 2016: took part in a seminar on Financial Abuse of Older People at Age UK, alongside members of the police, policymakers, and charity workers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 'AgeWell' annual event - Stuart Ritchie 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact September 1 2016: gave a talk on the LBC1936 to the 'AgeWell' annual event (general public audience) at the University of Birmingham.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Adam Smith Institute's 'Forum' event - Stuart Ritchie 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact December 3 2016: gave a talk on intelligence generally, including LBC1936 data, for the Adam Smith Institute's 'Forum' event (audience: general public).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Age UK Bake Sale 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact CCACE core staff and members help a bake sale in aid of Age UK in February 2016. The charity event was held in the Department of Psychology and was open to anyone who wanted to buy. Prizes were awarded for the cake that best linked to an area of research or study, and the most amusing design.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Age UK For Later Life Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact This is the annual conference of the UK's largest charity devoted to helping older people, Age UK. Professor Deary addressed the whole meeting on the topic of healthy cognitive ageing, ensuring a broad UK reach to workers in the older-age charity sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Ageing brain, ageing mind. Senior men's group - Ian Deary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation about cognitive and brain ageing for a senior men's group, followed by questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BBC1 television series "Holding back the years" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Bill Turnbull, star of BBC's Breakfast News TV, Strictly Come Dancing, Classic FM etc., came to the Psychology department on 23rd January 2017 with a BBC film crew to find out about the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936)/Disconnected Mind study.

BBC1 are planning a series in the Spring called 'Holding back the years'. Each programme will feature a celebrity revisiting a place that means a lot to them, and the programmes will have a focus on the processes of human ageing. Mr Turnbull was at the University of Edinburgh in the 1970's (he shared a flat with Gordon Brown for a term!), and so his programme is based here. It was natural that, to find out more about ageing, and with an Edinburgh locus, he and the BBC filming team visited the LBC1936. A busy afternoon's filming was filled with his interviewing LBC1936 Director Ian Deary, speaking with about a dozen of the LBC1936 participants, and seeing and taking part in some cognitive testing. Look out for the series, especially the Edinburgh-based Bill Turnbull programme in a few months' time.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ccace.ed.ac.uk/node/340
 
Description CCACE celebrates Scottish research cohorts 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Event held at Edinburgh's General Assembly Hall, June 2018. Hundreds of participants and researchers from Scottish cohort studies came together to celebrate their contribution to, and crucial role in, healthcare research. The day's programme covered research across the entire human lifespan, beginning with a presentation by Professor James Boardman on effects of premature birth, and ending with a talk from Professor David Batty on regional disparities in mortality. The event also offered a unique opportunity to survey the opinion of current Scottish cohort participants on future uses and sharing of their data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJBbqOq4qa8
 
Description Cognition and a Mediterranean diet research paper - Luciano 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact There was considerable media interest in a paper examining the link between consuming a Mediterranean diet and brain shrinkage. CCACE member, Michelle Luciano, gave Live TV interview on BBC Breakfast, pre-recorded TV interview for a South Korean News Channel, 2 Live radio Broadcasts (BBC Reporting Scotland, BBC 3 Counties), and 1 pre-recorded radio broadcast (Radio Forth)

Various interviews were also given for print media:
5/01/17: (BBC online ) (i) (The Press and Journal) (The Belfast Telegraph) (The Daily Express) (The Sun) (Metro) (New Scientist online) (The Herald) (The LA Times online (USA)) (The Times) (The Independent) (The Daily Mail) (Huffington Post online) (NBC News online) (The Irish Examiner online (Ireland)) (The Edinburgh Evening News) (The Evening Express) (La Vanguardia (Spain)) (Indo-Asian New Service (India)) (U.S. Food Stafety (USA)) (herenciageneticayenfermedad blog (Argentina)) (Health News Review (USA)) (ForeignAffairs.co.nz (New Zealand)) (Yahoo! India) (Channel 3000 (USA)) (Proceso Digital (Honduras)) (Nutraceutical World (USA)) (Top Sante (France)) (Yahoo! Actualites (France)) (The Business Standard (India)) (MedIndia (India)) (Visao Online (Portugal)) (Slashdot (USA)) (WOAI (USA)) (The New York Times (USA)) (Radio-Canada (Canada)) (Carriere Adriatico (Italy)) (Expatica (Netherlands)) (Inc.com (USA)) (WWLP (USA)) (TVA Nouvelles (Canada)) (ladepeche.fr (France)) (China News Service (China)) (The New York Times online (USA)) (Adnkronos (Italy)) (CNN (USA)) (NBC News (USA)) (U.S. News & World Report (USA)) (EFE - International Service (Spain)) (The Irish Daily Mail (Ireland)) (MedIndia (India)) (Point (France)) (AGF (Netherlands)) (Gosalute (Italy)) (Panorama (Italy)) (The New Zealand Herald) (Health Daily Digest (India)) (International Business Times (USA)) (Newser (USA)) (El Semanario Limitless (Mexico)) (Tech Times (USA)) (Day (Argentina)) (NutraIngredients.com (France)) (Sunday World (Ireland)) (La Sicillia (Italy)) (Monthly Prescribing References (USA)) (ProHealth.com (USA)) (Courrier Picard (France)) (Digital Journal (USA)) (EMaxHealth (USA)) (Sarasota Herald-Tribune (USA))
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Drop-in activity at the Edinburgh International Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Staff and students from CCACE hosted a drop-in activity stand at the National Museum of Scotland, with the theme: 'How Old Are You Really?' The aim was to draw attention to the many ways - other than chronological age - that researchers of ageing try to measure how old someone is. In a sign of how well received the stand was, there were queues to enter everyday due to reaching maximum visitor capacity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2018
 
Description Edinburgh Speakers Festival - Ian Deary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The new Edinburgh Speakers Festival 2016 took place from 9th-11th September and our own CCACE Director was invited to be part of this year's prestigious line-up. Speakers covered a large variety of topics including cognitive ageing, devolution, politics, history, literature, fashion, Islam, capitalism, cycling, RBS, the Lockerbie bombing, whisky and women's equality, but all with a focus on Scotland. Ian's talk was entitled "Understanding Healthy Cognitive Ageing: Scotland's Unique Contribution" and took place on Saturday 10th September.

This is what Ian said about the event:

"Well" said Disconnected Mind Director Ian Deary, "That's the first time I have been on the same bill as Ken Livingstone and Ruth Davisdson! What an ecclectic programme." Ian spoke on healthy cognitive ageing to an audience at the Edinburgh Speakers Festival. Of course, the LBC1936's results were highlighted, with a focus on the likely protective factors for cognitive ageing. "There was a middle-aged finalist from this year's Brain of Britain Radio 4 show in the audience", said Ian, "so that was a good basis from which to explain how crystallised ability ages pretty well." As usual,the photos of Mr Scott and his brain images went down well with the enthusiastic attendees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ccace.ed.ac.uk/node/327
 
Description Faculty of Public Health Annual Scottish Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a plenary invited keynote to the faculty of Public Health's annual conference. Professor Deary's talk was on healthy cognitive ageing, and he immediately followed and was heard by the Health Minister of the Scottish Government and her staff, as well as about 200 plus practitioners in public health. Therefore, it was a good opportunity to convey the work practitioners considering the important public health challenges for the Nation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description HMC conference - Stuart Ritchie 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact October 4 2016: gave a talk on intelligence generally, including LBC1936 data, to the HMC conference (audience: headteachers) in Stratford
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Healthy cognitive ageing - Ian Deary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Deary, I. J. (2016). Healthy cognitive ageing. Iain Whyte House Group. North Queensferry, UK, February.

Overview of general information on individual differences in human cognitive and brain ageing. Most examples taken from work on the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 and other cognitive ageing studies headed by Ian Deary at the University of Edinburgh. Followed by an extended question time raising additional points and ensuring understanding of the key messages.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Healthy cognitive ageing - Ian Deary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Deary, I. J. (2016). Healthy cognitive ageing. University of the Third Age Science Group. Edinburgh UK, March.

Overview of general information on individual differences in human cognitive and brain ageing. Most examples taken from work on the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 and other cognitive ageing studies headed by Ian Deary at the University of Edinburgh. Followed by an extended question time raising additional points and ensuring understanding of the key messages.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Healthy cognitive ageing and the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 - Ian Deary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Deary, I. J. (2016). Healthy cognitive ageing and the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936. The Senior Fellows Club of the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons of Edinburgh. Edinburgh, UK, May.

Overview of general information on individual differences in human cognitive and brain ageing. Most examples taken from work on the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 and other cognitive ageing studies headed by Ian Deary at the University of Edinburgh. Followed by an extended question time raising additional points and ensuring understanding of the key messages.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description MRC Festival of Medical Research 2016 - Brain Maze event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In June 2016 CCACE opened its doors to the public for the second outing of our popular Brain Maze event. CCACE joined forces with the Centre for Regeneritive Medicine to put on the interactive open day event as part of the Medical Research Council's Festival of Medical Research.

The sell out event (around 50-60 people took part in some way) led people through the maze of corridors and rooms in the basement of the Department of Psychology, where CCACE is based. In each of the 11 rooms, the had 10 minutes to experience a different aspect of the ageing brain and body. Popular activities included a supermarket sweep game, shopping for the lifestyle factors which affect how our brain ages (like smoking) while busting a few myths (like the lack of effect of brain training). The Maze finished with a cafe where participants got the chance to speak with scientists and reflect on their experience of the Maze. One of the main comments was that, having spent 2 hours in the maze chatting to scientists, people would have liked more time in each room. A great endosement of the time and effort invested by CCACE and CRM staff and students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ccace.ed.ac.uk/news-events/latest/maze2
 
Description Morningside Justice and Peace Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This invited talk and discussion was to a local group of mostly middle aged and older people who were interested to find out more about protective and risk factors for healthy cognitive ageing. There was opportunity for Professor Deary to present his research findings, and there was a long a lively discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description National Museum of Scotland exhibition - LBC1936 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact From 8 July 2016, the National Museum of Scotland (Edinburgh) have unveiled a new exhibit, John Scott's brain.

LBC1936 participant, Mr John Scott saw his brain for the first time in January this year at the National Museum of Scotland's Collections Care Centre. STV and the LBC team were there to witness Mr Scott seeing a 3D print of his living brain, taken from MRI data captured as part of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) study. The 3D print will go on display in the museum from 8 July 2016, along with a stunning representation of Mr Scott's white matter (tractography) etched in crystal glass. When asked how he felt about having his brain on display in the National Museum, Mr Scott said "It's great, I told my grandchildren, when I'm not here, you can go and see my brain!"


You can hear Mr Scott talking about his experience on STV News (from 15:30) at http://player.stv.tv/episode/36pt/news-at-six-edinburgh-east-full/thu-07-jan-6-00-pm/

Dr Simon Cox, MRC Imaging Fellow on the LBC1936 study, said "I am used to looking at brain images on the computer day-to-day, but seeing a real model of the brain's white matter connections in glass and the outer surface of the brain like this is a unique experience - they are incredibly striking objects".

The brain imaging in LBC1936 is overseen by CCACE Group Leaders Professor Joanna Wardlaw and Dr Mark Bastin of Edinburgh Imaging and suported by funding from Age UK and the MRC. The 3D models of the brain surface and white matter were developed by Dr Mark Bastin and Dave Liewald in collaboration with Sophie Goggins, Assistant Curator of Biomedicine at the National Museum of Scotland and the Edinburgh College of Art (3D printed model).

You can learn more about the exhibit and Mr Scott in an NMS blog by Sophie Goggins http://blog.nms.ac.uk/2016/01/08/the-lothian-birth-cohort-medical-imaging-in-our-new-galleries/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://blog.nms.ac.uk/2016/01/08/the-lothian-birth-cohort-medical-imaging-in-our-new-galleries/
 
Description Penicuik University of the Third Age - Ian Deary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Penicuik U3A discuss healthy cognitive ageing
"It's always a good sign when they have to put out extra chairs," said Ian Deary, after his talk on 16th February to Penicuik's branch of the University of the Third Age. "They said they usually get 30-50 people, but I lost count after 60. It's great to see such enthusiasm for hearing about healthy cognitive ageing and the Lothian Birth Cohorts' contribution to that. I encouraged people in the audience to ask any questions as we went along, and they were good at that. However, there were lots more excellent questions and discussions at the end of the talk. They wanted to know the evidence about many things, including genetics, dementia, physical exercise, smoking, sleep and cognitive engagement. I was especially pleased, when I was having my tea and custard cream afterwards, when an audience member congratulated my team on demonstrating reverse causation for some potential factors in cognitive ageing!" We note that Ian cycled to and from Penicuik to give the talk, which we hope contributed a little towards keeping him sharp.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ccace.ed.ac.uk/node/342
 
Description Professor Sir Godfrey Thomson exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A treasure trove of artefacts relating to this pioneering educational psychologist will be displayed at the Univeristy of Edinburgh from Friday 29th July until 29th October. Entrance to the exhibition is free, and it is open to the public.

Piles of intriguing ledgers and personal mementos will feature in an exhibition reconstructing the life and work of Professor Sir Godfrey Thomson. Sir Godfrey - who led the world's only nationwide IQ tests, in Scotland - was an innovative educator who firmly belived that educational opportunity should not be linked to social staus. From the 1920s onwards he advocated comprehensive education. Thomson was based at the Moray House School of Education, now part of the University of Edinburgh. His greatest legacy for today's researchers was to test the intelligence of almost every Scottish 11-year-old child in 1932, and again in 1947.

For the first time, the Scottish Mental Survey's unique ledgers will go on public view, with a selection of sample pages on show. The ledgers hold the world's only record of IQ-type scores from full national year-of-birth cohorts.

Sir Godfrey's findings have formed the basis of much of the cutting-edge research at the University of Edinburgh since the late 1990's into how the brain ages, led by Professor Ian Deary. His team studies the now-older people who took part in the Scottish Mental Surveys.

Ian has spent the past decade investigating Sir Godfrey's life, and in 2008 he rescued a mass of never-before-seen documents and objects from Thomson's family home in Edinburgh, just before it was demolished. A selection of those artefacts, portraits and documents feature in the exhibition, telling the story of who Sir Godfrey was and what his motivations were.

Ian Deary said: "Godfrey Thomson saw mental ability tests as an imperfect but useful means to give poor children a chance in life. He was determined to look past pupils' social status, and try to see their underlying ability. By all accounts he was modest, not motivated by money, and happy to share academic wins, which in part led him to fade from the history books. I'm delighted we are now able better to understand and evaluate the pioneering work of this multi-talented and elusive man."

8103 individuals visited the exhibition.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-edinburgh-east-fife-36894717
 
Description Staying sharp in later life; your expert guide to ageing well 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'Staying sharp in later life' is a plain-language guide developed by Age UK in collaboration with researchers at CCACE . It provides accessible summaries of the latest research on a range of subjects from exercise and brain training, to diet, smoking and alcohol. There is a print and online version of the guide.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2018
URL https://www.ageuk.org.uk/information-advice/health-wellbeing/mind-body/staying-sharp/
 
Description Sunday Morning With... the LBC1936 - Ian Deary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) got a good airing on BBC Radio Scotland on Sunday 26th February 2017. LBC1936 participant Margaret Macintosh and Study Director Ian Deary were interviewed by presenter Cathy MacDonald on the programme Sunday Morning With... "Cathy MacDonald was clearly very taken with the uniqueness and long-term nature of the LBC1936 sample and the importance and range of the findings", said Ian, "and so a piece that was planned to be 5-10 minutes long ran for about 20 minutes. It was great to hear Margaret's enthusiasm for the project, her reflections on what we do, and what we might add to the study." The radio piece was stimulated by the front-page article in The Times on 21st February 2017 which discussed the study on personality stability that was conducted on the LBC1936's sister study, the 6-Day Sample.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08g5h5s#play
 
Description The Scottish Mental Surveys and the Lothian Birth Cohorts - Judy Okely 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on factors related to healthy cognitive ageing to around 15 members of the Edinburgh Electrical Engineering Society, October 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018