Menstrual cups and unconditional cash transfer to reduce sexual and reproductive harm and school drop-out in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya

Lead Research Organisation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Department Name: Clinical Sciences

Abstract

Girls in low-income countries leave school early due to pregnancy, illness, early marriage, and lack of money for schooling and personal needs, including for menstrual hygiene management (MHM). School drop-out places girls at greater risk of sexual and reproductive health harms such as pregnancy, increased fertility, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV, and higher mortality of their children. School drop-out also reduces economic opportunity, keeping girls' in poverty and thereby at risk of increased morbidity and reduced quality of life. For economic, health, and social reasons, these are government ministry priorities, and interventions are needed to keep girls in school and improve their sexual and reproductive health. The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, with Kenyan partners including the Ministries of Education and Health (MOE/MOH), have completed a Joint Global Health Trials-funded pilot study, examining girls' use of menstrual cups and sanitary pads in rural primary schools in western Kenya. Pre-intervention, girls reported using rags, bedding or paper for MHM, causing discomfort, humiliating leaks and odour, reducing ability to concentrate in school, and causing them to skip school. Girls followed up revealed pads and cups were comfortable, increased their ability to engage in class, prevented leakage, and reduced the need to have sex with boyfriends in return for money to buy pads. No health or safety issues were found. At study completion girls were checked for STIs, and school drop-out (for pregnancy, marriage or other reasons). These negative outcomes combined were halved in girls using pads or cups compared with girls in control schools. Girls using cups preferred these to pads, because pads are ten-fold more costly, cause chafing if not changed frequently, and packs have to be shared with others. Girls did not share cups for fear of infection. We now propose to conduct a large-scale trial in the same area, in secondary schoolgirls, who are older but have increased drop-out rates (over a third higher), and a higher risk of HIV, STI, and pregnancy. We will examine if cups enable girls to stay in school and reduce their sexual and reproductive harms; while cups will improve dignity, health and wellbeing, and confidence at school, they may not be sufficient to resolve all girls' unmet needs, which cause them to drop-out of school. Cash transfer (CT) is an alternate but more expensive intervention, with studies showing it reduces absenteeism, drop-out, and sexual risks. In Malawi, CT reduced schoolgirls risk of HIV and human simplex virus (HSV-2; an indicator of girls' sexual risk behaviour), and reduced pregnancy. Cash amounts vary by study but the researchers recommend $5(£3.5) a month as sufficient. Our 4.5 year trial will examine if cash, cups, or cash and cups both provided, will prevent school drop-out and improve girls' sexual and reproductive health. For statistical rigor we will recruit 4032 secondary schoolgirls in 56 schools, provide interventions and follow-up them for 2 school years (6 terms). We will evaluate the cost per outcome (school drop-out including for pregnancy, HIV and HSV-2) prevented for single and combined interventions. The study will provide vital information on the comparative value of each intervention, how the interventions are used, any problems encountered, and their effect on girls' sexual behaviour, their wellbeing and school completion. We will seek advice from girls, schools, communities and stakeholders, working with all beneficiaries including MOE/MOH, using workshops to evaluate progress and develop materials for implementation packages. Girls clubs will be funded to encourage peer-support and advocacy. Packages will support scale-up should the trial demonstrate cost-effective outcomes. Findings will be widely disseminated to strengthen the evidence base supporting advocacy to improve the quality and equity of girls' lives.

Technical Summary

Cluster randomised controlled 4-arm superiority trial examining the impact and cost-effectiveness of menstrual cups, compared or combined with unconditional cash transfer, to improve rural girls' retention in secondary school and protect their sexual and reproductive health (SRH) in western Kenya. The objective is to reduce girls' exposure to drivers which increase SRH harms and compromise girls' successful school completion. A sample of 4032 girls, in 56 school clusters block randomised into 4 arms, will be followed for 2 years (6 terms). Allowing 8%/year migration loss this gives a power of 90% to detect 30% reduction in a composite primary endpoint (HIV, HSV-2, and school drop-out incidence); and 89% to detect a 52% reduction in HSV-2, 80% to detect a 36.3% reduction in drop-out, and 20% to detect a 50% reduction in HIV alone. Demographic surveillance facilitates home consent and follow-up to differentiate migration loss from school drop-out. Secondary outcomes measured through costings, surveys and qualitative studies are the cost-effectiveness of harms averted, intervention use and safety, girls' sexual behaviour, and quality of life measures. The trial follows completion of a pilot study showing safe cup use by rural Kenyan primary schoolgirls, and potential impact on STI's and school drop-out. Cash transfer reduced HIV, HSV-2 and sexual risks in Malawian schoolgirls but requires replication and comparison with alternative interventions. Hazards were not detected in prior studies but adverse events will be monitored. Girls clubs, beneficiary trial advocacy groups and government ministry partners will guide development, assess process evaluation, and develop materials for implementation packages that have direct application for programme scale-up. Trial outcomes will be disseminated widely to inform policy, guide research, and advocate for the health and equity of adolescent schoolgirls in impoverished communities.

Planned Impact

Interventions that improve the retention of adolescent girls in school will have multiple benefits for schoolgirls, parents and their communities, schools and teachers; health and education services; research staff, and at national and global level. Impacts will multiply over time as girls become financially independent adults. Girls will be financially independent and/or to be in control of their own menstrual hygiene; this will prevent or reduce the negative psycho-social pressures from dealing with the humiliation of poor menstrual care, pregnancy fear, and vulnerability to sexual exploitation, violence, illness and premature marriage. Staying in school will enable girls to retain their social networks, increase their knowledge and skills, complete their education, leading to employment. Girls will be free to enjoy and participate fully in school activities, including sport and play. Health benefits include a lower risk of STI, HIV, and teen pregnancy, and an increase in their health and wellbeing. Parents and communities will benefit from healthier girls who can achieve financial independence. While girls' are at school, parents will benefit from reduced cost-outlays for girls' menstrual and other personal needs. Freed income can be used for other family essentials, raising the quality of their lives. Communities will benefit from an increase in social capital, and a reduction in resources required to support unemployed, sick, and pregnant girls. Schools will be beneficiaries, as our trial will translate into improving water hygiene and sanitation in schools, in parallel with enhanced menstrual care. Teachers will benefit from girls' improved attention in class and equitable teaching. As more girls' complete education, there will be greater opportunity for training female teachers, redressing the gender imbalance. More engaged pupils will increase teachers' job satisfaction and better grades will raise school profiles. Partnerships between education and the health sector will be strengthened. Economic benefits would translate nationally; for example, researchers estimate that in Kenya, if all 1.6m adolescent girls were able to complete secondary school, and the ~220,000 girls who were pregnant and delivered could be educated, there would be a cumulative effect adding up to £2.1 billion towards Kenya's gross income per year. The trial will build skills in research and programme operations in schools. We intend to attach PhD students to this study, enabling Kenyan researchers to extend their skills and advance their academic careers. Researchers will benefit by improving the quality of research and outputs, with publication of findings and presentation at national and international research meetings. Ministry staff will be trained on research and programme activities enhancing their technical knowledge and fostering long-term links between research and programme staff. Intervention strategies will inform national school health, poverty reduction, and sexual and reproductive health policies and programmes. The global research and programme community will benefit from trial findings; findings will contribute to developing school health interventions. Implementation of successful intervention globally will increase the number of girls' completing school, reducing the current global estimate of 44m adolescent girls out of school. Implementing interventions that retain girls through secondary school will have global economic benefits, as it is estimated that countries growth rates would increase on average by ~1% annually if girls' education was raised one level higher (i.e. secondary status). Interventions will reduce the prevalence of teen births and poor maternal outcomes, and the rate of new HIV infections in adolescence which currently account for ~40% of new infections. This will decrease the burden of HIV programme costs for antiretroviral drugs and antenatal care to prevent mother to child transmission.

Publications

10 25 50

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Hennegan J (2017) Time to talk about menstruation: a response. in Lancet (London, England)

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Omoro T (2017) Teen pregnancy in rural western Kenya: a public health issue in International Journal of Adolescence and Youth

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Phillips-Howard PA (2018) Inclusion of menstrual health in sexual and reproductive health and rights. in The Lancet. Child & adolescent health

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Sommer M (2016) Managing menstruation in the workplace: an overlooked issue in low- and middle-income countries. in International journal for equity in health

 
Description Invited by Government of Kenya to be member of advisory panel developing national guidelines for menstrual hygiene
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Kenya Ministry of Health Menstrual Hygiene Management Policy Round-table and Validation Workshop (April 2017) - invited speaker and contribute towards finalising policy documents and guidelines
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Research studies have informed national strategy, policy guidelines, and programme training materials to include menstrual cups
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description DREAMS Initiative
Amount $1,368,469 (USD)
Funding ID EPPHZH3414 
Organisation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 11/2019
 
Description Global Health Research Catalyser
Amount $25,000 (USD)
Organisation Northwestern University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United States
Start 08/2017 
End 07/2018
 
Description NIHR Global Health Research Groups (as co-investigator)
Amount $1,950,000 (USD)
Funding ID 17/63/161 
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 11/2021
 
Description Personal request from Grand Challenges Canada
Amount $28,000 (CAD)
Funding ID SA_RBPS_0313 
Organisation Government of Canada 
Department Grand Challenges Canada
Sector Public
Country Canada
Start 11/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description Provide Mentorship on MHM to Grand Challenges Canada grantees
Amount $9,372 (CAD)
Funding ID SA_ROC05287913PP 
Organisation Government of Canada 
Department Grand Challenges Canada
Sector Public
Country Canada
Start 10/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description Stars in Global Health Round 9 (Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health) Grant
Amount $100,000 (CAD)
Funding ID R-ST-POC-1807-14223 
Organisation Government of Canada 
Department Grand Challenges Canada
Sector Public
Country Canada
Start 03/2018 
End 09/2019
 
Description Development of implementation science research on menstrual hygiene management interventions in schoolgirls 
Organisation Northwestern University
Department Feinberg School of Medicine
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution design and development of intervention implementation for trial, provision of intervention to participants, infrastructure support toward pathways to impact evaluation
Collaborator Contribution Provision of technical expertise on implementation science, supporting our pathways to impact evaluation; Dr Neubauer obtained a catalyst grant from Northwestern to support further field research on implementation science within our current research activities
Impact research ongoing
Start Year 2017
 
Description East Africa MHM group 
Organisation Biomedical Research and Training Institute (BRTI)
Country Zimbabwe 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Partners jointly awarded seed grant (25k) toward developing east Africa menstrual hygiene management research capacity strengthening hub from Academy of Sciences (GCRF: GCRFNGR2\10317) 'Strengthening East and Southern African capacity for menstrual hygiene management (MHM) research.This aims to capitalize on current research to build capacity in MHM in SSA. Myself and trial manager form current trial attended the first workshop, contributing experience generated from pilot and current trial, provided epidemiological guidance to LSHTM on their proposed MHM trial submission for funding, and capacity strengthening for the 4 African researchers on their topics of interest in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A visit of the 4 researchers to our trial site will support training on trial methodologies, and teachings from the field. This will be a platform to seek larger funding for multi-country studies, and to improve research uptake across research sites.
Collaborator Contribution Partners supported application, granted to Zimbabwe Biomedical Training Institute (previously not worked on this subject area) and LSHTM. MRC/UVL/LSHTM helf first workshop in Entebbe, where 4 researchers from each country presented scoping of MHM per country, research gaps, and intended projects for study. In addition to visiting our site in Kenya, a developmental site visit and workshop will take place in Zimbabwe, where working groups will share, examine and critically appraise research protocols, in preparation for field activities.
Impact just initiated this year
Start Year 2018
 
Description East Africa MHM group 
Organisation Columbia University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Partners jointly awarded seed grant (25k) toward developing east Africa menstrual hygiene management research capacity strengthening hub from Academy of Sciences (GCRF: GCRFNGR2\10317) 'Strengthening East and Southern African capacity for menstrual hygiene management (MHM) research.This aims to capitalize on current research to build capacity in MHM in SSA. Myself and trial manager form current trial attended the first workshop, contributing experience generated from pilot and current trial, provided epidemiological guidance to LSHTM on their proposed MHM trial submission for funding, and capacity strengthening for the 4 African researchers on their topics of interest in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A visit of the 4 researchers to our trial site will support training on trial methodologies, and teachings from the field. This will be a platform to seek larger funding for multi-country studies, and to improve research uptake across research sites.
Collaborator Contribution Partners supported application, granted to Zimbabwe Biomedical Training Institute (previously not worked on this subject area) and LSHTM. MRC/UVL/LSHTM helf first workshop in Entebbe, where 4 researchers from each country presented scoping of MHM per country, research gaps, and intended projects for study. In addition to visiting our site in Kenya, a developmental site visit and workshop will take place in Zimbabwe, where working groups will share, examine and critically appraise research protocols, in preparation for field activities.
Impact just initiated this year
Start Year 2018
 
Description East Africa MHM group 
Organisation Johns Hopkins University
Department Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Partners jointly awarded seed grant (25k) toward developing east Africa menstrual hygiene management research capacity strengthening hub from Academy of Sciences (GCRF: GCRFNGR2\10317) 'Strengthening East and Southern African capacity for menstrual hygiene management (MHM) research.This aims to capitalize on current research to build capacity in MHM in SSA. Myself and trial manager form current trial attended the first workshop, contributing experience generated from pilot and current trial, provided epidemiological guidance to LSHTM on their proposed MHM trial submission for funding, and capacity strengthening for the 4 African researchers on their topics of interest in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A visit of the 4 researchers to our trial site will support training on trial methodologies, and teachings from the field. This will be a platform to seek larger funding for multi-country studies, and to improve research uptake across research sites.
Collaborator Contribution Partners supported application, granted to Zimbabwe Biomedical Training Institute (previously not worked on this subject area) and LSHTM. MRC/UVL/LSHTM helf first workshop in Entebbe, where 4 researchers from each country presented scoping of MHM per country, research gaps, and intended projects for study. In addition to visiting our site in Kenya, a developmental site visit and workshop will take place in Zimbabwe, where working groups will share, examine and critically appraise research protocols, in preparation for field activities.
Impact just initiated this year
Start Year 2018
 
Description East Africa MHM group 
Organisation Kenyan Institute for Medical Research (KEMRI)
Department KEMRI/CDC Research and Public Health Collaboration
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Partners jointly awarded seed grant (25k) toward developing east Africa menstrual hygiene management research capacity strengthening hub from Academy of Sciences (GCRF: GCRFNGR2\10317) 'Strengthening East and Southern African capacity for menstrual hygiene management (MHM) research.This aims to capitalize on current research to build capacity in MHM in SSA. Myself and trial manager form current trial attended the first workshop, contributing experience generated from pilot and current trial, provided epidemiological guidance to LSHTM on their proposed MHM trial submission for funding, and capacity strengthening for the 4 African researchers on their topics of interest in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A visit of the 4 researchers to our trial site will support training on trial methodologies, and teachings from the field. This will be a platform to seek larger funding for multi-country studies, and to improve research uptake across research sites.
Collaborator Contribution Partners supported application, granted to Zimbabwe Biomedical Training Institute (previously not worked on this subject area) and LSHTM. MRC/UVL/LSHTM helf first workshop in Entebbe, where 4 researchers from each country presented scoping of MHM per country, research gaps, and intended projects for study. In addition to visiting our site in Kenya, a developmental site visit and workshop will take place in Zimbabwe, where working groups will share, examine and critically appraise research protocols, in preparation for field activities.
Impact just initiated this year
Start Year 2018
 
Description East Africa MHM group 
Organisation Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Partners jointly awarded seed grant (25k) toward developing east Africa menstrual hygiene management research capacity strengthening hub from Academy of Sciences (GCRF: GCRFNGR2\10317) 'Strengthening East and Southern African capacity for menstrual hygiene management (MHM) research.This aims to capitalize on current research to build capacity in MHM in SSA. Myself and trial manager form current trial attended the first workshop, contributing experience generated from pilot and current trial, provided epidemiological guidance to LSHTM on their proposed MHM trial submission for funding, and capacity strengthening for the 4 African researchers on their topics of interest in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A visit of the 4 researchers to our trial site will support training on trial methodologies, and teachings from the field. This will be a platform to seek larger funding for multi-country studies, and to improve research uptake across research sites.
Collaborator Contribution Partners supported application, granted to Zimbabwe Biomedical Training Institute (previously not worked on this subject area) and LSHTM. MRC/UVL/LSHTM helf first workshop in Entebbe, where 4 researchers from each country presented scoping of MHM per country, research gaps, and intended projects for study. In addition to visiting our site in Kenya, a developmental site visit and workshop will take place in Zimbabwe, where working groups will share, examine and critically appraise research protocols, in preparation for field activities.
Impact just initiated this year
Start Year 2018
 
Description East Africa MHM group 
Organisation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Partners jointly awarded seed grant (25k) toward developing east Africa menstrual hygiene management research capacity strengthening hub from Academy of Sciences (GCRF: GCRFNGR2\10317) 'Strengthening East and Southern African capacity for menstrual hygiene management (MHM) research.This aims to capitalize on current research to build capacity in MHM in SSA. Myself and trial manager form current trial attended the first workshop, contributing experience generated from pilot and current trial, provided epidemiological guidance to LSHTM on their proposed MHM trial submission for funding, and capacity strengthening for the 4 African researchers on their topics of interest in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A visit of the 4 researchers to our trial site will support training on trial methodologies, and teachings from the field. This will be a platform to seek larger funding for multi-country studies, and to improve research uptake across research sites.
Collaborator Contribution Partners supported application, granted to Zimbabwe Biomedical Training Institute (previously not worked on this subject area) and LSHTM. MRC/UVL/LSHTM helf first workshop in Entebbe, where 4 researchers from each country presented scoping of MHM per country, research gaps, and intended projects for study. In addition to visiting our site in Kenya, a developmental site visit and workshop will take place in Zimbabwe, where working groups will share, examine and critically appraise research protocols, in preparation for field activities.
Impact just initiated this year
Start Year 2018
 
Description East Africa MHM group 
Organisation MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS
Country Uganda 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Partners jointly awarded seed grant (25k) toward developing east Africa menstrual hygiene management research capacity strengthening hub from Academy of Sciences (GCRF: GCRFNGR2\10317) 'Strengthening East and Southern African capacity for menstrual hygiene management (MHM) research.This aims to capitalize on current research to build capacity in MHM in SSA. Myself and trial manager form current trial attended the first workshop, contributing experience generated from pilot and current trial, provided epidemiological guidance to LSHTM on their proposed MHM trial submission for funding, and capacity strengthening for the 4 African researchers on their topics of interest in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A visit of the 4 researchers to our trial site will support training on trial methodologies, and teachings from the field. This will be a platform to seek larger funding for multi-country studies, and to improve research uptake across research sites.
Collaborator Contribution Partners supported application, granted to Zimbabwe Biomedical Training Institute (previously not worked on this subject area) and LSHTM. MRC/UVL/LSHTM helf first workshop in Entebbe, where 4 researchers from each country presented scoping of MHM per country, research gaps, and intended projects for study. In addition to visiting our site in Kenya, a developmental site visit and workshop will take place in Zimbabwe, where working groups will share, examine and critically appraise research protocols, in preparation for field activities.
Impact just initiated this year
Start Year 2018
 
Description East Africa MHM group 
Organisation Makerere University
Department School of Public Health
Country Uganda 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Partners jointly awarded seed grant (25k) toward developing east Africa menstrual hygiene management research capacity strengthening hub from Academy of Sciences (GCRF: GCRFNGR2\10317) 'Strengthening East and Southern African capacity for menstrual hygiene management (MHM) research.This aims to capitalize on current research to build capacity in MHM in SSA. Myself and trial manager form current trial attended the first workshop, contributing experience generated from pilot and current trial, provided epidemiological guidance to LSHTM on their proposed MHM trial submission for funding, and capacity strengthening for the 4 African researchers on their topics of interest in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A visit of the 4 researchers to our trial site will support training on trial methodologies, and teachings from the field. This will be a platform to seek larger funding for multi-country studies, and to improve research uptake across research sites.
Collaborator Contribution Partners supported application, granted to Zimbabwe Biomedical Training Institute (previously not worked on this subject area) and LSHTM. MRC/UVL/LSHTM helf first workshop in Entebbe, where 4 researchers from each country presented scoping of MHM per country, research gaps, and intended projects for study. In addition to visiting our site in Kenya, a developmental site visit and workshop will take place in Zimbabwe, where working groups will share, examine and critically appraise research protocols, in preparation for field activities.
Impact just initiated this year
Start Year 2018
 
Description East Africa MHM group 
Organisation The Cup Effect
PI Contribution Partners jointly awarded seed grant (25k) toward developing east Africa menstrual hygiene management research capacity strengthening hub from Academy of Sciences (GCRF: GCRFNGR2\10317) 'Strengthening East and Southern African capacity for menstrual hygiene management (MHM) research.This aims to capitalize on current research to build capacity in MHM in SSA. Myself and trial manager form current trial attended the first workshop, contributing experience generated from pilot and current trial, provided epidemiological guidance to LSHTM on their proposed MHM trial submission for funding, and capacity strengthening for the 4 African researchers on their topics of interest in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A visit of the 4 researchers to our trial site will support training on trial methodologies, and teachings from the field. This will be a platform to seek larger funding for multi-country studies, and to improve research uptake across research sites.
Collaborator Contribution Partners supported application, granted to Zimbabwe Biomedical Training Institute (previously not worked on this subject area) and LSHTM. MRC/UVL/LSHTM helf first workshop in Entebbe, where 4 researchers from each country presented scoping of MHM per country, research gaps, and intended projects for study. In addition to visiting our site in Kenya, a developmental site visit and workshop will take place in Zimbabwe, where working groups will share, examine and critically appraise research protocols, in preparation for field activities.
Impact just initiated this year
Start Year 2018
 
Description East Africa MHM group 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Partners jointly awarded seed grant (25k) toward developing east Africa menstrual hygiene management research capacity strengthening hub from Academy of Sciences (GCRF: GCRFNGR2\10317) 'Strengthening East and Southern African capacity for menstrual hygiene management (MHM) research.This aims to capitalize on current research to build capacity in MHM in SSA. Myself and trial manager form current trial attended the first workshop, contributing experience generated from pilot and current trial, provided epidemiological guidance to LSHTM on their proposed MHM trial submission for funding, and capacity strengthening for the 4 African researchers on their topics of interest in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A visit of the 4 researchers to our trial site will support training on trial methodologies, and teachings from the field. This will be a platform to seek larger funding for multi-country studies, and to improve research uptake across research sites.
Collaborator Contribution Partners supported application, granted to Zimbabwe Biomedical Training Institute (previously not worked on this subject area) and LSHTM. MRC/UVL/LSHTM helf first workshop in Entebbe, where 4 researchers from each country presented scoping of MHM per country, research gaps, and intended projects for study. In addition to visiting our site in Kenya, a developmental site visit and workshop will take place in Zimbabwe, where working groups will share, examine and critically appraise research protocols, in preparation for field activities.
Impact just initiated this year
Start Year 2018
 
Description East Africa MHM group 
Organisation Wellcome Trust
Department KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme
Country Kenya 
Sector Multiple 
PI Contribution Partners jointly awarded seed grant (25k) toward developing east Africa menstrual hygiene management research capacity strengthening hub from Academy of Sciences (GCRF: GCRFNGR2\10317) 'Strengthening East and Southern African capacity for menstrual hygiene management (MHM) research.This aims to capitalize on current research to build capacity in MHM in SSA. Myself and trial manager form current trial attended the first workshop, contributing experience generated from pilot and current trial, provided epidemiological guidance to LSHTM on their proposed MHM trial submission for funding, and capacity strengthening for the 4 African researchers on their topics of interest in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A visit of the 4 researchers to our trial site will support training on trial methodologies, and teachings from the field. This will be a platform to seek larger funding for multi-country studies, and to improve research uptake across research sites.
Collaborator Contribution Partners supported application, granted to Zimbabwe Biomedical Training Institute (previously not worked on this subject area) and LSHTM. MRC/UVL/LSHTM helf first workshop in Entebbe, where 4 researchers from each country presented scoping of MHM per country, research gaps, and intended projects for study. In addition to visiting our site in Kenya, a developmental site visit and workshop will take place in Zimbabwe, where working groups will share, examine and critically appraise research protocols, in preparation for field activities.
Impact just initiated this year
Start Year 2018
 
Description Effects on menstrual cups on the vaginal microbiome 
Organisation University of Illinois at Chicago
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our pilot study funded through Joint Global Health Trials identified a lower prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among girls using menstrual cups copared with other menstrual materials; and a lower prevalence of STI copared with girls using traditional materials. two possible causal pathways are postulated, one relating to cups protecting the vaginal microbiome, and also that provision of menstrual materials reduce exposure to transactional sex. in our curremt (full) trial we examine HIV, HSV-2 and school dropout among a cohort of schoolgirls provided cups, cash pocket money, both, and among controls. we do not have resources to examine other STI, or the vaginal microbiome.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborators at UoI and Nyanza Reproductive Health Society have expertise in examining penile and vaginal microbiome, and with our collaboration have been awarded a NIH grant to investigate the effect of cups on the vaginal microbiome in our trial cohort. Genital microbiota present in genomic DNA extracted from vaginal swab specimens will be characterized using high-throughput amplicon sequencing at UoI; and the grant will support diagnosis of STI and BV.
Impact NIH award (RO1)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Initiation of a Cup Coalition 
Organisation Church of Sweden
PI Contribution Our pilot and trial provide the evidence-base for safety and effectiveness of menstrual cup use in LMIC (experience, Kenya), support and guidance for tools, evaluation of research gaps, and monitoring and evaluation, for partners working in research and programmes across east and the horn of Africa, with potential to expand across other regions of Africa.
Collaborator Contribution Organised first meeting to discuss aim, purpose, and development of cup coalition,
Impact Agreement on value in developing Cup Coalition; preparation of terms of reference of Cup Coalition; definition of key gaps in menstrual cup research; sharing of monitoring and evaluation and guidance tools; coalition members support presentation of menstrual cup research and programmes at upcoming 'Women Deliver' conference in Canada; meeting held afterward with Save The Children Fund Nairobi and provision of our guidelines on cup training, for their setting up provision of cups in refugee camps; introduction of team in Eldoret to the Cup Foundation to assist in examining feasibility of providing menstrual cups to adolescent street girls; meeting with UNICEF on assisting them with cup programme in 2 districts in Kenya;
Start Year 2018
 
Description Initiation of a Cup Coalition 
Organisation Femme International
PI Contribution Our pilot and trial provide the evidence-base for safety and effectiveness of menstrual cup use in LMIC (experience, Kenya), support and guidance for tools, evaluation of research gaps, and monitoring and evaluation, for partners working in research and programmes across east and the horn of Africa, with potential to expand across other regions of Africa.
Collaborator Contribution Organised first meeting to discuss aim, purpose, and development of cup coalition,
Impact Agreement on value in developing Cup Coalition; preparation of terms of reference of Cup Coalition; definition of key gaps in menstrual cup research; sharing of monitoring and evaluation and guidance tools; coalition members support presentation of menstrual cup research and programmes at upcoming 'Women Deliver' conference in Canada; meeting held afterward with Save The Children Fund Nairobi and provision of our guidelines on cup training, for their setting up provision of cups in refugee camps; introduction of team in Eldoret to the Cup Foundation to assist in examining feasibility of providing menstrual cups to adolescent street girls; meeting with UNICEF on assisting them with cup programme in 2 districts in Kenya;
Start Year 2018
 
Description Initiation of a Cup Coalition 
Organisation Ruby Life ltd
PI Contribution Our pilot and trial provide the evidence-base for safety and effectiveness of menstrual cup use in LMIC (experience, Kenya), support and guidance for tools, evaluation of research gaps, and monitoring and evaluation, for partners working in research and programmes across east and the horn of Africa, with potential to expand across other regions of Africa.
Collaborator Contribution Organised first meeting to discuss aim, purpose, and development of cup coalition,
Impact Agreement on value in developing Cup Coalition; preparation of terms of reference of Cup Coalition; definition of key gaps in menstrual cup research; sharing of monitoring and evaluation and guidance tools; coalition members support presentation of menstrual cup research and programmes at upcoming 'Women Deliver' conference in Canada; meeting held afterward with Save The Children Fund Nairobi and provision of our guidelines on cup training, for their setting up provision of cups in refugee camps; introduction of team in Eldoret to the Cup Foundation to assist in examining feasibility of providing menstrual cups to adolescent street girls; meeting with UNICEF on assisting them with cup programme in 2 districts in Kenya;
Start Year 2018
 
Description Initiation of a Cup Coalition 
Organisation Save the Children
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our pilot and trial provide the evidence-base for safety and effectiveness of menstrual cup use in LMIC (experience, Kenya), support and guidance for tools, evaluation of research gaps, and monitoring and evaluation, for partners working in research and programmes across east and the horn of Africa, with potential to expand across other regions of Africa.
Collaborator Contribution Organised first meeting to discuss aim, purpose, and development of cup coalition,
Impact Agreement on value in developing Cup Coalition; preparation of terms of reference of Cup Coalition; definition of key gaps in menstrual cup research; sharing of monitoring and evaluation and guidance tools; coalition members support presentation of menstrual cup research and programmes at upcoming 'Women Deliver' conference in Canada; meeting held afterward with Save The Children Fund Nairobi and provision of our guidelines on cup training, for their setting up provision of cups in refugee camps; introduction of team in Eldoret to the Cup Foundation to assist in examining feasibility of providing menstrual cups to adolescent street girls; meeting with UNICEF on assisting them with cup programme in 2 districts in Kenya;
Start Year 2018
 
Description Initiation of a Cup Coalition 
Organisation The Cup Effect
PI Contribution Our pilot and trial provide the evidence-base for safety and effectiveness of menstrual cup use in LMIC (experience, Kenya), support and guidance for tools, evaluation of research gaps, and monitoring and evaluation, for partners working in research and programmes across east and the horn of Africa, with potential to expand across other regions of Africa.
Collaborator Contribution Organised first meeting to discuss aim, purpose, and development of cup coalition,
Impact Agreement on value in developing Cup Coalition; preparation of terms of reference of Cup Coalition; definition of key gaps in menstrual cup research; sharing of monitoring and evaluation and guidance tools; coalition members support presentation of menstrual cup research and programmes at upcoming 'Women Deliver' conference in Canada; meeting held afterward with Save The Children Fund Nairobi and provision of our guidelines on cup training, for their setting up provision of cups in refugee camps; introduction of team in Eldoret to the Cup Foundation to assist in examining feasibility of providing menstrual cups to adolescent street girls; meeting with UNICEF on assisting them with cup programme in 2 districts in Kenya;
Start Year 2018
 
Description Initiation of a Cup Coalition 
Organisation United Nations (UN)
Department United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our pilot and trial provide the evidence-base for safety and effectiveness of menstrual cup use in LMIC (experience, Kenya), support and guidance for tools, evaluation of research gaps, and monitoring and evaluation, for partners working in research and programmes across east and the horn of Africa, with potential to expand across other regions of Africa.
Collaborator Contribution Organised first meeting to discuss aim, purpose, and development of cup coalition,
Impact Agreement on value in developing Cup Coalition; preparation of terms of reference of Cup Coalition; definition of key gaps in menstrual cup research; sharing of monitoring and evaluation and guidance tools; coalition members support presentation of menstrual cup research and programmes at upcoming 'Women Deliver' conference in Canada; meeting held afterward with Save The Children Fund Nairobi and provision of our guidelines on cup training, for their setting up provision of cups in refugee camps; introduction of team in Eldoret to the Cup Foundation to assist in examining feasibility of providing menstrual cups to adolescent street girls; meeting with UNICEF on assisting them with cup programme in 2 districts in Kenya;
Start Year 2018
 
Description Initiation of a Cup Coalition 
Organisation WOMENA
PI Contribution Our pilot and trial provide the evidence-base for safety and effectiveness of menstrual cup use in LMIC (experience, Kenya), support and guidance for tools, evaluation of research gaps, and monitoring and evaluation, for partners working in research and programmes across east and the horn of Africa, with potential to expand across other regions of Africa.
Collaborator Contribution Organised first meeting to discuss aim, purpose, and development of cup coalition,
Impact Agreement on value in developing Cup Coalition; preparation of terms of reference of Cup Coalition; definition of key gaps in menstrual cup research; sharing of monitoring and evaluation and guidance tools; coalition members support presentation of menstrual cup research and programmes at upcoming 'Women Deliver' conference in Canada; meeting held afterward with Save The Children Fund Nairobi and provision of our guidelines on cup training, for their setting up provision of cups in refugee camps; introduction of team in Eldoret to the Cup Foundation to assist in examining feasibility of providing menstrual cups to adolescent street girls; meeting with UNICEF on assisting them with cup programme in 2 districts in Kenya;
Start Year 2018
 
Description Joint partnership advising Canadian Grand Challenges on technical evaluations of Menstrual Hygiene Management grantee investments 
Organisation Columbia University
Department Mailman School of Public Health
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Request by Grand Challenges Canada for Prof Marni Sommers (Columbia University) and myself to develop Theory of Change and indicators for menstrual hygiene management to use for evaluation of grants submissions, and monitoring successful investees proposed outcomes. We have reviewed and advised on the theory of change (partners' main contribution) and developed the monitoring and evaluation indicators, and guided on adaptation of grant review form to better evaluate investees potential contribution toward global lives improved..
Collaborator Contribution Columbia University spread-headed the theory of change and provided review feedback on draft indicators; team jointly completed this research work.
Impact Update of Grand Challenges Canada review process for applications for grants for menstrual hygiene management globally
Start Year 2017
 
Description Susceptibility of Kenyan adolescent girls to measles 
Organisation University of Massachusetts
Department University of Massachusetts Medical School
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our trial platform provides an opportunity to examine whether girls in Kenya, who are only vaccinated once at 9 months against measles, are susceptible to infection during adolescence, a time when they are also susceptible to unplanned pregnancies. During blood draw for our HIV and HSV2 sero-survey, 300 girls who assent (with parent consent) to join this sub-survey will allow 1 microlitre of blood to be used to measure their measles-specific immunoglobulin G, by our collaborative partners. We will compare vaccine status against girls' vaccine report cards, and report results to the MOH, for evaluation of their current vaccination policy. Results will be given to participants with guide on vaccination services.
Collaborator Contribution University of Massachusetts collaborators with their KEMRI partners will conduct the multiplex bead-based suspension assay (Luminex), which is similar to standard ELISA but optimised for low volumes, at their own expense. This will be conducted in Kenya.
Impact pending, survey 2018
Start Year 2017
 
Title Menstrual cups, and cash transfer 
Description Trial enrolment to test these interventions now underway. 
Type Preventative Intervention - Physical/Biological risk modification
Current Stage Of Development Small-scale adoption
Year Development Stage Completed 2017
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Clinical Trial? Yes
Impact Trial enrolment to test these interventions now underway. 
 
Description African Union Girls Summit - technical advice and presentation, Ghana 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Africa Union held it's second Girls Summit: ending child marriage in Africa, October 23-24th 2018 in Accra. As poor menstrual hygiene management impacts girls sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and can contribute to dropout of school, hence increasing risk of child marriage, a session dedicated to Menstrual Health was organised by UNFPA - intending to reach west African policy makers, politicians, donors, and grass roots organisations. I was asked to provide research findings to date on the effects of poor MHM on girls SRH, and to support technical discussions between the panel and audience participants. this follows the UNFPA east and southern Africa Menstrual Health meeting held in Johannesburg May 28-29th 2018, with the development of an African Menstrual Health Coalition; expanding to west Africa through the session held Accra Child Summit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Attend MHM Grand Coalition Co-creation Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop aims to bring together current and prospective core-members that will jointly formulate and establish the foundations of a Global Coalition on MHM. The Coalition will convene stakeholders from UN, CSO, academia and private sector agencies from relevant sectors, including WASH, health/SRHR, education, gender and human rights, for
collective endeavor to connect interests, commitments and expertise to scale up menstrual health and hygiene.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description BBC World 'Health check' broadcast on effect of menstrual cup on school and home life in Kenya (27 Sept 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Department for International Development were interested to do a media piece on girls' returning to school in Kenya, for the UK public at a time when school commenced also for winter term in the UK. In discussion with the BBC east Africa correspondent, they wished to cover this article. the BBC World Service correspondent then visited study site with our Kenyan trial manager and interviewed the Kenyan field study team and girls in different schools, for their views on menstruation, and potential role of the trial intervention (menstrual cups). Views of the girls included quotes around school attendance has improved and they also explain that they no longer are forced to have transactional sex with 'boyfriends' to get the money to buy sanitary products. "My mum tells me that I am smart and I don't want to be your girlfriend because I have a Mooncup now. I have become a digital girl."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p002vsyw
 
Description Co-organization of (and presentation at) international expert panel to standardize menstrual health measurement and indicators 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member of the Scientific Technical Advisory Group on Menstrual Health and Hygiene Management to standardise indicators for MHM and robust measurement, 11th-13th March 2019. This is in collaboration with the UN Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council's Grand Coalition on Menstrual Health, held in Geneva 14th-15th March 2019. Multi-sector global experts in sexual and reproductive health, education, water and sanitation, and gender were invited to meet to work with the STAG to examine, define and support the development of measures that synergise with other international indicators, and that can contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals. these indicators will be disseminated internationally to national menstrual health and hygiene management programmes, and for aid agencies and NGOs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Member of Study Advisory Committee for MRC funded MHM study, Uganda 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Provide technical research guidance to 'Menstrual health interventions and School attendance among Ugandans (MENISCUs-2)', on protocol development, and research study related issues, provide evidence-base from studies we have completed in Kenya to inform if needed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Member of Trial Steering Committee for MRC/DFID/NIHR funded Trial on menstrual health and School attendance, Gambia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to join Trial Steering Committee for 'Puberty health interventions to improve menstrual health and School attendance among Gambian adolescents (MEGAMBO)', to provide expertise and guidance on the trial.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Present keynote on menstrual cup research and participant of Cup Summit, Nairobi 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was the first meeting of researchers, programmes, NGOs on menstrual cups in eastern and horn of Africa. The Summit was organised by the Cup Foundation, with the aim to build knowledge, develop partnerships, and share experiences and tools. Objectives included:
1. Identify, introduce and improve communication channels between (participant) cup groups who distribute cups and related training, do cup marketing or research into cup use.
2. Discuss pressing issues, which effect distribution, availability and use: how to better design our work to improve cup uptake, measure impact and ensure sustainability.
3. Identify common projects, how we together can fundraise, do campaigns and/or create awareness of the menstrual cup and underprivileged girls situation;
4. Cover any other priority topics from the participants related to programs, campaigns and more.

OUTPUTS:
1. Framework for communication and agreement on how it will be managed
2. Menstrual cup research priority list
3. Description of 1-3 projects that participant groups can collaborate on and preliminary ideas/agreement on how they will be managed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.thecup.org
 
Description Present research evidence on effect of poor menstrual hygiene on girls education and health (Houses of Parliament) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited by the Commonwealth Education Commission to present to parliamentarians, members of the CEC, and other interested persons on the effect of poor menstrual hygiene on girls education and health in low middle income countries. discussions held on how to more widely disseminate as well as the need to conduct research in impoverished settings in the UK (period poverty) . A report of the meeting will be sent to parliamentarians for further action.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.cecomm.org.uk/r?u=ySZ7jUTX4rpJMpW8BexsPglaiIerb8WVoZn6-rRm7OD1eJQKgeN4iN1nhnR8pdvbwIC1q3K...
 
Description Present update on menstrual research and randomised controlled trial on menstrual cups at Menstrual Cup Summit Nairobi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Updated members of Menstrual Cup Coalition on menstrual cup research, and other Cup Summit members, including programme and NGO agencies working in rural impoverished areas and with refugees
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation and workshop member for finalizing Kenyan national Menstrual Hygiene Management Policy and Guidelines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Request to present research evidence for menstrual hygiene management for women and girls in Kenya, to inform national policy and guidelines; meeting attended by all stakeholders and policy-makers in Kenya. Safety and effectiveness of menstrual cups considered warranting inclusion in policy, guidelines, and school training manuals for
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation of trial design, and baseline prevalence of HIV/HSV-2 at HIV conference in Nairobi January 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Two presentations by Kenyan and by LSTM career researchers on the trial design, and on baseline prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 sexual behaviours and correlates; open dialogue and discussion on trial interventions, potential impact, policy implications, and expansion of collaborative partnerships.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://retreat.phdaf.org/docs/COLLABAGENDA2018-5%20Final.pdf
 
Description Presentation on global menstrual hygiene research at symposium at American Public Health Association 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to present research priorities for menstrual health and hygiene research, reflecting on experience and application of knowledge from research in impoverished girls in low income to high income countries
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.publichealthnewswire.org/?p=21581
 
Description Presentation on nested study within trial at annual conference on HIV/STI in Nairobi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 'Prevalence and risks for STIs and Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) among secondary schoolgirls: Baseline characteristics in the Cups and Community Health (CaCHe) vaginal microbiome study' Supriya M, Zulaika G, Agingu W, Nyothach E, van Eijk AM, Fredrick Otieno F, Phillips-Howard PA. University of Nairobi STD/HIV/SRH Collaborative Research Group Annual Meeting, Nairobi, 28-30 January 2019. Presentation of the sexual and reproductive health and risk characteristics of participants in a collaborative study nested within the menstrual cups or cash transfer trial, which aims to evaluate the potential effect on menstrual cups on the vaginal microbiome.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Provide technical support for THRiVE grant and east Africa working group on menstrual hygiene management 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We supported Tanzanian group at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College to receive a small career grant award through THRIVE (training health researchers into vocational excellence in east Africa) to do a study on one aspect of menstrual hygiene, plus have a workshop with east African MHM research and programme persons including the Ugandan (Kampala International University and St Augustine International University Kampala), Tanzanian (Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College), Kenyan (Kenya Medical Research Institute), UK Universities (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine; Sheffield University, Oxford University, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine with MRC Uganda/Uganda Virus Research Institute), and menstrual product NGO's and programmes (Femme International; WoMena; Rubycups, AFRIpads). Workshop on 27-29th November 2017 sharing and advising on research tools and methods based on experience from MRC/DFID/Wellcome Trust Trial and pilot, other programmes, indicators, and supported Tanzanian study award design. Provided opportunity for networking and career development of our Kenyan partner also.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Scientific workshop - Priorities for research for menstrual management in low middle income countries 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting of international experts (UK, USA, Canada) on menstrual hygiene held by Green Templeton College, Oxford University to spearhead research agenda, 28th-29th November 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description UNFPA - East and Southern Africa Menstrual Hygiene Symposium and Coalition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact UNFPA East and Southern Africa Regional Office and the Department of Women in the Presidency of the Republic of South Africa co-hosted the first East and Southern African Symposium on Menstrual Health Management (MHM) from 28 to 29 May 2018 in Johannesburg, South Africa. The intent was to raise awareness and inform attendees across different sectors from east and southern africa, of the importance of menstrual hygiene for public health and gender equity. I (i) supported development of the agenda, programme, provided technical support in writing up the call for action, (ii) presented to the plenary on the contribution of menstrual hygiene to sexual and reproductive health, and (iii) presented on research evidence to date, gaps in knowledge, and next steps.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://esaro.unfpa.org/en/publications/first-east-and-southern-africa-regional-symposium-improving-...
 
Description Webinar FRESH schools lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to present our pilot study and current trial at the School Health and Nutrition webinar series, to celebrate Menstrual Hygiene Day in May 2018. FRESH webinars provide monthly presentations by leading policy makers, researchers and implementers engaged in improving the health and education of children in low and middle income countries across the globe. The webinars cover all areas of school health and nutrition with speakers draw from organisations engaged in furthering the aims and objectives of the FRESH movement. This series builds on the SHN Webinar series by Save the Children which began in 2011 and over the past 5 years has brought speakers from the SHN sector of many organizations, including policy makers, researchers and practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.schoolsandhealth.org/Pages/SHN-Webinar-Series.aspx#
 
Description World Health Organization - Global research collaborative meeting on menstrual health, Geneva, 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The issues of menarche, menstruation, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health have not been an explicit part of WHO's agenda. WHO's Gender Advisory Panel (GAP) have recommended its Department of Reproductive Health and Research (RHR) to develop a portfolio of work in this area. WHO brought together global research collaborative partners or a two-day technical workshop to review the recommendations from the GAP on developing a portfolio of work in the area of menarche, menstruation, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health; and - define RHR's work in this area. Recommendations from the meeting on development of guidelines, standards, dissemination of research internationally to support national and regional policy-makers and programmes. Follow-up meetings on specific technical topics envisaged.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018