Ocean processes over the southern Weddell Sea shelf using seal tags

Lead Research Organisation: University of St Andrews
Department Name: Biology

Abstract

Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is an important water mass in the cooling and ventilation of the World's deep ocean. One of the principal sources of AABW has its roots in the production of cold, dense water that results from wintertime sea-ice production over the continental shelf of the southwestern Weddell Sea. However, there remains great uncertainty about the processes controlling the initial import of the source waters onto the continental shelf, and the export of the dense waters from the shelf regime. The uncertainty results from the extremely challenging sea ice conditions existing in the southern Weddell Sea, especially during winter. Conditions in the area of interest during winter are exceptionally difficult for any ship-based work, and instruments deployed in the ocean during the rather less difficult summer months, and which are left to monitor the water properties over the Winter period, are vulnerable to dredging by passing icebergs. We will tackle the problem using a technology that has recently come of age. We propose to attach conductivity-temperature-deph (CTD) tags, miniaturised oceanographic instruments, to Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii). The tags have a satellite transmitter that relays the oceanographic data collected during the seals' dives, together with the dive location. The tag is glued harmlessly to the animal's fur using standard marine two-component epoxy and comes off again during the annual moult about eleven months later. A pilot study undertaken by the British Antarctic Survey involved the tagging of four seals, three of which supplied over-winter datasets. Although the coverage was impressive from only three tags, emphatically confirming the practicality of the technique, the region of interest is nearly 500,000 km^2 in area and a comprehensive dataset requires substantially more tagged animals. We will tag 20 Weddell seals at the eastern end of the shelfbreak north of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf during the late Austral summer of 2010/2011. The resulting dataset resulting from the animals' dives during the winter will give the most comprehensive picture to date of the ocean conditions over the southern Weddell Sea continental shelf. By mapping the temperature of the water near the sea floor we will determine the locations where dense waters leave the shelf, and the processes involved: either a direct flow down the slope under gravity, or initially mixing at the shelf edge with waters from off the shelf before descending down the slope. We will also be able to determine where the source waters come on to the shelf. Weddell seals are very accomplished divers, diving repeatedly for long periods and to depths regularly reaching the on-shelf seafloor. Among Antarctic seals, Weddell seals also inhabit the southernmost waters, and remain within the pack-ice in winter when the ice expands northward. These characteristics make Weddell seals ideally suited for the proposed study. Although primarily an oceanographic project, the movements and diving behaviour of Weddell seals is of great interest to seal biologists who wish to understand differing behaviours in different parts of Antarctica. These variations were ably demonstrated by the extraordinarily diverse behaviour of the animals tagged during the pilot, and by comparisons with previous tracking of this species in other parts of the Antarctic. The long-ranging movements displayed by some of the seals tracked during the pilot study are untypical for the species, at least at other Antarctic locations, and may be related to the local oceanographic conditions. It is widely recognised that multidisciplinary studies such as proposed here will provide us with the tools to better predict how the distribution, behaviour and ultimately population status may be affected by changing ocean and climate conditions.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Where The Animals Go: Tracking Wildlife with Technology in 50 Maps and Graphics 
Description A book of creative ways to display geographical information and associated data 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Popular "coffee table" book which, among many examples, uses information from seals to map a set of animal movements withing oceanographic parameters. 
URL http://wheretheanimalsgo.com/
 
Description Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is an important water mass in the cooling and ventilation of the World's deep ocean. One of the principal sources of AABW has its roots in the production of cold, dense water that results from wintertime sea-ice production over the continental shelf of the southwestern Weddell Sea. However, there remains great uncertainty about the processes controlling the initial import of the source waters onto the continental shelf, and the export of the dense waters from the shelf regime. The uncertainty results from the extremely challenging sea ice conditions existing in the southern Weddell Sea, especially during winter, which dramatically constrains opportunities for observations

Because conditions in the area of interest during winter are exceptionally difficult for any ship-based work so we enlisted seals to help collect the data. This project set the foundations for understanding the shelfbreak processes in the Weddell Sea thought to be instrumental in controlling the flushing of the continental shelf, and the export of dense shelf waters that contribute to the production of Antarctic Bottom Water. As a serendipitous result, we learned much about the distribution and behaviour of seals deep in the Weddell Sea and observed them breaking records for diving in some of the World's coldest water. The animals dive into supercooled water less than -2 degrees Centigrade, which emerges from under the Filchner ice shelf at depths of 500 m, which allows the relatively fresh water to remain liquid well below its freezing point.The project has markedly improved data availability on Weddell Sea dynamics and the data has also been fed into broad scale climate models.
Exploitation Route The use of the approach of using animals as platforms for ocean observation has grown dramatically over the decade since we first developed it for the NERC SEaOS project. http://biology.st-andrews.ac.uk/seaos/. Animals have provided over 500000 ocean profiles to date. This expansion is set to continue, particularly for polar ocean observations where animal data already contributes well over half the profile data collected over all time.

The amount of ocean data collected by marine mammals continues to grow rapidly and its ease of availability is increasing (see the MEOP URL listed above). Also, the MEOP-CTD database is now directly available on the Ocean Data View (ODV) webpage as an easy-to-use Data Entry at https://odv.awi.de/en/data/ocean/meop_ctd_marine_mammals_database/

SMRU Instrumentation's CTD-SRDLs are the only instruments available that have the capability of collecting oceanographic-quality temperature/salinity depth profiles and the chain of NERC and other funding has been critical in both their development and acceptance
Sectors Education,Electronics,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Transport,Other

URL http://www.MEOP.NET
 
Description Data from the deployment from this project were broadcast on the GTS in near real time. The methodology of SMRU SRDLs has been used by researches from around the world. The data set has been combined with those from many other projects and the combined data now form a freely available data set used by researchers and institutions world wide (e.g. operationally by UK Met office and other members of WMO, NOAA, US Navy, CORIOLIS, IMOS). Post processed data have been made available via the WEorld Ocean Database, and also published in a recent paper in Nature Data (see refs). There is data portal (www.MEOP.net) where the the data from this project and most of the other ocean data produced by SMRU Instrumentation CTD-SRDLs is made freely available in post-processed quality controlled form. The MEOP Data base has continued to grow with improved processing. In 2018, it contained more than 543,735 quality-controlled, ocean-temperature and salinity profiles, from almost 200 deployments of 1273 SMRU tags on marine animals. All of the data is post-processed and quality controlled and freely available..
Sector Education,Environment,Other
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Title SMRU-IG CTD-SRDL 
Description Beginning in 2000, with the support of the US Office of Naval Research, the Norwegian Polar Institute, and, with a NERC £5000 start-up grant, the Sea Mammal Research Unit' Instrumentation Group (SMRU-IG) developed an ocean profiling tag that could be carried by marine animals. Since its first large scale deployment in 2004 (funded in part by the NERC SEaOS grant and with collaborators in France, the US and Australia), this technology has provided a wealth of data from oceans in the polar regions (see Fedak, 2013 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967064512000938 ) and Roquet et al. 2013 (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013GL058304/abstract ). The data stream from these tags has continued apace and is becoming increasingly important. It provides information from places and times where there is no other. Output from these tags is provided in near real time to Meteorological community via the GTS and in quality-controlled, post-processed form via the MEOP web site (http://www.meop.net) .The MEOP web site makes over 500,000 ocean profiles freely available to researchers. The site also provides a growing list of over 100 publications that use data provided by the device. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Quote from: E. P. Abrahamsen, 2014. Sustaining observations in the polar oceans. .DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2013.0337 "In the past, the vast majority of polar measurements took place in the summer. In recent years, novel techniques such as miniature CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) tags carried by seals have provided an explosion in year-round measurements in areas largely inaccessible to ships, and, as ice avoidance is added to autonomous profiling floats and gliders, these promise to provide further enhancements to observing systems." This technology dramatically extends the reach of other ocean observation approaches and is exceptionally cost-effective. 
URL http://www.smru.st-andrews.ac.uk/Instrumentation/CTD/
 
Title MEOP.net 
Description The MEOP consortium (MEOP stands for "Marine Mammals Exploring the Oceans Pole to Pole") brings together several national programmes to produce a comprehensive quality-controlled database of oceanographic data obtained in Polar Regions from instrumented marine mammals. The MEOP.net website presents freely available data from the MEOP project, the SEaOS project, and data from other users of Smru Instrumentation's CTD-SRDL instruments . It makes this quality-controlled data publicly available to the scientific and operational oceanography communities. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Over 350,000 CTD profiles from the polar oceans are made available via the MEOP website so far. More are being added as they become available. Much of the data comes from locations where there is little data from any other means, such as near polar margins, under ice shelves, during times when logistics of other ocean observastion approaches are extremely difficult. 
URL http://www.meop.net/database/how-to-cite.html
 
Title Nature Data 
Description Much of the animal platform data from scientists and organizations around the world has been post processed and made availble in the World Ocean Database and in the data publishing organ implemented by the publishers of Nature, Nature Data 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Improved estimates of the state of the ocean expressed in the (MIT) ECCO model and improvements to the Met Office ocean model from animal platform temperature data. See the following publications for details: 
 
Description BAS Weddell Sea 
Organisation British Antarctic Survey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We designed, built and deployed the instruments attached to seals. We were involved in data analysis and publication of results.
Collaborator Contribution This was an Antarctic Funding Initiative partnership. The BAS PI and associates were involved in writing the proposal, data analysis and publication. BAS provided all logistical support.
Impact Several papers directly related to the particular data from Award set have been published. Other papers listed made use of the data in combination wioth that from other sources, some NERC funded (e.g. XXX) and some funded by international partners (e.g.YYY).
Start Year 2010
 
Description MEOP Web page 
Organisation Stockholm University
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided all the data for the www.meop.net site
Collaborator Contribution They set up the site for data sharing and post process much of the data to a suitable standard..
Impact This web site makes data from SMRU Instrumentation Group CTD tags tags freely available. The site lists some 100 publications which have used the data.
Start Year 2014
 
Description University of California Santa Cruz 
Organisation University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution expertise, equipment, analysis, writing
Collaborator Contribution expertise, equipment, logistic support, analysis, writing
Impact It is obviously necessary to "account" for investment in science by some process. And unfortunately, it is felt this process has to take into account the very narrow vision of science that seems to dominate the governance of science these days. But by overly constraining the expression of this value, the process may itself defeat its purpose. I believe that with researchfish, this is the case. The simplest way I can think of supporting this notion is via an example of how NERC investment in a linked chain of my NERC grants has created a string of high impact papers, an unprecedented legacy of ocean data and a rich global network of collaborators that collectively have brought in a high level of resources synergistically to support the work. On top of this, the collective of people associated with these projects supported the technological development and evolution of unique methodology within SMRU Instrumentation. It is worth remembering that SMRU Instrumentation is a group supported largely by the "sales" (with a turnover of 1 M £, much from overseas) of the monitoring equipment for observing the ocean used in these grants, which both facilitates collection of observations from important but unobserved times and locations with drastically reduced cost and logistic requirements. So how did NERC funding help to bring the remarkable success of these projects about? And how much funding did it leverage? It's not a simple story and not one that can be reflected in researchfish in any sensible way. The only way to shoe-horn it into the system forces the misrepresentation of the process of the scientific endeavour itself. The chain of my NERC projects involving ocean obs started with a £5000 pound NERC grant to build a couple of the first animal-carried ocean profiling instruments, CTD-SRDLs. The initial development of these tags had been supported with about £20,000 pounds from the Norwegian Polar Institute and then later, $250,000 from the US Office of Naval Research. The success of these "proof of concept" instruments resulted in my submitting a NERC grant to support their first large-scale deployment in the Southern Ocean on elephant seals. We also sold tags to researchers in France, Australia and the US to deploy the tags simultaneously on elephant seals in their areas of interest in the Southern Ocean. The combine effort was collectively known as the SEaOS project. The success of this project led to an even larger follow-on project in both polar oceans involving 10 different countries, MEOPP (an awkwardMarine Mammals Exploring the ocean Pole to Pole). It was part of the International Polar Year. Collectively, these projects generated data about the distribution, behaviour and environmental associations 100s of seals and produced hundreds of thousands of ocean profiles from the seas around f both poles, often from unsampled times and locations. These projects generated momentum of animal platform approach that has led to a growing range of onging projects and new proposals. To date, the many hundreds of animals that have carried the tags have delivered almost 400,000 ocean profiles and these data sets numerically outnumber all other data available in the Southern Ocean . All of the data were sent out on the GTS and are or will be freely available, either through the world ocean database or in published data sets. They projects have generated a large and growing number of publications and have been used operationally by the Met office. How do we capture the value of this in Researcfish? The success of SEaOS and MEOPP lhas also led on to the current ocean2ice project (part of NERC iStar project) includes the use of seals to study the oceanic heat flow to the Pine Island glacier. The BAS ship, JCR , moorings and autosub collected detailed highly accurate data from the immediate area during the month it was in position. The seals provided an additional 12000 CTD profiles in a wide area of some 20,000 km^2 from February through October that dramatically increased the value of the other data sources. How do you account for that increase in value in researchfish terms? The NERC contribution to this complex set of interlinked project was critically important but represents only a small fraction of the total cost of the combined effort. The value of the data , however, very much depended on the scale large cooperative effort involved. The deployment of these tags and the analysis of the data collected involved universities, research institutions and the polar research arms of all the countries in 10 countries. Ships, logistics, maintenance of bases, help from voluntary technical personnel, etc. are all involved and sometimes un-costed even in each group's proposals . Assigning contributions in cash or kind in a realistic way is impossible for me. So I will not even attempt to include all these links collaborations in my researchfish input. The only way I could do it is by pulling numbers out of the air to satisfy the required fields and I will not do this. In the final analysis, the value of the larger global, cooperative project and each national component of it cannot be measured in simple monetary terms but only in its on-going academic output, the growing use of the data in publications and models, the way the approach affects, in a difficult to determine way, the cost effectiveness of the general on-going effort in ocean observation. Perhaps, more importantly, researchfish , in demanding that we pound large round pegs in small square holes, can't even start to assess, in any realistic way, how the improved understanding of the behaviour of the oceans in the climate system allows us to plan ahead and prepare for change nor the value of understanding of the functioning of a complex and exploited marine ecosystem. I think the real worry is that in using such constrained accounting practices to provide a narrow measure of value to pander to a government that seems only able to measure value in simple monetary terms, you risk throwing the baby out with the bathwater. You devalue the process of science and lead to a downward spiral in the perception of that value in government and the public. This really is a dangerous spiral to get caught in. Perhaps I am taking researchfish too seriously and should just ignore its inadequacies. Like I suspect many more sensible people will do, I should just fill in the forms as quickly as possible and get on with useful work, treating the task as just one more of the many silly things we have to do to satisfy an increasing perceived need for detailed accounting, regardless of how unrealistic the results are. But I feel I should at least try to make the case for a developing broader, more meaningful approach for "valuing" my scientific efforts. In the final analysis, I thought expressing these concerns was more valuable than labouring over a flawed set of forms.
 
Description University of Plymouth 
Organisation University of Plymouth
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution One of 4 partners in the PICCOLO overall Grant. St Andrews is responsible for providing the animal platform data.
Collaborator Contribution Each provides an important specialization to this very broad environmental study on the biogeochemical cycle in the Weddell Sea.
Impact Multidisciplinary. physical and biological oceanography; climate modelling; Antarctic; Biology of marine mammals.
Start Year 2017
 
Title SMRU Instrumentation CTD-SRDLs 
Description The basic software design and protocols for CTD-SRDLs were published in Animal Biotelemetry. The software routines for data sampling and processing that are implemented on-board telemetry devices (tags) called Conductivity-Temperature-Depth Satellite Relay Data Loggers (CTD-SRDLs) enable the simultaneous collection of biological and in-situ environmental data by animal-platforms over periods of weeks to months, despite severe energy and bandwidth limitations imposed by their relatively small size. This extended operational lifetime is made possible by the use of software protocols on-board the tags that manage sensors, data collection, storage, compression and transmission to ensure that the most useful data are sent at appropriate resolution while minimizing redundancy. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact While tag software is tailored to the particular species under study and the questions being addressed with a given field deployment, the philosophy behind Sea Mammal Research Unit Instrumentation Group (SMRU-IG) software protocols is to adopt a general set of principles to achieve the best results within the energy and bandwidth constraints. Here, we discuss these and review the general protocol that is used to simultaneously collect information on geographical movements, diving behaviour and in-situ oceanographic information from marine mammals.This should ahelp other developers to develop ocean platforms of ocean observing. 
URL http://animalbiotelemetry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40317-015-0053-8
 
Description Animal oceanographic platforms for the-scientist.com 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for an article for The Scientist magazine about the research and its particular value in difficult-to-access areas like the Antarctic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.the-scientist.com/
 
Description Atila Urbancic, UCL student. Interview for student magazine at UCL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact feature article about your work on the use of marine mammals for oceaonographic research purposes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Hannah Waters Interview for Vice Motherboard "The internet of elephant seals" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Story for on-line publication. Motherboard is an online magazine and video channel dedicated to the intersection of technology, science and humans. Launched by VICE in 2009,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://motherboard.vice.com/read/the-internet-of-elephant-seals
 
Description Interview with magazine journalist about biologging in general and oceaninic wind observations from soaring birds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Tess Mackey for Earth Magazine on Biologging
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.earthmagazine.org/
 
Description Interviews fot article: Short on Ocean Data, Scientists Turn to Seals for Help By Andrew Freedman 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Story about the value of animal platforms to ocean observation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.climatecentral.org/news/desperately-in-need-of-ocean-data-scientists-turn-to-seals-for-he...
 
Description Louise Murray Engineering and Technology magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Quotes
"The current and future melt rate of polar glaciers and ice sheets will have long term effects on sea global levels. The fate of land-based ice is strongly affected by the floating ice shelves that hem them in, restraining their movements. The integrity of these shelves is largely determined by heat reaching them from warmer deep water flowing in over the continental shelf and deeper water driven by oceanographic processes. The Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica drains an area 2/3 that of the entire UK and may contribute 3.5-10mm to global sea level rise in the next 20 years. It has been chosen for intensive monitoring involving all the normal tools in the physical oceanographer's toolbox.
In January 2014 the British Antarctic survey ship the James Clarke Ross visited the area, deploying standard CTDs and stationary moorings which have to be retrieved in later years to recover the detailed fixed point data they record on currents, temperatures and depth. Similar data can be made while on a cruise, but troubles with icing on antennas and cables can make the instrumentation difficult to deploy and recover. Robotic gliders can be deployed to scout the sub ice topography and ride the currents but can only do so when a mothership is nearby. Ships visit the area only infrequently and cruises are very costly. Biologists joined the oceanographers and glaciologists on this cruise to tag seals with devices that provide ocean data, much like those collected directly by the ship-based oceanographers. The elephant and Weddell seals can record depth, temperature and salinity profiles during their normal deep diving activities, and don't stop when the ship leaves. In mid June 2014, the animal's tags were still transmitting data during the dark polar winter. 'The animals keep on working long after the ship has had to leave, and will forage naturally into areas that the captain would just not risk on a ship, particularly one that is not an icebreaker,' says SMRU's Fedak, who endured freezing conditions to put the tags on the 500 kilo seals who routinely dive to 800 metres. 'The tagged data doesn't replace conventional oceanographic instrumentation, but it is another useful tool for exploring the ice covered polar regions in particular.'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://eandt.theiet.org/content/articles/2014/07/tracking-wildlife-how-scientists-monitor-endangere...
 
Description NERC 50th anniversary display on RV Discovery, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact NERC 50th anniversary display on-board Discovery. 7-9 October, 2015, Presented posters and slides about NERC funded projects including ocean2ice, SAVEX, SEaOS among others
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Radio 4 Today show MEOP animal platform data web site going live. Press release. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The MEOP web site was formally launched on 1 June. The press office of the University of St Andrews and the press offices of all of the MEOP partners released stories picked up my the International media. These were picked up directly or indirectly bu hundreds of broadcast, print and on-line outlets. I did 4 broadcast Interviews on the morning of the release including BBC Radio4 Today show STV News, Agence France-Presse, Radio Scotland as well as numerous phone interviews..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Sarah Conner BBC discussion of new "Ocean" series. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This was a lengthy discussion with a BBC representative seeking stories that would be on interest to a proposed new BBC "Blue Planet" type program. I provided information of our NERC funded projects and information on contacts for groups who might provide opportunities for the BBC to get involved with future fieldwork that might provide filming opportunities..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Science Discovery Day 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This is an annual event which runs close to National Science and Engineering Week every year, and the target audience is anyone with an interest in science, but particularly families. We typically have about 100 (!) volunteers and 500+ visitors throughout the day, which runs from 10:00 until 16:00 in the Physics & Astronomy building. Activities on offer range from short talks to longer talks, hands-on activities, static displays and interactive exhibits and demonstrations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/biooutreach/2016/03/
 
Description Series of interviews and emails with Chris Benjamin for Science Friday 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact an article about "weather seals" for Science Friday's blog (http://www.sciencefriday.com/blogs/#page/posts/1), which posts entertaining stories on science. I learned from the Met Office that some seals, with your help, are making a significant contribution to meteorological science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://sciencefriday.com/articles/seals-deep-dive-for-ocean-data/
 
Description Times Newspaper article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feature article in the Times: 24/8/2016 Seals help track down the cold hard facts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/seals-help-scientists-track-down-the-cold-hard-facts-jsrfq666k