Rehydroxylation [RHX]: Towards a universal method for pottery dating

Lead Research Organisation: University of Bradford
Department Name: Sch of Life Sciences

Abstract

A research ream from the UoM and UoE has recently proposed a radically new method of dating archaeological ceramics based on rehydroxylation kinetics. This rehydroxylation reaction underlies (and causes) the well known moisture expansion of brick masonry and tile structures and the commonly observed crazing in glazed ceramics. In a paper published by the Royal Society we presented proof of concept of this new method and compelling evidence that the age of ceramic samples up to 2000 y old can be estimated accurately from measurements of the slow progressive mass gain associated with the chemical recombination of water with the fired clay material. We call this method rehydroxylation [RHX] dating. Pottery is an increasingly common find on archaeological sites from the last 10 000 y onwards and many site chronologies depend upon them. However their dating still relies to a large extent on analysing stylistic changes. Radiocarbon dating cannot be applied unless carbon containing inclusions or residues are present and thermoluminescence can be prohibitively complex. Hence, a new method for dating such material is extremely significant. The basis of RHX is that all fired clay ceramics start to gain weight (and expand) as soon as they are removed from the kiln. The weight gain is caused by the chemical combination of atmospheric moisture with the ceramic (rehydroxylation) and continues over the lifetime of the ceramic. Central to RHX is a new time1/4 law, discovered by the applicants, that defines precisely the rate at which fired clay ceramics gain weight over time. This effectively provides the material with an ''internal clock''. A ceramic can be returned to its 'as fired' state by reheating to remove the chemically combined water. The older the material, the greater the mass of water removed by reheating. Following reheating the chemical reaction between ceramic and atmospheric moisture begins again. By monitoring the mass gain over several days we can determine the rate at which that particular material gains mass, and from this we calculate the time that it would take to replace the water removed by reheating. This gives the age of the sample. By the end of the project we aim to have demonstrated that RHX is a well-founded archaeological dating method, suitable for routine use. Its applicability to diverse archaeological scenarios will have been established. The overall objectives of the work are to validate RHX, to quantify the errors and uncertainties, to build end-user confidence and to optimise the methodology to increase sample throughput and hence reduce the cost per sample. The overwhelming response from the international archaeological community strongly indicates that RHX could be of enormous benefit. The method has been described as being 'of profound importance to archaeology' and as having 'the enormous potential to revolutionise the field of dating in archaeology.' Our method therefore has the potential to become as important for dating ceramics as radiocarbon dating is for organic materials. The rehydroxylation process is a remarkable example of a long-term power law kinetic process which apparently extends over millennial timescales. It appears to be a general process in fired- clay ceramics. Better understanding of this will contribute new knowledge to the field of super-slow solid-state reactions and transport processes. The work has wider application to earth sciences in the context of rock weathering and geomorphology. There is some very sparse evidence that soil weathering reactions follow the same rate law that we exploit for dating. The realisation that these processes have a general kinetic framework may have powerful general implications. The potential for the wider application of the work is supported by the paper in which we published our initial dating results being cited in a paper on percolative theories in disordered high temperature superconductors.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We have succeeded in transferring the RHX methodology to the successful dating of pottery samples. There are a number of notable discoveries:
1. Practical outcomes:
Both organic and inorganic contaminants impact on RHX dating of pottery. Pottery is therefore far more difficult to date than the brick and tile materials dated previously.

The oldest material we have been able to date is 5000 years old; the most recent has been in the last 100 years.

The specific surface area and the physical form of the sample (i.e. bulk or powder) determine the experimental procedure with regard to the relative humidity used at the measurement temperature.

The age of a sample can only be determined from mass gain measurements at the effective lifetime temperature (ELT) on completely dehydroxylated material.

A new method has been found for obtaining the energy of activation by mass gain measurement at consecutive temperature steps following a single dehydroxylation.

We have undertaken an extensive range of public engagement activities.

We have established an international consortium, with an agreed collaborative programme.

2. Theoretical Outcomes:

A methodology has been developed for the determination of the effective lifetime temperature.

The classification of 'water types' T0, T1 and T2 has been established: this greatly simplifies the concept of RHX.


The future direction of the research comprises the following:

Studies of dehyhdroxylation kinetics both at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum.

Development of robust decontamination protocol.

Automation of measurement processes in collaboration with the main instrument manufacturers (Netzsch and Ci Precision).

Software development to analyse data and obtain stage II data in real time.

None of these approaches will be applied to archaeological samples until they have been thoroughly investigated using freshly fired material such as terracotta or fired kaolin.


We believe the best way to move these facets forward is collaborative work between the Universities of Manchester and Bradford
Exploitation Route Primarily via the newly-formed international research consortium
Sectors Construction,Education,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL http://www.datingceramic.manchester.ac.uk
 
Description Initial discussions of the use of the technique as part of overall dating strategies on archaeological sites.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Construction,Education,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description EPSRC Internship
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2012 
End 09/2012
 
Description School internship
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2013 
End 09/2013
 
Description University of Manchester Faculty Fund - Capital and Special Revenue
Amount £20,977 (GBP)
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2013 
 
Description University of Manchester Strategic fund - Links with Industry.
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 06/2013
 
Title Database of results 
Description Contains the experimental results; measured material properties; archaeological information of all samples used in the project. Data management plan in place 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Provides a model on which to base future data storage 
 
Description Ci Precision: Instrument development 
Organisation CI Precision
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have been producing high-quality data of unprecedented precision; we have driven the development of the next-generation microbalnce
Collaborator Contribution Have provided upgrades to microbalance software; have provided software to allow microbalance data to be accessed in real time for the purposes of real-time analysis of results
Impact Additional software being used in ongoing research
Start Year 2007
 
Description Netzsch Instruments: TGA development 
Organisation Netzsch Instruments
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Demands on instrument performance
Collaborator Contribution £10,000 contribution to RHX research. Pilot studies carried at Netzsch gmbh Germany
Impact ongoing
Start Year 2010
 
Description Quantachrome UK:pilot studies 
Organisation Quantachrome UK Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution RHX research is constantly pushing the envelope of instrument design. We have provided technical information for dissemination to Quantachrome's customer base.
Collaborator Contribution Pilot experiemnts to inform future directions of research
Impact Ongoing
Start Year 2010
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation California State University, Long Beach
Department Anthropology Department
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation Michigan Technological University
Department Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation Paris Institute of Earth Physics
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation Santa Clara University
Department Department of Environmental studies and sciences
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation Tel Aviv University
Country Israel 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation University of Bradford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation University of Copenhagen
Department Natural History Museum of Denmark
Country Denmark 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation University of Manchester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation University of New England
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation University of Utah
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX Consortium 
Organisation University of Vienna
Country Austria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This international consortium was founded by the University of Manchester and held its inaugural meeting, in Manchester, in April 2014. Membership is restricted to thos institutions where RHX experiemntal research is being actively carried out.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange; best practice; preliminary definitions of and agreement on RHX terminology; awareness of the expertise and facilities available at each participating instiitution; to facilitate future collaborative funding bids. All members have thus made in-kind contributions but these cannot be quantified
Impact Ongoing: round-robin testing; procurement, exchange and provisioon of archaeological and other ceramic materials for RHX measurement. a financial value cannot be assigned to most of these. Note that the procurement of archaeological ceramics is extremely time consuming for those people concerned
Start Year 2014
 
Description RHX business case prepared by Manchester Business School as Mbus thesis 
Organisation University of Manchester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Methododlogical details; timescales; instrument costs and maintainence so enable costing of RHX dating to be determined
Collaborator Contribution The market for RHX dating was assessed in repect of the amount consumers would be willing to pay; the timescales that would be acceptable; and the levels of accuracy that would be required. The business case indicated that demand exceeds supply.
Impact Provides a formal foundation for a detailed business case at a later date when RHX is more advanced and is at the point of commercialisation
Start Year 2013
 
Description Quarterly newsletter: "The Clepsydra Chronicle" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Very positive feedback from stakeholders: pleased at being "kept in the loop" re progress of research.

Further support from stakeholders
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014
 
Description "Introduction to RHX Dating" booklet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Cannot assess
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/media/eps/schoolofmechanicalaerospaceandcivilengineering/research/t...
 
Description Academic visitors from other univerities worldwide 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Exchange of material for "round-robin" testing; discusiions of methodological issues

Support for further activity in this field; collaborative workin; joint funding possibilities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2014
 
Description Faculty Research seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Discussion

Increased interest in research topic
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description From fire to Eternity: Images of Research Photography Competition (finalist). 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Reached final of competition

not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.manchesterimagesofresearch.co.uk
 
Description Guest blog : "Rehydroxylation Dating" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact cannot assess
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://ancientworldsmanchester.wordpress.com/2013/03/21/rehydroxylation-guest-blog-by-sarah-jane-cle...
 
Description Inaugural meeting of international RHX Consortium, Manchester. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Preliminary standardisation of RHX terminology; awareness of facilities and expertise available at each participating institution; discussion of joint funding opportunities

Discussion of joint funding opportunities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lengthy question and answer session.

More public interest in RHX
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Invited Lecture 1. "Rehydroxylation Dating: a new method for dating fired clay ceramics", West Lancashire Archaeological Society (WLAS), Ormskirk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Great interest from professional and amateur archaeologists

Audience surprised that they could understand such high-level reaserch
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Invited Lecture Royal Archaeological Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Much discussion and many enquiries about whether RHX was yet available as a routine dating tool

Further email discussion with interested parties
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited Lecture, Insight from innovation: new light on archaeological ceramics (conference) University of Southampton 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussion/ questions

Requests to give further lectures
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Invited Lecture, The Wilmslow Guild 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Discussion; questions and answers

People enjoyed the lecture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Invited talk: "Rehydroxylation Dating". Davyhulme PROBUS Club 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Very lengthy discussion

None
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Invited talk: STEM workshop, University of Manchester 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Noted that RHX was simple enough (in principle) to be incorporated in mathematical/ data analysis work in the classroom. Also that "rough" RHX experiments could be carried out using a top loading balance in a school scirence lab.

Requests for school children to visit lab; coursework exercise set on (time)^1/4 law.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.stemnet.org.uk
 
Description Lectures given to first year UG Civil and Mechanical engineering students on RHX dating research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Experiemntal methodology and mathematical background particularly interesting to engineering students

Two interns have been recruited as a result of these lectures
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013
 
Description Project Newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Regular newsletter detailing progress on the project, distributed internationally to interested parties, academic and non-academic.

Resulted in formation of international consortium
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Public Engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Very lengthy question/ answer session and discussion

Requests to give further talks
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Public engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lengthy qiestion and answer session.

Offers of more samples to date from various museums
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Technical guidance note:Powder Tech Note 57: Using the Aquadyne DVS to Date Archaeological Material, for Quantachrome Instruments. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Cannot assess
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013