Ocean2ice

Lead Research Organisation: University of St Andrews
Department Name: Biology

Abstract

Imagine that the ocean is like a large gin and tonic. When you add ice to the drink, the level in the glass goes up. When the lump of ice melts, the level in the glass doesn't change, because the ice is floating. When ice that is currently resting on land in Antarctica goes into the sea, either as an iceberg or as meltwater, the sea level all over the world goes up. It used to be thought that the same amount of water went back to the Antarctic as snowfall, to compensate for the icebergs and meltwater, so the whole system was in balance. But some glaciers in the Antarctic (and Greenland) seem to be melting at a faster rate than they are being replaced. So the total amount of ice is getting smaller, because more of that water is in the ocean, adding to sea level rise. This is worrying, because we don't really know why this is happening, and if we can't understand why, it's difficult to predict whether future sea level will carry on increasing at a faster and faster rate, or whether it will slow down or go back to equilibrium. Governments planning sea level defences in low-lying areas for the next decades need to have a more certain prediction of likely levels. That means that the big computer models that they use to forecast future climates need to have even better and more complex physics than they do already.

So, what can scientists do to find out why the ice is melting? When the glaciers finally reach the sea, they float on the seawater, as an ice shelf. One suggestion is that the ocean is providing more heat to melt the ice than it used to do. Even though the ocean isn't that warm in the Antarctic, it is a few degrees above freezing, and if it washes underneath the ice shelves it can give up a lot of heat. What we plan to do in this project is to go to one of the fastest melting glaciers, the Pine Island Glacier in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica. This is one of the most remote parts of our planet - imagine going to the Pacific Ocean and then heading south until you meet Antarctica. We will put some instruments in the water near the ice shelf, to see how and why the warm ocean water gets close to the ice. Is it the wind that forces the water there? Is it waves going round the Antarctic continent? Does the water get channelled up troughs in the sea floor gouged by glaciers thousands of years ago?

We plan to use some novel equipment in the Antarctic, such as gluing tiny sensors onto elephant seals' fur. The seals will remain in the area over winter, long after we've gone back home. Their sensors will send back information about the seals' habitat - for example the temperature and the saltiness. This is useful for us because we can't get observations in the wintertime any other way because the area is covered in sea ice. And it's good for the seals because it will help our biologist colleagues to better understand how vulnerable the elephant seals might be to climate change. We'll also put in the water a mechanical version of a seal, called a Seaglider. This goes up and down in the water making measurements as it goes, and much like the seal sensors, it will communicate when it's at the surface using mobile phone. While we're there with the ship, we'll make lots of measurements of the temperature and saltiness of the water, how fast it's going, and how mixed up it is. Looking at all these data sets together should give us a better understanding of how the heat is getting to the glacier.

One of the important tools will be a variety of computer models. These will range from all-singing, all-dancing climate models, that try to include ice, ocean and atmosphere all interacting, to much simpler models that test our understanding of the physics at play. The final result of the work we plan to do should be better climate models to predict future sea levels.

Planned Impact

The most immediate beneficiaries will be global operational ocean and atmosphere forecasters, since our seal, Seaglider and radiosonde data will be freely available in real time for assimilation into operational forecasts.

The scientific impact of the project will primarily benefit climate modellers, in particular the Hadley Centre at the UK Met Office. They will gain insight from our observations and process models of the processes that lead to warm water melting the Amundsen Sea ice shelves. We will assess the performance of many of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP-5) models, and also the various NEMO-based Met Office models such as FOAM and the new HadGEM3. The results of the project will aid the eventual parameterisation of the physical processes for use in climate models. The major results of Ocean2ice will inform government policy with regard to the uncertainties in sea level rise predictions.

Those designing the global ocean (and climate) observing systems will benefit from Ocean2ice. It is likely that the Amundsen Sea embayment is a key location for monitoring future climate. Our observations will allow us to feed into the Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) design in order to locate long-term measuring systems in the most useful and efficient locations in a cost-effective way. We will assess the value of seal tags and Seagliders in such a system. We will engage with the SOOS community through the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR).

Ocean2ice will employ several early career researchers, who will be nurtured and trained within the project, learning a variety of skills to equip them for a productive career. More widely, we will bring the Ocean2ice observing techniques to the UK Polar Network of early career polar scientists through a dedicated workshop.

The general public and young people in particular will gain from the exhibits, displays and outreach efforts. We hope to interest more young people in science and in higher education, raise awareness of global change and polar processes, and attract more people to careers in scientific research.
 
Title Where The Animals Go: Tracking Wildlife with Technology in 50 Maps and Graphics 
Description A book of creative ways to display geographical information and associated data 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Popular "coffee table" book which, among many examples, uses information from seals to map a set of animal movements withing oceanographic parameters. 
URL http://wheretheanimalsgo.com/
 
Description Key oceanographic findings from the seal derived data:
In the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, there have been suggestions that warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) is increasingly crossing the continental shelf toward the Pine Island Glacier (PIG), contributing to increased ice mass loss. However, understanding of this process is limited by the difficulty of collecting data in this area, especially during the winter season when harsh conditions and sea ice cover limit traditional observation techniques. Presented here are the results of a seal tagging campaign on the Amundsen Sea continental shelf, producing the first near-year-round, full-depth sampling, and yielding an order of magnitude more profiles in one year than the entire historical CTD data set.

These data reveal that the warmest CDW reaches the continental shelf via the eastern trough. On the 27.77 isopycnal, representing CDW, water throughout much of the eastern Amundsen Sea is up to 0.08 more saline and up to 0.5ºC warmer in summer (February-May) than in winter (June-October). Seasonal variations in CDW are particularly prominent around Burke Island and in the northwest of Pine Island Bay. Below the mixed layer in the region around Burke Island, isopycnals are ~100 m shallower in winter than summer.

In Pine Island Bay, a gyre circulation is revealed by doming isopycnals. In winter at the edge of the gyre, isopycnals are ~50 m shallower, but at the same time at the centre of the gyre, isopycnals are deeper. This suggests a slowing of the Pine Island Bay gyre in winter, with associated reduction in the doming of the isopycnals. Here we discuss the changes in circulation that are suggested by the seasonal changes in isopycnal slopes and water mass properties.
Other key findings are found in the reports from the other partners.

Key biological findings.
Unlike Weddell seals (WS), southern elephant seals (SES) are not usually considered true "ice seals", even though they may forage in ice covered waters. The Edwards Islands, located in the Amundsen Sea (AS) near the Pine Island Glacier (PIG) at 74°S, provide the most southerly moulting site for SES. The iStar ocean2ice project equipped 7 SES (4?&3?), and 7 WS (2?&5?) caught on nearby sea ice, with CTD-SRDLs and monitored their movements and diving behaviour from February through October. Both species remained over the shelf throughout the winter, sometimes within the PIG polynya but also under dense pack ice. They dived to near the bottom of the trenches that funnel warm circumpolar deep water (CDW) water to the glacier. Both species often dived in close proximity, but the SES targeted the deepest parts of the trenches (typically 500-1200m), while the WS dived to lateral slopes to 200-500 m. Female SES went to Livingston Island off the Antarctic Peninsula to pup. One was tracked back to the PIG immediately after breeding. This overlapping distribution suggests that SES may be considered as "ice seals", in that they overwinter in the same ice covered habitat as WS and crabeater seals, even if they are rarely observed there.

Advected CDW brings nutrient-rich water onto the shelf near PIG through the deep trenches. PIG's persistent polynya allows light to reach down into the water column and also serves as an important region for the formation of sea ice. These are important stimulants for increased primary production and this enhanced local productivity may lead to a richer benthos, damping inter-annual variability, supporting a stable prey community for both species. The dynamics of CDW in the AS drives the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheets, whose behaviour generates the greatest uncertainty in predicting future global sea level. Increased oceanographic interest in the area will facilitate study of its benthic community in relation to seal distributions.
Exploitation Route The 12000 CTD profiles that seals provided across some 20,000 sq km of the Amundsen Sea are, with the exception of data from a small number of fixed moorings, almost the only data available from the region in the Austral Winter. As such they are uniquely valuable and will continue to be used both within the ongoing analyses underway in the ocean2ice project but will also more generally, as soon as they are posted on the MEOP.net web portal. All the seal data will soon be freely available on the MEOP web site, www.meop.net .

Understanding the processes of heat flow to the Amundsen Sea ice shelves is critical to reducing uncertainty of future sea level caused by the West Antarctic Ice shelves. Uncertainty about the extent of sea level rise has clear economic consequences. The seal-derived ocean data will play an important role in gaining this understanding because of its timing and geographical spread.
Sectors Education,Environment

URL https://www.istar.ac.uk/about-istar/istar-for-scientists/
 
Description Expected uses of the data are in ocean modelling and climate forecasts. The data collected was sent out in near real time via the GTS and thus was available in meteorological forecasts (Carse, F., Martin, M. J., Sellar, A. and Blockley, E. W. (2015), Impact of assimilating temperature and salinity measurements by animal-borne sensors on FOAM ocean model fields. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 141: 2934-2943. doi:10.1002/qj.2613) The primary objective of the ocean2ice project is to document the oceanic heat flow to the Pine Island glacier in order to understand its consequences on the glacier's behaviour and future impact on global sea level. A paper analysing the animal platform data in detail is currently under review (provisionally accepted) in GRL; Seasonal variation in the distribution and properties of Circumpolar Deep Water in the eastern Amundsen Sea, using seal-borne tags" Paper #2018GL077430] Geophysical Research Letters See also for context : Heywood, K., Biddle, L., Boehme, L., Dutrieux, P., Fedak, M. A., Jenkins, A., Jones, R. W., Kaiser, J., Mallett, H., Naveira Garabato, A. C., Renfrew, I. A., Stevens, D. P. & Webber, B. G. M. Between the devil and the deep blue sea: the role of the Amundsen Sea continental shelf in exchanges between ocean and ice shelves. Dec 2016 In : Oceanography. 29, 4, p. 118-129 Jenkins, A., P. et al.. 2016. Decadal ocean forcing and Antarctic ice sheet response: Lessons from the Amundsen Sea. Oceanography 29(4):106-117 Webber, B. G. M. et al. Mechanisms driving variability in the ocean forcing of Pine Island Glacier. Nat. Commun. 8, 14507 doi: 10.1038/ncomms14507 (2017).
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Electronics,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Transport
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Title SMRU-IG CTD-SRDL 
Description Beginning in 2000, with the support of the US Office of Naval Research, the Norwegian Polar Institute, and, with a NERC £5000 start-up grant, the Sea Mammal Research Unit' Instrumentation Group (SMRU-IG) developed an ocean profiling tag that could be carried by marine animals. Since its first large scale deployment in 2004 (funded in part by the NERC SEaOS grant and with collaborators in France, the US and Australia), this technology has provided a wealth of data from oceans in the polar regions (see Fedak, 2013 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967064512000938 ) and Roquet et al. 2013 (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013GL058304/abstract ). The data stream from these tags has continued apace and is becoming increasingly important. It provides information from places and times where there is no other. Output from these tags is provided in near real time to Meteorological community via the GTS and in quality-controlled, post-processed form via the MEOP web site (http://www.meop.net) .The MEOP web site makes over 500,000 ocean profiles freely available to researchers. The site also provides a growing list of over 100 publications that use data provided by the device. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Quote from: E. P. Abrahamsen, 2014. Sustaining observations in the polar oceans. .DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2013.0337 "In the past, the vast majority of polar measurements took place in the summer. In recent years, novel techniques such as miniature CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) tags carried by seals have provided an explosion in year-round measurements in areas largely inaccessible to ships, and, as ice avoidance is added to autonomous profiling floats and gliders, these promise to provide further enhancements to observing systems." This technology dramatically extends the reach of other ocean observation approaches and is exceptionally cost-effective. 
URL http://www.smru.st-andrews.ac.uk/Instrumentation/CTD/
 
Title MEOP.net 
Description The MEOP consortium (MEOP stands for "Marine Mammals Exploring the Oceans Pole to Pole") brings together several national programmes to produce a comprehensive quality-controlled database of oceanographic data obtained in Polar Regions from instrumented marine mammals. The MEOP.net website presents freely available data from the MEOP project, the SEaOS project, and data from other users of Smru Instrumentation's CTD-SRDL instruments . It makes this quality-controlled data publicly available to the scientific and operational oceanography communities. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Over 350,000 CTD profiles from the polar oceans are made available via the MEOP website so far. More are being added as they become available. Much of the data comes from locations where there is little data from any other means, such as near polar margins, under ice shelves, during times when logistics of other ocean observastion approaches are extremely difficult. 
URL http://www.meop.net/database/how-to-cite.html
 
Description BAS Autosub 
Organisation British Antarctic Survey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution See under University of east Anglia (UEA)
Collaborator Contribution See under UEA
Impact See under UEA
Start Year 2011
 
Description BAS Weddell Sea 
Organisation British Antarctic Survey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We designed, built and deployed the instruments attached to seals. We were involved in data analysis and publication of results.
Collaborator Contribution This was an Antarctic Funding Initiative partnership. The BAS PI and associates were involved in writing the proposal, data analysis and publication. BAS provided all logistical support.
Impact Several papers directly related to the particular data from Award set have been published. Other papers listed made use of the data in combination wioth that from other sources, some NERC funded (e.g. XXX) and some funded by international partners (e.g.YYY).
Start Year 2010
 
Description MEOP Web page 
Organisation Stockholm University
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided all the data for the www.meop.net site
Collaborator Contribution They set up the site for data sharing and post process much of the data to a suitable standard..
Impact This web site makes data from SMRU Instrumentation Group CTD tags tags freely available. The site lists some 100 publications which have used the data.
Start Year 2014
 
Description University of East Anglia 
Organisation University of East Anglia
Department School of Environmental Sciences UEA
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I (through SMRU instrumentation) provided the the instruments. I provided the biological and technical expertise for locating, choosing, catching the animals, attaching the instruments, collecting and decoding the data and making it available to the oceanographic partners. I am analyzing the biological data ofn seal movements and diving behaviour in relation to environmental factors (e.g. ice cover, oceanographic conditions, seasonal variability etc.)
Collaborator Contribution This project is joint with those listed below. Joint reference: M1403508 NERC has full details of each partners' contribution Joint Documents: Lead document with Professor K Heywood Organisation: University of East Anglia Department: Environmental Sciences Non-lead document with Professor A Naveira Garabato Organisation: University of Southampton Department: School of Ocean and Earth Science Non-lead document with Professor A Jenkins Organisation: NERC British Antarctic Survey Department: Science Programmes Non-lead document with Professor M Fedak Organisation: University of St Andrews Department: Biology
Impact As listed elsewhere. This was an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort between biologists and ocean scientists that has not only helped us to understand oceanic heat flow to critical parts of the West Antarctic Ice sheet (critical in predicting future sea level), but also provided unexpected biological results leading to a new appreciation of the distribution of seals withing sea ice and polynyas near ice sheet margins. The study would have been impossible without the interdisciplinary approach. The seals collected a unique data set throughout the antarctic winter in ice bound waters that will become freely available via the MEOP web site. Uncertainty in sea level prediction will be costly and the future of the west Antarctic ice sheet contributes the greatest uncertainty. This project's objectives and those of the greater NERC iStar project (http://www.istar.ac.uk/) were to reduce this uncertainty, allowing all countries to better taylor sea defenses, allowing evidence-based decisions on sea defenses. The potential economic consequences are thus enourmous and are likely to affect any country with a coastline.
Start Year 2011
 
Description University of Plymouth 
Organisation University of Plymouth
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution One of 4 partners in the PICCOLO overall Grant. St Andrews is responsible for providing the animal platform data.
Collaborator Contribution Each provides an important specialization to this very broad environmental study on the biogeochemical cycle in the Weddell Sea.
Impact Multidisciplinary. physical and biological oceanography; climate modelling; Antarctic; Biology of marine mammals.
Start Year 2017
 
Description University of South Hampton 
Organisation University of Southampton
Department Faculty of Health Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution See under UEA
Collaborator Contribution see under UEA
Impact See under UEA
Start Year 2011
 
Title SMRU Instrumentation CTD-SRDLs 
Description The basic software design and protocols for CTD-SRDLs were published in Animal Biotelemetry. The software routines for data sampling and processing that are implemented on-board telemetry devices (tags) called Conductivity-Temperature-Depth Satellite Relay Data Loggers (CTD-SRDLs) enable the simultaneous collection of biological and in-situ environmental data by animal-platforms over periods of weeks to months, despite severe energy and bandwidth limitations imposed by their relatively small size. This extended operational lifetime is made possible by the use of software protocols on-board the tags that manage sensors, data collection, storage, compression and transmission to ensure that the most useful data are sent at appropriate resolution while minimizing redundancy. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact While tag software is tailored to the particular species under study and the questions being addressed with a given field deployment, the philosophy behind Sea Mammal Research Unit Instrumentation Group (SMRU-IG) software protocols is to adopt a general set of principles to achieve the best results within the energy and bandwidth constraints. Here, we discuss these and review the general protocol that is used to simultaneously collect information on geographical movements, diving behaviour and in-situ oceanographic information from marine mammals.This should ahelp other developers to develop ocean platforms of ocean observing. 
URL http://animalbiotelemetry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40317-015-0053-8
 
Description Animal oceanographic platforms for the-scientist.com 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for an article for The Scientist magazine about the research and its particular value in difficult-to-access areas like the Antarctic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.the-scientist.com/
 
Description Atila Urbancic, UCL student. Interview for student magazine at UCL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact feature article about your work on the use of marine mammals for oceaonographic research purposes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Hannah Waters Interview for Vice Motherboard "The internet of elephant seals" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Story for on-line publication. Motherboard is an online magazine and video channel dedicated to the intersection of technology, science and humans. Launched by VICE in 2009,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://motherboard.vice.com/read/the-internet-of-elephant-seals
 
Description Interview with magazine journalist about biologging in general and oceaninic wind observations from soaring birds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Tess Mackey for Earth Magazine on Biologging
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.earthmagazine.org/
 
Description Interviews fot article: Short on Ocean Data, Scientists Turn to Seals for Help By Andrew Freedman 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Story about the value of animal platforms to ocean observation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.climatecentral.org/news/desperately-in-need-of-ocean-data-scientists-turn-to-seals-for-he...
 
Description Louise Murray Engineering and Technology magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Quotes
"The current and future melt rate of polar glaciers and ice sheets will have long term effects on sea global levels. The fate of land-based ice is strongly affected by the floating ice shelves that hem them in, restraining their movements. The integrity of these shelves is largely determined by heat reaching them from warmer deep water flowing in over the continental shelf and deeper water driven by oceanographic processes. The Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica drains an area 2/3 that of the entire UK and may contribute 3.5-10mm to global sea level rise in the next 20 years. It has been chosen for intensive monitoring involving all the normal tools in the physical oceanographer's toolbox.
In January 2014 the British Antarctic survey ship the James Clarke Ross visited the area, deploying standard CTDs and stationary moorings which have to be retrieved in later years to recover the detailed fixed point data they record on currents, temperatures and depth. Similar data can be made while on a cruise, but troubles with icing on antennas and cables can make the instrumentation difficult to deploy and recover. Robotic gliders can be deployed to scout the sub ice topography and ride the currents but can only do so when a mothership is nearby. Ships visit the area only infrequently and cruises are very costly. Biologists joined the oceanographers and glaciologists on this cruise to tag seals with devices that provide ocean data, much like those collected directly by the ship-based oceanographers. The elephant and Weddell seals can record depth, temperature and salinity profiles during their normal deep diving activities, and don't stop when the ship leaves. In mid June 2014, the animal's tags were still transmitting data during the dark polar winter. 'The animals keep on working long after the ship has had to leave, and will forage naturally into areas that the captain would just not risk on a ship, particularly one that is not an icebreaker,' says SMRU's Fedak, who endured freezing conditions to put the tags on the 500 kilo seals who routinely dive to 800 metres. 'The tagged data doesn't replace conventional oceanographic instrumentation, but it is another useful tool for exploring the ice covered polar regions in particular.'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://eandt.theiet.org/content/articles/2014/07/tracking-wildlife-how-scientists-monitor-endangere...
 
Description NERC 50th anniversary display on RV Discovery, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact NERC 50th anniversary display on-board Discovery. 7-9 October, 2015, Presented posters and slides about NERC funded projects including ocean2ice, SAVEX, SEaOS among others
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Radio 4 Today show MEOP animal platform data web site going live. Press release. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The MEOP web site was formally launched on 1 June. The press office of the University of St Andrews and the press offices of all of the MEOP partners released stories picked up my the International media. These were picked up directly or indirectly bu hundreds of broadcast, print and on-line outlets. I did 4 broadcast Interviews on the morning of the release including BBC Radio4 Today show STV News, Agence France-Presse, Radio Scotland as well as numerous phone interviews..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Sarah Conner BBC discussion of new "Ocean" series. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This was a lengthy discussion with a BBC representative seeking stories that would be on interest to a proposed new BBC "Blue Planet" type program. I provided information of our NERC funded projects and information on contacts for groups who might provide opportunities for the BBC to get involved with future fieldwork that might provide filming opportunities..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Science Discovery Day 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This is an annual event which runs close to National Science and Engineering Week every year, and the target audience is anyone with an interest in science, but particularly families. We typically have about 100 (!) volunteers and 500+ visitors throughout the day, which runs from 10:00 until 16:00 in the Physics & Astronomy building. Activities on offer range from short talks to longer talks, hands-on activities, static displays and interactive exhibits and demonstrations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/biooutreach/2016/03/
 
Description Series of interviews and emails with Chris Benjamin for Science Friday 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact an article about "weather seals" for Science Friday's blog (http://www.sciencefriday.com/blogs/#page/posts/1), which posts entertaining stories on science. I learned from the Met Office that some seals, with your help, are making a significant contribution to meteorological science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://sciencefriday.com/articles/seals-deep-dive-for-ocean-data/
 
Description Times Newspaper article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feature article in the Times: 24/8/2016 Seals help track down the cold hard facts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/seals-help-scientists-track-down-the-cold-hard-facts-jsrfq666k