Can paying 4 global ecosystems services reduce poverty?

Lead Research Organisation: Bangor University
Department Name: Sch of Environment and Natural Resources

Abstract

Zafy lives in a village on edge of the forest in Madagascar. He wants the best for his family and so uses the resources and options he has open to him and clears a patch of forest to grow hill rice. His hard labour pays off and he is able to sell a small surplus. Rakoto farms rice on the valley floor. In good years, when there is plenty of water, he produces more than his family can eat. However as the forest on the slopes continues to be cut, water in the dry season is reduced, and there are fewer and fewer good years.

That tropical deforestation threatens species' survival is well known to the general public. There is also increasing awareness that it contributes to climate change (through the release of carbon stored in trees and soils). Zafy's story demonstrates that although cutting down forest is often presented as wanton destruction, it may well be a perfectly sensible choice for the people directly involved. It also shows that some negative impacts of deforestation may be felt locally as well as globally.

In recent years a new approach to conserving tropical forests has evolved. The central idea is that those who benefit from the existence of forest should pay those who would otherwise cut it down. This concept is known as payment for ecosystem services and has come to dominate discussions about rainforest conservation. People who support this approach argue that it will benefit poor people like Zafy, who will be compensated for not clearing forest, through cash payments or development activities in their area. In addition, the land-use changes which will be encouraged under the payment schemes (protecting forest or planting new forest) may benefit other poor people in the area; for example Rakoto may benefit from increased forest cover through improved flow of water to his rice fields.

Unfortunately nothing is ever as simple as it seems. While these payments for ecosystem services schemes are attracting millions of dollars, and there is a commitment by many involved to ensure they are beneficial for poor people, questions remain both about the impact current schemes are having on the poor and about how these schemes could be designed to realise any potential for alleviating poverty while avoiding harm.

These vitally important questions need a research approach which brings together specialists with a range of expertise. Our team involves sociologists, economists, ecologists, hydrologists, remote sensing experts and modellers who will explore the complex ways in which international ecosystem service payments affect the lives of poor people. Specific questions we will address include quantifying the benefits which lowland rice farmers may expect from increasing forest cover, exploring the costs (and who bears them) of reduced access for wild-product harvesting, and investigating how politics and social structures influence how any benefits from payments are distributed. We focus on a single area (the eastern rainforests), in a single country (Madagascar). Such a narrow focus is necessary to get the complete picture which takes account of all the interactions between ecological and social systems.

Although we focus field work within Madagascar, and our results will directly influence payment schemes in the country, our project's findings will also have a much wider impact. We are working closely with those involved in developing the policies which underpin payment schemes, and in implementing them on the ground both in Madagascar and worldwide. Our project will result in scientific papers which push the boundaries of interdisciplinary research, and interesting coverage in the media and on our project website. However through this wider engagement our project will also result in concrete changes to the design of payment schemes which should improve the lives of people like Rakoto, Zafy and their families, wherever they live in the world.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from this research and how?
Ultimate beneficiaries: The ultimate beneficiaries most directly impacted by this project are the rural communities (often highly marginalized and poor) that live in areas where payments are being implemented.
a. There are 8 million people in Madagascar's eastern rainforest belt, 1 million of whom live in the communes surrounding Conservation International's (CI) two REDD+ pilot projects. The most direct impacts are on the 75,000 people identified across both projects as extremely poor and highly impacted. They will benefit from improved design of payment schemes (through both the land-use changes incentivized and improved equity in the distribution of payments).
b. Land-use is not only affected by the design of international payment schemes but by local institutions including forest management associations. Within the study area these will benefit from improved capacity to make informed decisions about local land-use change and negotiate with those involved in scheme design.
c. The work will inform future payment schemes under a national REDD+ system (by influencing the national REDD+ strategy) and thus people living around all of Madagascar's forests could ultimately benefit.
d. Results will feed into international discussions on ecosystem service payments providing benefits to rural people impacted by schemes in other parts of the tropics through improved scheme design.

Users of research:
a. National decision makers in Madagascar are eager to capitalize on the potential of ecosystem service payments for poverty alleviation. This includes those responsible for developing national REDD+ policy (e.g., Ministry of Water and Forests, the Office National pour l'Environnement) and those testing feasibility of REDD+ approaches (e.g. CI, WWF, Wildlife Conservation Society). They benefit from nuanced analysis of the impacts of policy options on poverty alleviation, communicated so as to be easily used for policy decisions.
b. The project will provide guidance on designing effective, efficient and equitable payment schemes to those involved in developing REDD+ policy globally (e.g., Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance) and implementing REDD+ schemes around the world (including CI field programs).
c. Efforts to incorporate ecosystem services into national accounts (e.g. the World Bank Wealth Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services) will benefit from estimates of the costs/benefits of land-use change.
d. We will fill important knowledge gaps in ecosystem service linkages (see academic beneficiaries). We will improve understanding of the response of hydrological services to land-use change on the forest/agricultural frontier thus improving the WaterWorld model (a freely available tool). The new information on local ecosystem service values will feed into the Ecosystem Service Partnership's database for use in values transfer. The empirical carbon work will calibrate remote sensing data for a previously understudied habitat (regrowing tropical forest) which has wide utility in carbon assessments. We will make methodological advances in adapting environmental valuation methods developed in the west to low income country contexts.

Research Institutions in Madagascar: Poor investment has hindered the development of Malagasy research. The majority of the field research will be carried out by Malagasy researchers who will lead-author a significant number of papers, working (where helpful) in international partnerships. This strengthened capacity will make them more able to publish their research internationally (benefiting them and the research community).

Wider society: The general public (in Madagascar and internationally) will benefit from increased understanding of the linkages between ecosystem services and human wellbeing. Improved understanding empowers positive changes (e.g. through lobbying politicians).

Publications

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Rafidimanantsoa H (2018) Mind the gap: the use of research in protected area management in Madagascar in Madagascar Conservation & Development

 
Description I entered these for the last 3 years. Thhis last year there hasn't been a substantial change
Exploitation Route We have recent DFID funding (through the CLARE programme) to take this forward. Project lauched last week and is going very well. see http://forest4climateandpeople.bangor.ac.uk/index.php.en
Sectors Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other

URL http://www.p4ges.org
 
Description This grant (NE/K010220/1) is part of a consortium project 'p4ges: Can paying for global ecosystem services reduce poverty? www.p4ges.org'. We operate in very close partnership with the other four components of this consortium (NE/K010417/1, NE/K010115/1, NE/K010085/1, NE/K008692/1) and much of our impact is a result of collaboration. Below I introduce some of the most significant impact from the project as a whole. 1) Madagascar made a commitment to REDD+ in its INDC document submitted to the Paris climate conference in December 2015. This has confirmed the interest of the Malagasy government in REDD+ and the relevance of the p4ges project. The move away from project focus to a national REDD+ strategy is underway and our team (especially those from CI, LRI and ESSA) are centrally involved in this process and are regularly in discussions with key people in the process. The lead on REDD+ from the Malagasy government invited our team to brief the whole national REDD+ team about our research results. Partners from LRI and ESSA are in regular contact with them and members of our team now serve on the REDD+ national safeguarding committee. 2) The national coordination office for REDD+ asked if our carbon team could provide carbon data from the hidden pools (soil, roots etc) for non forest land uses for incorporation into base line assessment and modelling for the national REDD+ strategy and the emissions reduction strategy. Our team from LRI led by Prof Razafimbelo and Prof Razakamanarivo provided this data and helped them use it. This data is being used in a number of ways to support the REDD+ process. 3) In 2017 the World Bank recently announced their major new investment in Madagascar over the next decade which will replace the National Environmental Action Plan and will combine agricultural and environmental investment into a single programme (Projet Agriculture Durable par une Approche Paysage). We are following this process as closely as possible to ensure any opportunities to feed out results in are identified. P4ges PI Prof Jones was invited in 2017 to brief some of the key developers of this programme on 'The impacts of conservation efforts in Madagascar over the last decade on poverty reduction'. 4) The Green Climate Fund Board has approved a U$70 million project for Sustainable Landscapes in Eastern Madagascar (with a U$53.5 million contribution of the GCF). The overall objective of the new project is that 'sustainable landscape measures are used to enhance the resiliency of smallholder farmers, improve ecosystem resiliency, improve access to low emissions energy sources, and reduce emissions from deforestation'. CI (part of p4ges) will co-implement this project with the European Investment Bank. This highly complex project is the first GCF project proposed by an international NGO, it also the first time the GCF will work with co-implementation arrangements. But maybe most importantly, it is the first time that a green bond for the European market will be directly linked to climate change investments on the ground in a Least Developed Country. If we can show that this model works we could potentially unlock US$3.6 billion in additional climate finance annually. Another unique feature is that the returns of the Investment Fund may flow into a national Climate Change Trust Fund, which will ensure a lasting legacy of this project to Madagascar to continue building resilience of smallholder farmers and communities. The project will be implemented in Ambositra-Vondrozo (COFAV) and Ankeniheny-Zahamena (CAZ) corridors in the eastern part of Madagascar. This confirmation of ongoing investment in our project site (with p4ges organization CI at the heart) gives many opportunities for lessons from p4ges to influence future activities. As the project design is finalised there are a number of ways in which lessons from p4ges have been fed in. 5) The research conducted by p4ges on social safeguard implementation resulted in our partners Madagasikara Voakajy and an organisation linked to p4ges through representation on our national advisory board (Durrell Wildlife Trust) reviewing their own safeguard procedures for protected areas they manage and ensuring they were adequately ensuring that remote households had opportunities to participate. 6) We have returned to all the communities where our work was carried out to share results (presentations and through distributing our detailed booklet covering all p4ges research). This has empowered local people in ways which are very difficult to quantify or collect evidence for but we have many examples of people telling us how valuable this has been. The two parts which have been particularly valued are 1) information helping communities understand why external actors want to invest in forest conservation (many were aware of the global value of biodiversity but the value of forests in terms of carbon sequestration has not been locally understood but is important context) 2) we presented the results of our hydrological research using a very simple demonstration of the impacts of loss of vegetation on infiltration (see video). This was extremely well received locally and following this demonstration many local leaders gave speeches which referred to this demonstration and emphasised why keeping vegetation is so valuable for them in terms of water. 7) The Malagasy government has recently made a public commitment to attempt to reforest one million hectares of degraded land. They are therefore extremely interested how our empirical research and the model WaterWorld (which has been improved with funding from p4ges) can be used to optimise this process. We are exploring opportunities to work closely in advising this process. 8) WaterWorld and Co$tingNature are widely used spatial policy support systems, by more than 1200 institutions across 141 countries. They are used to understand water resource and ecosystem services baselines as well as conservation priority. As solution-focused tools, they are also used to understand the impacts of scenarios for land use and climate change and the impact of management interventions. During P4GES the tools have been further developed for all users with new functionality for calibration of mapped data on the basis of fieldwork, new intervention tools for analysing the impact of paddy rice and improved tools for mapping the distribution of beneficiaries. Version 3 of Co$ting Nature was launched at a meeting on research impact at the House of Commons on the 7th February. The tool is being used in of conservation/development applications in Colombia, Honduras, Peru, South Africa, West Africa. The built-in datasets have been improved for Madagascar and we have provided training and support for technicians in key organisations in using the tools. 9) In September 2017 His Excellency the President of Madagascar met with the UK Under Secretary of State at the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Thérèse Coffey MP, and delegates from the International Climate Fund, DEFRA, Durrell, Fauna & Flora International and TRAFFIC to discuss the future of conservation in Madagascar. P4ges PI was part of this high level round table to discuss the most appropriate ways forward for combining conservation and development in Madagascar. 10) Following on from our work on social impacts of biodiervsity offsets as part of this project (Bidaud et al 2018, 2017), we have worked with industry to produce good practice guidelines (Bull et al 2018).
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description DEFRA strategy on biodiversity/climate change/poverty
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Data from p4ges carbon team being used in the national REDD+ emmissions reduction strategy
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact The National coordination office of REDD+ in Madagascar approached our project recently to ask for data on the carbon stocks (especially in the hidden carbon pools) in land uses other than forest (though they were also interested in our forest data-this is less rare and there are a number of sources of such data). Our team, led by Prof Razakamanarivo and Prof Razafimbelo, rapidly responded and arranged the data in the format they needed and shared this with them. This data will of course all be archived open access eventually but the team worked hard to make it available to the government office in this way so it can feed directly into their submission to the UNFCC.
 
Description Improved tools being used in a range of policy formulation activities around the world
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact New functions developed in the WaterWorld and Co$ting Nature Policy Support systems have supported decision making around sustainable land use, climate change adaptation and mitigation, conservation prioritization and other around the world
URL http://blog.policysupport.org/search?q=guest+post
 
Description Letter to President of Madagascar
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact It is difficult to provide concrete evidence that this letter to the president had a concrete impact. However the coming together of NGOs to lobby the president of Madagascar to recognise the role of natural capital and good environmental governance in delivering his commitment to reduce the gap between rich and poor in Madagascar was quite significant. We belive this represents a change of attitudes in the environment an deveopment sectors in Madagascar about the linkages between these two areas. The p4ges project has played an important role in this change in attitude.It is difficult to provide concrete evidence that this letter to the president had a concrete impact. However the coming together of NGOs to lobby the president of Madagascar to recognise the role of natural capital and good environmental governance in delivering his commitment to reduce the gap between rich and poor in Madagascar was quite significant. We believe this represents a change of attitudes in the environment and development sectors in Madagascar about the linkages between these two areas. The p4ges project has played an important role in this change in attitude.
URL http://p4ges.org/news/presidentletter.php.en
 
Description Response to consultation on World Bank's social and environmental safeguards
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Members of p4ges team respond to World Bank consultation on its Environmental and Social Standards. The aims of the World Bank are to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity. They fund billions of dollars' worth of projects in less developed countries every year. Over the past two decades the bank has introduced a set of standards aiming to ensure any impact of their projects on people and the environment is identified, avoided and minimised (its environmental and social safeguards or ESS). In 2012 they launched a review of these policies. We repsonded to the third and final phase. Some of field work the p4ges team has been doing around CAZ has relevance to the implementation of the bank's social safeguards (see our recent paper in Global Environmental Change). The work of Cecile Bidaud Rakotoarivony (espa fellow linked to the p4ges project) on the social impacts of biodiversity offsets has relevance to the new guidelines on biodiversity offsets. A number of us therefore have submitted a response, based on the field work we have done as part of the p4ges project, to the 3rd and final phase of the consultation which closes on the 15th March 2016. We made five main points (elaborated in our response): 1) Explicit reference should be made to the importance of ensuring that local people are aware of the existence of the grievance procedure and how to use it. People who are particularly vulnerable (and rightly deserving of special attention in the ESSs) are likely to be particularly isolated from information transfer mechanisms-a reason why this requires special attention. 2) Where World Bank funded projects operate in remote rural situations in poor countries there may not be sufficient information on the location of local communities to allow the borrower to develop an effective plan for identifying and compensating affected persons. We would suggest more emphasis should be given to improving this background information where it is inadequate. We suggest that the borrower should make public the map they are using for planning this process: creating a pressure to improve such maps and an opportunity for advocates of local people to highlight any omissions. 3) "The Bank's vision goes beyond 'do no harm' to maximizing development gains" (p.6) which is a very positive aspiration. However, the wording of specific mitigation plans adds 'or at least restore' their [affected peoples'] livelihoods and living standards. This makes the conditions less stringent than appears in the introduction to the document and means that safeguards do not strictly have to 'go beyond' doing no harm. 4) Free Prior Informed Consent (FPIC) is not applied universally- it is only invoked in the case of 'Indigenous Peoples'. Given that, particularly in Africa, many ethnic groups have not self-identified as 'indigenous people', we suggest it would be better to talk of 'indigenous peoples and local communities' as is done in the Convention on Biological Diversity and apply the same FPIC principle to both. 5) Where biodiversity offsets are applied explicit consideration should be given to the fact that biodiversity offsets may result in physical and/or economic displacement. We suggest a note should be added making it clear that ESS5 (that which refers to economic or physical displacement of people) applies and should be followed in all such cases. The Bank used responses to amend the final version which was passed in August 2016. It is difficult to attribute any changes in the final version to our cntribution but we are pleased to see the changes from Free Prior Informed Cnsultation to Free Prior Informed Consent.
URL http://p4ges.org/news/WorldBankconsultationblog.php.en
 
Description World Bank report on Community Forest Management in Madagascar
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Research conducted as part ofthe p4ges project (Rasolofoson et al 2015) was cited in a major World Bank review of the effectivness of Community Forest Management at delivering environmental and welfare benefits. Our team member (Ranaivo Rasolofoson) was invited to undertake further analysis for this review and is a co-author.
URL http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2015/11/25485929/analysis-community-forest-management-cfm-...
 
Description ESPA Fellowship - Cecile
Amount £164,507 (GBP)
Organisation Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2014 
End 06/2016
 
Description ESPA Fellowship - Patrick
Amount £99,530 (GBP)
Organisation Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2014 
End 12/2016
 
Description ESPA small travel grant for Rina to attend social science workshop
Amount £2,400 (GBP)
Organisation Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 10/2014
 
Description Forest4Climate&People
Amount £180,000 (GBP)
Organisation UK Department for International Development 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2020 
End 08/2021
 
Description Issues and Myths in Protected Area Conservation: Tradeoffs and Synergies (IMPACTS)
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P008097/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 12/2017
 
Description MSC field work - Bob
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Free University of Amsterdam 
Sector Academic/University
Country Netherlands
Start 02/2013 
End 09/2013
 
Description MSC field work - Cassandra
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Organisation Bangor University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2014 
End 09/2014
 
Description MSC field work - Catherine
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Organisation Bangor University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2015 
End 09/2015
 
Description MSC field work - Mamy
Amount £8,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Antananarivo 
Sector Academic/University
Country Madagascar
Start 05/2014 
End 09/2014
 
Description MSC field work - Nanne
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Organisation Free University of Amsterdam 
Sector Academic/University
Country Netherlands
Start 09/2014 
End 08/2015
 
Description MSC field work - Natasha
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Organisation Imperial College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2014 
End 09/2014
 
Description MSC field work - Pepijn
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Organisation Free University of Amsterdam 
Sector Academic/University
Country Netherlands
Start 05/2014 
End 09/2014
 
Description MSC field work - Shanti
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Organisation King's College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2014 
End 09/2014
 
Description PhD studentship (for Elizabeth)
Amount £55,954 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Northern Ireland 
Department Department for Employment and Learning Northern Ireland (DELNI)
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2013 
End 07/2016
 
Description PhD studentship and field work funding (for Ranaivo)
Amount € 116,400 (EUR)
Organisation Forest and Nature for Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country Denmark
Start 07/2013 
End 07/2016
 
Description PhD studentship and field work funding (for Sarobidy)
Amount € 116,400 (EUR)
Organisation Forest and Nature for Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country Denmark
Start 07/2013 
End 07/2016
 
Description SCCS (Student Conference on Conservation Science) bursary for Alex
Amount £2,400 (GBP)
Organisation Student Conference on Conservation Science (SCCS) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2015 
End 04/2015
 
Description espa funding for mini conference on Soil, Forests and Agriculture: what challenges are faced from climate change in Madagascar (UNFCC accredited side-event)
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 07/2015
 
Title Annual Forest Loss at 15m resolution in the Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena (CAZ), Madagascar, 2006-2014 
Description A high resolution analysis of forest loss. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This dataset has underpinned sampling for the p4ges project and provides useful background for the new Green Climate Fund project in the region. 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/c63c543f-3e95-4c1c-8c69-12f942271813
 
Title Belowground carbon stock data in the Ankeniheny Zahamena forest corridor, Madagascar 
Description See archive 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Used in Malagasy government's emmissions reduction strategy 
URL http://doi.org/10.5285/993c5778-e139-4171-a57f-7a0f396be4b8
 
Title Bidaud, C., Jones, J.P.G., Schreckenberg, K. and Rabeharison, M. (2016). Household survey investigating the social impact of biodiversity offset: a case study from Madagascar. 
Description The database is the result of a household survey investigating the magnitude and distribution of biodiversity offset project impacts on local livelihood. 170 households in 3 different sites around biodiversity offset project in Madagascar have been surveyed. The survey includes elements on demography, income activities and assets, change of income activities and assets within five years, as well as questions about development aid (donation and training) received by the household, involvment in local association and impacts from the offset project. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It is available on open access archive for others to use 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/852341/
 
Title Braun-Blanquet percentage vegetation cover and indicator species data in Ankeniheny Zahamena forest corridor, Madagascar 
Description See archive 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Used in Malagasy government emmissions reduction strategy 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/b31330cc-743c-431e-95cd-68b316efed0b
 
Title Conservation and development investments in the Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena (CAZ), Madagascar, 2007-2014 
Description This is based on a large data set collated by the Conservation International team as part of the p4ges project 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This data and resulting work is supporting the design and development of a major Green Climate Fund project in eastern Madagascar. 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/f969f92f-baa6-4621-bf27-ea29409f16d0
 
Title Forest inventory, dendrometric tree characteristics and aboveground biomass data in Ankeniheny Zahamena forest corridor, Madagascar 
Description See archive 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Used in Malagasy government's REDD+ emmissions reduction strategy 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/cbeea40f-8e35-4875-8b49-815e04f0cbd9
 
Title Household-level agricultural inputs-outputs, off-farm income and wild-harvested products survey in eastern Madagascar 
Description Detailed household level data on agricultural inputs and oputputs for 170 households 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It is being used in a number of publications. 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/852790/
 
Title Poudyal, M., et al (2016). Household survey and discrete choice experiment for investigating the opportunity cost of conservation restrictions in eastern Madagascar 
Description This is a large dataset-a full description is available with the archived data set. Poudyal, M., Rakotonarivo, O. S., Rasoamanana, A., Mandimbiniaina, R., Spener, N., Hockley, N., Jones, J.P.G., (2016). Household survey and discrete choice experiment for investigating the opportunity cost of conservation restrictions in eastern Madagascar. [Data Collection]. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive. 10.5255/UKDA-SN-852435# 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This data forms the basis of one paper published in Global Environmental Change, one accepted in World Development and two more in review. We expect a further 3 or 4 papers will be written based on this dataset by our team and we hope it will be used more widely by others eventually. 
URL http://ckan.data.alpha.jisc.ac.uk/en/dataset/852435
 
Title Site description and location of direct measured trees in the Ankeniheny Zahamena forest corridor, Madagascar 
Description see archive 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Used in Malagasy government REDD+ emmissions reduction strategy 
URL http://doi.org/10.5285/a242e145-21f6-4c3c-b8e4-adce70e50d85
 
Title Soil profile and chemistry data in the Ankeniheny Zahamena forest corridor, Madagascar 
Description see archive 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Used in Malagasy government's REDD+ emmissions reduction strategy 
URL http://doi.org/10.5285/c3884aa0-b083-469d-8a0d-fdbbb79aff05
 
Title Survey of local perceptions of the livelihood and conservation benefits delivered by small-scale livelihood projects in eastern Madagascar. 
Description Survey data collected by Harvey, Celia A. and Rambeloson, Andoniaina M. and Andrianjohaninarivo, Tokihenintsoa and Andriamaro, Luciano and Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa and Randrianarisoa, Jeannicq and Ramanahadray, Soloson and Christie, Michael and Siwicka, Ewa and Remoundou, Kyriaki and MacKinnon, James L. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It has been used in two publications. 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/852649/
 
Title Topographical characteristics of sites in the Ankeniheny Zahamena forest corridor, Madagascar 
Description See archive 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Used by Malagasy government in REDD+ emmissions reduction strategy 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/5771191f-8c12-40bf-af62-2624876616de
 
Title Very high resolution derived land cover/use classifications for the Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena (CAZ), Madagascar 
Description The products capture current land use/cover for four areas of interest in Corridor Ankeniheny Zahamena (CAZ) generated based on very high resolution imagery (SPOT 6). Field-based training and validation data were used and supervised classifications created using Random Forest classifier. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Feeds into analysis by wider p4ges project 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/ce535cef-842e-4875-ad80-26760900cec0
 
Title Wood specific gravity for trees in Ankeniheny Zahamena forest corridor, Madagascar 
Description See archive 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Has been used in Madagascar's national REDD+ emmissions reduction strategy 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/documents/5e9fe20b-8d00-4bd3-99cb-7989fa781348
 
Title Wood specific gravity for trees in Ankeniheny Zahamena forest corridor, Madagascar v2 
Description Data comprise wood specific gravity (WSG) and density at 12% moisture content (D12) in wood cores sampled from trees in the Ankeniheny Zahamena forest corridor, the remains of the evergreen forest of eastern Madagascar. The data also include date of sample collection, zone identifier, core identifier, local and scientific tree name, tree height and diameter. Samples were analysed by UFR Sciences du bois de l'ESSA-forêts, Université d'Antananarivo. Data were collected as part of a project funded under the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme. Work package 4, P4GES project, grant references: NE/K008692/1, NE/K010115/1, and NE/K010220/1. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Description Issues and Myths in Protected Area Conservation: Tradeoffs and Synergies (IMPACTS) working group led by Emily Woodhouse (UCL) 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Julia Jones and Kate Schreckenberg have contributed to developing the objectives and writing the proposal for this working group.
Collaborator Contribution The working group is led by Emily Woodhouse and Katherine Homewood. This has now been funded by espa and the project will use some of the relevant results from the p4ges project.
Impact Thanks to this collaboration-we now have funding for a new project
Start Year 2016
 
Description LRIs ongoing projects using p4ges results 
Organisation Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD)
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution LRI are continuing to use the results from p4ges (especially the data sets created) in future work. LRI have created a new project UMR Eco&Sols with IRD and CIRAD colleagues looking at "Land use change impact on litter dynamics; case of the slash and burn agriculture in the Eastern region of Madagascar". They also are using p4ges data in the project "Dispositif en Partenariat: Forêts et Biodiversité" which is a network gathering researches from the University of Antananarivo - FOFIFA - CIRAD who works in some topics in relation with the priority areas of research. Finally, they are using the data in ongoing studies (PhD and Master studies) working on caracterisation of malagasy wood and identification of indigenous forest species with use of spectrometry. This project (to end mid-2018) involves researchers from Madagascar, France, Brazil and is co-funded by AUF, IFS and Agropolis Capes.
Collaborator Contribution These projects involve all partners in various ways.
Impact This involves wood science, ecology and forestry specifically.
Start Year 2015
 
Description LRIs ongoing projects using p4ges results 
Organisation Institute of Development Research (IRD)
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution LRI are continuing to use the results from p4ges (especially the data sets created) in future work. LRI have created a new project UMR Eco&Sols with IRD and CIRAD colleagues looking at "Land use change impact on litter dynamics; case of the slash and burn agriculture in the Eastern region of Madagascar". They also are using p4ges data in the project "Dispositif en Partenariat: Forêts et Biodiversité" which is a network gathering researches from the University of Antananarivo - FOFIFA - CIRAD who works in some topics in relation with the priority areas of research. Finally, they are using the data in ongoing studies (PhD and Master studies) working on caracterisation of malagasy wood and identification of indigenous forest species with use of spectrometry. This project (to end mid-2018) involves researchers from Madagascar, France, Brazil and is co-funded by AUF, IFS and Agropolis Capes.
Collaborator Contribution These projects involve all partners in various ways.
Impact This involves wood science, ecology and forestry specifically.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Trans-African Hydro Meterological Observatory (THAMO) collaboration to establish a network of weather stations in Madagascar 
Organisation Trans-African HydroMeteorological Observatory
Country Netherlands 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our partners on p4ges from Zurich University (specifically Ilja van Meerveld) facilitated 5 complete weather stations to be donated from THAMO to NGOs and relevant organisations in Madagascar. The partners were found through partnerships established or built during p4ges and the locations selected partly on p4ges knowledge of hydrological gaps in knowledge for Madagascar.
Collaborator Contribution THAMO proided weather stations. Ny Tanintsika, Conservation International, ESSA and a school in southern Madagascar are hosting them.
Impact None as yet.
Start Year 2017
 
Description ecosystem services for poverty alleviation working group on soil sustainability 
Organisation Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Herinsitohaina Razakamanarivo (LRI component) and Alison Cameron (initially QUB component but transferring to Bangor) of the p4ges project attended a meeting convened by the espa directorate in Edinburgh in July 2015 to identify opportunities for synthesis and further collaboration across espa funded projects with an interest in soils.
Collaborator Contribution This is still at an early stage. A proposal has been written but isn't yet funded. The meeting however has been very valuable for networking and creating links across espa-funded soil scientists.
Impact This is at an early stage. NB the URL doesn't refer to this specifically as this collaboration is at an early stage and doesn't yet have a relevant URL.
Start Year 2016
 
Description ecosystem services for poverty alleviation working group on soil sustainability 
Organisation University of Reading
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Herinsitohaina Razakamanarivo (LRI component) and Alison Cameron (initially QUB component but transferring to Bangor) of the p4ges project attended a meeting convened by the espa directorate in Edinburgh in July 2015 to identify opportunities for synthesis and further collaboration across espa funded projects with an interest in soils.
Collaborator Contribution This is still at an early stage. A proposal has been written but isn't yet funded. The meeting however has been very valuable for networking and creating links across espa-funded soil scientists.
Impact This is at an early stage. NB the URL doesn't refer to this specifically as this collaboration is at an early stage and doesn't yet have a relevant URL.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Writing workshop - introduction to publishing ecosystem-related research in international journals 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This workshop was aimed at researchers who are comfortable with English but who aren't confident about submitting their work to international journals. It was organized and delivered by members of the p4ges team and included materials prepared by Dr Martin Fisher (editor of Oryx: the international journal of conservation) and Neal Haddaway.

We covered:
1) Targeting the right journal (including understanding 'impact factor', the advantages of open access
or not)
2) Understanding the peer review process
3) Ensuring you get sent out for review
4) Dealing with revisions

Participants received feedback on abstracts they submitted. Materials from workshop are available here: http://p4ges.org/resources.php.en
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.p4ges.org/documents/writingworkshopFINAL.pdf
 
Description 6 members of the p4ges team members present at the annual FLARE conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On December 6 members of the p4ges team represented the project and shared research results at FLARE. An international meeting focused on the relationship between forests and livelihoods in terms of how forests are defined, accessed, used, governed, and protected, and how humans and societies can improve both conservation and economic outcomes.
Projects from around the world were presented by a diverse participant base capturing a wealth of different scientific realms and backgrounds including environmental, social, and biophysical expertise.

Karyn Tabor, Jenny Hewson, James Mackinnon, Mahesh Poudyal, Sarobidy Rakotnarivo and Patrick Rafidimantsoa all presented pp4ges research. Karyn presented results evaluating the conservation effectiveness of investments, in terms of effects on both deforestation and fire, made in CAZ over the last eight years. Jenny presented results from a set of potential deforestation scenarios generated to help inform effective policy development for the CAZ. James presented results from a study to assess whether small scale livelihood projects deliver both livelihood and forest conservation outcomes. Mahesh asked the question 'who bears the costs of forest conservation?'. Sarobidy presented evidence that property right (or perceived property rights) affects how choice experiments should be designed to estimate opportunity costs of conservation. Patrick presented on barriers for research results being used to improve forest management in Madagascar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/news/flare.php.en
 
Description Article in 'The conservation' about challenges of achieving conservation in Madagascar without negatively impacting people 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This article (informed by the research of the p4gs project) was widely read and republished.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconversation.com/why-havent-madagascars-famed-lemurs-been-saved-yet-43955
 
Description Article in The Conversation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Forest conservation approaches must recognise the rights of local people: p4ges researchers Sarobidy Rakotonarivo and Neal Hockley explain why local people's right really matter when it comes to tropical forest conservation.This article has been very widely shared on social media.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://theconversation.com/forest-conservation-approaches-must-recognise-the-rights-of-local-people...
 
Description Article on Mongabay website covering recent research on social impacts of biodiversity offsets 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our team were interviewed by Mongabay about our recent research on the social impacts of biodiversity offsets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://news.mongabay.com/2016/12/study-looks-at-positive-and-negative-impacts-of-biodiversity-offse...
 
Description BBC news at 10 interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Julie Razafimanahaka (project co-I) was interviewed on the news at 10 (BBC) about how conservation in Madagascar can be achieved without harming local people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-33096260
 
Description BBC radio 4 discussion (costing the earth) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact p4ges PI (Julia Jones) appeared on the shared planet programme (radio 4) talking about the p4ges project and issues of conservation and development in Madagascar more broadly.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.p4ges.org/sharedplanetedited.mp3
 
Description BBC radio wales 'audio diary' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact p4ges PI Julia Jones made an audio diary for BBC radio wales which was broadcast in January 2014. This involved an interview with project co-I Bruno Ramamonjisoa. A Welsh version was also broadcast on Radio Cymru but we don't have a live link to this.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-25649151
 
Description BBC website coverage of recent paper (Poudyal et al 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our recent paper (poudyal et al 2016) was covered by the BBC (see link below).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-35409903
 
Description Co$ting Nature and WaterWorld training course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 13th February 2014, in Antananarivo, Madagascar the ESPA-funded p4ges (Can paying for global ecosystem services reduce poverty?) project delivered a training course in freely available policy-support tools for assessing baseline ecosystem services and the impacts of scenarios on ecosystem service flows: WaterWorld and Co$ting Nature. The 25 trainees included staff from the Ministry of Water among other local government ministries, university departments and the Office National pour l'Environnment. Local and international conservation (WWF, Conservation International, WCS) and development-focused (WaterAid, EU-DEV) organisations were also represented in significant numbers.

The training was introduced by Dr Luciano Andriamaro (head of science at Conservation International) and Dr Rija Ranaivoarison from the world bank WAVES programme. There was great interest in the tools, so much so that the planned 2 hours session ran to 3 hours and the participants all requested that we run further training to allow them to get deeper into the tools. Jean Roger Rakotoarijaona from the office national pour l'environnment (ONE) said 'These sort of tools are very useful for us in planning further investment in REDD+ at the national scale. I will encourage my colleagues to attend further training and look into this in more detail'.

The training involved the participants running baseline analyses for northern Madagascar with Co$ting Nature and a baseline and land use change scenario using WaterWorld. The WaterWorld examined the potential impacts of a deforestation scenario on annual water flows in the country. The image below shows areas in which such a scenario of continued forest loss outside of protected areas would lead to reductions in river water flows.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://p4ges.org/news/Markmulliganreport.php.en
 
Description Community feedback in northern CAZ (Zahamena) ESSA team led 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our team travelled to Zahamena National Park in the north of CAZ to share results with local communities in Antevibe and Ambodiavohangy communes. We did demonstrations about the links between hydrology and land use, we gavce presentatiosna nd shared our reports. About 240 adults attended our three events in total.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/news/sharing-results.php.en
 
Description Community feedback event in southern CAZ (Andasibe commune) MV team led 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We shared our research results in a series of events in Andasibe commune in the CAZ forest in Madagascar. More than 90 people attended the three events. We gave presentations, demonstrations of our hydrological research and distributed leaflets summarising the research. These events were very well received and led to alot of discussion about the meaning of the research locally. The local NGO Mitsinjo will use the hydrological research in promoting reforestation and restoration locally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/news/sharing-andasibe.php.en
 
Description Community feedback in eastern CAZ (Anjamana) MV teanm led 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our teams went back to all the sites we had worked at in eastern Madagascar to share results. They gave community presentations and distributed leaflets. Most popular was our hydrology demonstration. Over all the events in this area-we estimate about 200 people were reached.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/news/eastern-caz.php.en
 
Description Community feedback in southern CAZ (Ampahitra) ESSA team 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact May to July 2016 a team from Bangor University and the University of Antananarivo returned to all our study sites for the 'indepth' socio-economic research conducted by p4ges. The 1st series of events happened in Ampahitra fokontany in May 2016. 4 individual public events (as well as many courtesey visits) were held. At least 50 people attended each one. A blog describing the 1st of these is below and a a video is available here.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qnLs1WTtt9Q&feature=youtu.be
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.espa.ac.uk/news-events/espa-blog/community-engagement-vital-researchers-and-research
 
Description Community feedback in western CAZ (Didy) MV team led 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We delivered a number of community feedback events in the west of CAZ with communities where we had worked. We also visited local officials to share results and discuss what they mean in the local context.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/news/sharing-CAZ.php.en
 
Description Community stakeholder event (Andasibe site) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We invited representatives of the local community (including the mayor, school teachers, representatives of the church and women's groups as well as selected children from 8 schools) to visit the plots in Andasibe, see demonstrations of our equipment in action and discuss the preliminary results. The event was a real success. More than 50 people attended (more than we had planned for or invited as interest was so high). Our local assistants played a really vital role in explaining the research to our guests. This was very successful: "Not meaning to be rude but to be honest people don't believe researchers and vazaha [foreigners]. What is good is that it is people from here who have explained to us what they have seen every day in terms of differences in the amount of water entering the drums in the different sites. This makes everything very clear. This is very convincing. This needs to be shared more widely." Bruno Rakotomalala (school teacher from Ampangalatsary).

We had so many excellent questions-some quite technical focusing on the research, but many taking a wider perspective. There was a real focus on what people locally could do and there was deep and detailed discussion on this topic between the guests as they walked around the site.

Video of event: http://p4ges.org/p4gestv/openday.php.en
Blog about the event: http://p4ges.org/news/Juliahydroblog.php.en
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://p4ges.org/news/Juliahydroblog.php.en
 
Description Coverage of Rafidimanantsoa study in the media 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Media coverage of a research article. Summary points
The park directors and conservation managers responsible for managing Madagascar's protected areas tend not to rely on scientific research to make on-the-ground decisions, opting instead for experience and advice from others, a new study has found.
Several managers, for instance, felt there was "limited research of relevance to them and their needs."
Others complained that even when relevant research was carried out, researchers often did not share the results with them.
Overall, Madagascar's protected area managers need better access to research, and more relevant research, to help them manage the country's parks more efficiently and effectively, the study's authors write.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://news.mongabay.com/2018/06/for-madagascars-park-managers-the-science-literature-is-out-of-rea...
 
Description Coverage of recent paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Artlcle about our recent paper in World Development
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://news.mongabay.com/2018/02/study-delves-into-overlooked-community-perceptions-of-conservation...
 
Description Double page spread in popular news magasine l'hebdo 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Following our policy-event in Madagascar marking the close of the project in Madagascar, there were at least four articles in Madagascar's national media about our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://p4ges.org/news/documents/LHebdo_9_dec_Rina.pdf
 
Description English language booklet summarising p4ges research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We have printed 100 of our Nalagasy language booklets (there are 4000 in Malagasy) in english.These booklets (which we produced with a local cartoonist) cover all the main findings of the p4ges project but in simple form. They are useful for communicating p4ges to international stakeholders but also for showing other researchers what we have done in terms of local communication as many projects don't produce such a detailed saummary in local languages. Many people have found it useful and shared it and told us they will attempt to produce something similar in their projects inspired by this.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/documents/FINALENGLISH2.pdf
 
Description Impactful environmental, developmental, regulatory and policy-relevant research: case studies from King's Geography A reception at the House of Commons 7th February 2018 7-9pm 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact During her welcoming speech Laura Sandys (Deputy Chair of the Food Standards Agency) said of research into policy that 'it's not what you say, but what is heard that matters'. Professor Frans Berkhout (Executive Dean of the Faculty of Social Science & Public Policy at King's) spoke about the importance of sustained partnerships in order for research to have policy impact, through the co-production of knowledge. Co$tingNature version 3 and the FreeStation projects were launched
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.kcl.ac.uk/sspp/departments/geography/research/Research-Domains/Contested-Development/new...
 
Description Malagasy language booklet summarising p4ges research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We have printed more than 4000 of these booklets and given them to stakeholders at every level from national advisors, ministers and researchers to commune mayors, village chiefs and households. These booklets (which we produced with a local cartoonist) cover all the main findings of the p4ges project but in simple form. These have been extremely well received and we have received many comments from all levels of society about how interesting and valuable they are and how unusual it is for research results ot be shared in this way. It is something we are very proud of.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/documents/FINALMalagasy_000.pdf
 
Description Members of p4ges team invited to discuss social safeguards by the National REDD+ committee (Madagascar) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Representatives of p4ges from the University of Antananarivo and Bangor University were invited by the lead of the BNC REDD (National REDD+ coordination committee) to speak to the whole team and discuss the implications of p4ges research for the design of REDD+ safeguards (under the cancun agreement of UNFCC). We spent about 4 hours with the whole BNC REDD team (about 17 people). Discussions were wide ranging and frank and the director of BNC REDD (Mamitiana Andriamanjato) told us that Madagascar is at a critical point in developing its national REDD+ strategy and the discussion had been extremely useful for their team. Members of our team were asked to serve on a national committee developing the safeguard strategy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Mini conference on the costs and social impacts of forest conservation in Madagascar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact On Wednesday, December 9, 2015 the p4ges project organised a small conference on impacts and local costs of forest conservation at ESSA-Forêts. The event was well attended and about 40 students, academics, and partners from NGOs joined for the presentations and discussion. We surveyed the participants before and after the mini-conference on their attitudes to conservation compensation and found quite interesting and extensive changes (see blog linked below).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://p4ges.org/news/Cecileconferenceblog.php.en
 
Description Mini-conference: 'Soil, Forests and Agriculture: what challenges are faced from climate change in Madagascar?' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The p4ges team from the Laboratoire des Radio-Isotopes (part of the University of Antananarivo) were key organisers of this high-profile event which was an accredited side-event of the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change's (UNFCC) scientific meeting 'Our common Future under Climate Change' (hld in Paris in July 2015). The event brought together the scientific and policy community with civil society groups to look at issues such as:
(i) the past-present-future of climate change
(ii) Importance of soils to face climate change
(iii) Agriculture within the context of climate change
(iv) Climate change, forests and biodiversity.
The meeting will helped inform the position of the Malagasy delegation to the UNFCC conference in December.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://p4ges.org/news/LRIevent.php.en
 
Description Ministry of Environment, Ecology and Forests representative visits p4ges team in the field 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact M. Hiarinirina Randrianijahana who is responsible for research in the Direction Generale de Fôrets spent a few days in the field with the p4ges team. This was an excellent oppurtunity to ensure staff at the Direction Generale de Fôrets have a deep understanding of our research. The meeting was a great success.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://p4ges.org/news/MEF_visit.php.en
 
Description National advisory group discussion about p4ges impacts 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact After the formal policy-focused close event of p4ges (attended by 2 ministers), the leaders of p4ges had a meeting with our National Advisory Committee. This expert group includes representatives from the Office National pour L'Environnement (ONE), The World Bank WAVES programme, the National Coordination Office of REDD+ as well as NGOs involved in REDD+ and forest conservation. It is chaired by Mme Claudine Ramiarison (Ministry of Research and Higher Education). We had a really helpful discussion about the next steps for ensuring p4ges research is as available as possible to be used. One thing which was agreed was to put p4ges papers and archived data sets on the ONE website. We also agreed that the carbon data will be shared immediately with the national REDD+ office to be integrated into their current work on establishing the national Reference Emission Level [this has since been done].

Mme Claudine closed the event by commenting on how impressed she was by the quality of the research conducted by p4ges and that she hopes to see the collaborations which have been developed, continue into the future as this is a very important area for Madagascar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://p4ges.org/news/close-sharing.php.en
 
Description National stakeholder event (Andasibe site) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact More than 45 people including the British Ambassador, the regional Director of Forests, the regional Director of Rural Development, representatives of the Office National pour l'Environnement and NGOs visited our field site in Andasibe to discuss some of the research results p4ges has generated so far, to visit our intensely instrumented hydrological plots and to discuss some of the likely future scenarios of land use for us to explore in our modelling.

The VIPs were extremely interested and engaged in the work and we got many excellent questions. Herizo Andrianandrasana of Durrell said "As a scientist it is excellent to see these advanced approaches for exploring the effect of land use change on hydrology." Dimby Razafimpahanana, the coordinator of Rebioma (the national biodiversity data archive) said "This work is extremely interesting and it is so good to visit it and see the equipment in the field. If you just watch a presentation you don't get the full understanding".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://p4ges.org/news/VIPhydrovisit.php.en
 
Description National workshop focused on the potential of water-based PES to address water shortages in Madagascar 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In January in Madagascar it should rain, and rain a lot. This year is different; much of the country, except the usually dry south, is suffering from a lack of rain. Madagascar is dependent on hydro power and as the reservoirs are drying out, the capital city, as well as other parts of the country, is plagued by power cuts. Farmers have not yet been able to plant their rice seedlings - a real concern in a country where food security is far from guaranteed. There is growing awareness that water can be a limited, and certainly a limiting, resource. The ministry of the environment took out a full page spread in the national newspapers recently, highlighting the connection between water and poor environmental management of Madagascar's countryside.


There is a growing interest around the world in the concept of payments for ecosystem services - whereby those who benefit from functioning natural ecosystems, help pay the costs of those who manage their land to ensure the natural ecosystems are protected. Examples include farmers in the UK being paid to maintain hedgerows or meadows on their land (funded by the tax payer as society benefits from the improved environmental condition), or forest carbon projects, where travellers can offset the carbon they emit by helping to fund projects that aim to lock up carbon through improved forest management.

This week a workshop was held in Antananarivo to discuss the potential of payments for watershed services to help contribute to improved water supply through funding for conservation of Madagascar's remaining forests, or restoration of degraded land. The workshop brought together experts from Bolivia, where a scheme known as 'watershared' has been operating for many years, with those in Madagascar who are trialling a similar approach and those interested in learning more.

Mme Hanta Rabetaliana, the Director General of the Ministry of Environment, Ecology and Forests opened the workshop saying "We need to think in a new way about managing our environment in Madagascar. The world is changing fast and we need to respond. Water matters to everyone and everything. We must work with our colleagues in the Ministry of Water to see how these ideas, and the small pilots which exist in Madagascar, can be put into practice at a larger scale."

The linkages between land use and water supplies are complex and, especially in the tropics, remarkably poorly understood. Dr Ilja van Meerveld from the University of Zurich who has been studying the links between forest cover and hydrology in Madagascar for four years as part of the P4GES project, says "trees use water so having dense forest in a catchment will tend to reduce the total water available over the year, but this is not always what matters locally. Trees, shrubs and other vegetation, help water sink into the soil slowly. This helps ensure the rivers flow longer into the dry season. It also means overland water flow, which causes erosion and poor quality drinking water, is reduced".

Payments for watershed services schemes fund upstream farmers to plant trees or reduce grazing and fire to allow vegetation to recover. Funding comes from a small tax on water or electricity bills. There are many who feel that payments for ecosystem service schemes turns nature into a commodity and contributes to inequalities. Paying for watershed services may be particularly controversial as water is often seen as a human right or a gift from god. Dr Nigel Asquith from Fundacion Natura Bolivia explained that in their scheme they emphasise reciprocity rather than markets. "The upstream farmers are joining the scheme and agreeing to put their land in conservation at least partly because of a sense of doing the right thing. The philosophy behind Watershared is that people who produce water share it, and people who benefit from water, share the benefits".

There was a strong feeling at the workshop that this approach has real potential in Madagascar. Tovondriaka Rakotobe from the Association Tany Meva who are working with a small hydro dam in northern Madagascar, due to open next month said "Locally people don't really want to talk about forest conservation but when you discuss water and electricity everyone is willing to get involved."

As I write this, clouds are gathering on the horizon for the first time since I arrived in Madagascar two weeks ago. Let's hope this brings the rain that the farmers, and the power company, so desperately need. However, when the rain does come much will flow rapidly over the island's degraded hillsides to the sea. Could changes in how the land is managed help reduce future water shortages?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.espa.ac.uk/news-events/espa-blog/can-payments-better-land-management-help-overcome-water-...
 
Description New article about What the Paris climate agreement means for forest dwelling people 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On the day the Paris agreement came into force, p4ges PI Julia Jones was asked to give her view on what the agreement means for forest dwelling people affected by REDD+. The article was read >6000 times.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://theconversation.com/paris-climate-agreement-enters-into-force-international-experts-respond-...
 
Description News article about 'sapphire rush' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our project site (the CAZ forest in Madagascar) is being massively impacted by a Sapphire rush (45,000 miners travelled to a particular part of the forest over a few weeks and started clearing forest for the valuable sapphires found there). Project leader Julia Jones wrote this article for the online newspaper The Conversation. This has been widely read and discussed in Madagascar and certainly raised international attention to the issue. We know of two major international news agencies planning to cover the story because of this article. The article was read >13,000 times and widely shared in the Madagascar conservation and development community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://theconversation.com/a-sapphire-rush-has-sent-at-least-45-000-miners-into-madagascars-protect...
 
Description News article about recent p4ges research on Bank Information Centre website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Bank Information Centre (an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization that advocates for the protection of rights, participation, transparency, and public accountability in the governance and operations of the World Bank Group and regional development banks) wrote a blog about our recent research on implementation of World Bank social safeguards (Poudyal et al 2016). This is front page on their website (as of March 2016). We hope this research will influence the current review of the World Bank social safeguard policies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bankinformationcenter.org/new-report-can-redd-social-safeguards-reach-the-right-people-le...
 
Description News article about recent p4ges research on Forest People's Programme website. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Forest People's Progamme wrote a piece about the recent p4ges research (Poudyal et al 2016) on World Bank social safeguards. This gave a different audience access to these research results than we had reached by other dissemination activities. We were approached by FPP to discuss the wider meaning of the research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.forestpeoples.org/topics/redd-and-related-initiatives/news/2016/02/carbon-funding-hurting...
 
Description Newsletters describing the p4ges project (in French and English) produced every 6 months 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We produce a newsletter in French and English every six months. This is sent to our national and international advisory committees and we also make them available on our project website and tweet about them (increasing circulation).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://p4ges.org/resources.php.en#newsletters
 
Description Online media coverage of a new paper on the human wellfare impacts of Community Forest Management 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Madagascar was one of the first countries in the southern hemisphere to put in place the legal framework for community forest management. This approach aims to conserve threatened forests while also providing benefits to local communities. Ranaivo Rasolofoson, has led an analysis evaluating the impact of CFM on human well-being which is published today in the leading conservation journal Conservation Letters.

"Impacts of Community Forest Management on Human Economic Well-Being across Madagascar" deserves attention from anyone interested in community forest management and, particularly, anyone interested in the complex challenge of assessing the impact of large scale conservation policies on human well-being.

Previous work by Ranaivo has demonstrated that CFM has had rather mixed impacts in terms of its aim of slowing deforestation in Madagascar (http://p4ges.org/news/ranaivospaperblog.php.en). This paper looks at the degree to which CFM has been successful in having a positive impact on human well-being.

It's the first piece of research addressing this important question which looks at the national scale and uses state of the art methods to overcome common issues often associated with evaluating the impact of large scale environmental policies.

The overall analysis suggests there no negative impacts associated with CFM. This is significant as a number of studies have suggested that, despite the hoped for 'win-win' of benefits for communities and conservation, in fact CFM may have had negative impacts on well-being. However, we were also able to demonstrate that the impacts vary depending on who is being considered: for example households with higher levels of education, may experience more positive impacts than those with a lower level of education.


Policy makers should be mindful that net impacts of a policy are not the most important thing from a poverty point of view. If rich people are positively affected, and the poor negatively affected - leading to a net impact of nothing - that would still be a very bad outcome for the poverty alleviating agenda.

There are a number of important caveats to this research. Firstly, we look at only a very narrow measure of human well-being (that of household consumption). And, because we were using a national data set not collected for the aim of investigating the impact of forest policies, those people living closest to, or even within, the forest and therefore likely most affected may be underrepresented.

There are increasing calls for environmental policy to be evidence-based. Evidence-based policy depends on robust impact evaluation. We hope that this national scale analysis of the impacts of CFM contributes to understanding of how CFM can best contribute to policy alleviation. But detailed case-study based work looking at a wider range of measures of human well-being will also be needed.

An article aboput the paper can also be found on Mongabay (https://news.mongabay.com/2016/06/benefits-of-community-forest-management-in-madagascar-not-evenly-distributed-report/)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.espa.ac.uk/news-events/espa-blog/impact-community-forest-management-human-well-being
 
Description Policy briefs 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We have produced policy briefs (in English and French) covering the main findings of all pf p4ges papers which are so far published or in press. We have given out more than 200 copies of each at various events (to policy makers, academics etc). They are also available for download on out website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL http://p4ges.org/resources.php.en#policy
 
Description Policy focused event to share results 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On the 27th January p4ges held an event to share the most policy-relevant results from the p4ges project with government, NGO and donor community who are involved in shaping and implementing policy surrounding forest conservation, restoration and REDD+ in Madagascar.

We were extremely honoured that the event was attended by two ministers of state: Mme Johannita Ndahimananjara from the Ministry of Environment, Ecology and Forests, and Mme Monique Rasoazananera from the Ministry of Research and Higher Education. Both ministers gave excellent opening speeches. Mme Dahimananjara reminded us of the importance of the environment for underpinning human development-using the recent water and hydro power shortages in Madagascar to emphasise this point. Mme Rasoazananera emphasised the importance of research for evidence-based policy making and stressing the value of research on current pressing issues such as linkages between the environment and poverty.

Julia Jones (Bangor University), Julie Razafimanahaka (Madagasikara Voakajy), Herintsitohaina Razakamanarivo (Laboratoire des Radio-Isotopes-University of Antananarivo) and Luciano Andriamaro (Conservation International) presented the context of the project and key research findings. Bruno Ramamonjisoa (University of Antananarivo) then led a dynamic discussion focusing on the main lessons which could be learnt for the current policy processes in Madagascar.

We gave all our visitors copies of policies briefs in French and English which summarised the 10 papers we have already published in international journals. We also gave them copies of our local communication booklet and flash disks containing all of this and lots more (e.g. training materials for the policy support tools Co$ting Nature and Water World).

The very engaged audience asked may excellent questions across the full range of p4ges research and from a range of perspective. There were technical questions about the hydrological modelling carried out and the extent to which these models can be used by others (we were able to confirm that the models are freely available and training materials are available on our website and the flash disk distributed). There was a lot of interest in our hydrological research which is seen as particularly timely given the current water shortages in Madagascar and the recent ministerial announcement about the importance of significant restoration of degraded land in Madagascar.

Another area which attracted a lot of discussion was the question of costs of conservation and the lessons which could be taken from this research for the development of the new social safeguards for the national REDD+ strategy in Madagascar (which is currently being developed).

There was also an active debate about the importance of considering the hidden carbon pools (those in soil) in REDD+ monitoring and evaluation and the challenges that this presents. The p4ges carbon team presented their science which shows that these pools appear to be retained to some extent in cleared land and this needs to be considered in REDD+ policy at the landscape scale. National policies around sustainable agricultural production interlock here with climate change mitigation and related policies and soil ecosystem services are of central importance to both.

The event was closed by Sally Harrison from the British Embassy (representing the British government as the funding for p4ges came from the UK). Sally emphasised the UK and Madagascar's commitments to the Sustainable Development Goals and echoed Mme Rasoazananera (the Minister of Higher Education and Research) comments on the importance of evidence and research for making the best possible policy decisions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://p4ges.org/news/close-sharing.php.en
 
Description Project outreach at the Conference of the Parties of the UNFCC (COP 21) in Paris 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Between the 30th November and the 11th December, scientists, policy makers, practitioners and campaigners converged in Paris for the 21st meeting of the United Nation Convention on Climate Change. It was heralded as the last chance for an international agreement on climate change. The work we are doing in the p4ges project concerns one important issue which was up for agreement at Paris - that of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation). Four members of the p4ges project joined the Malagasy government delegation at COP to offer support and advice. Our team made presentations, took part in round tables and side events as well as manning the Malagasy government's pavilion. They fielded questions about the levels of local participation in the REDD+ processes, impacts of REDD+ on local people, and research on local knowledge in Madagascar among other things.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://p4ges.org/news/cop_blog.php.en
 
Description Public engagement event in Alaotra-Mangoro 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Josué Rakotoarisoa and Raphali Andriantsimanarilafy report:

Each year, regional authorities from Alaotra-Mangoro organize fair which is dedicated to local people for presenting their product. This year, the name fair was "Tangorogna" which mean big meeting. This region includes Moramanga and Ambatondrazaka district where we conducted most of our research on p4ges project. In objective of sharing our results at different level; Madagasikara Voakajy's team represented by Josué (WP5), Raphali (WP5&3) and Victor (WP3) were attended this event on 19th to 22nd of July within Ambatondrazaka main town.

During the 4 days of the event, we exhibited posters showing the mains results of the project; gave more explanation on our work to people and distributed Malagasy version of the booklet. Many people were visited our stand attracted by our posters, with colorful and beautiful images and photos of Madagascar's biodiversity. Most of the people visited the stand were very curious and asked lots of questions. The age and social class of people who visited our stand is very varied. There were children, much attracted by the pictures of animals and photos of landscape and biodiversity on the posters. There were also young people who were very motivated by his passion for environmental protection. And finally, there were adults who asked for advice and informations about the natural conservation and sustainable development. During the last day of the fair event, we gave presentation of our result to youth lemurs' ambassadors from Mangabe protected area within Moramanga District. They are very curious about carbon storage and the biodiversity of Madagascar. At the end of the presentation; they were really happy and gave more thanks to p4ges team for sharing this important knowledge to them. They promised to give their maximum for protecting environment and incite people in their respective localities on conservation.

Our participation in this fair is a great success due to the number of visitors to our stand which can be estimated about 300 per day and are also convinced of the importance and value of Malagasy biodiversity. It was a great success also, a very interesting experience and a better opportunity for sharing our experience about conservation and research results, not only for the P4ges project, but also a great opportunity for other research projects. Finally, participating to the Alaotra Mangoro fair was an unforgettable event. It allowed us to meet with people who helped and worked with us during field work of the P4ges project and many other people for future project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://p4ges.org/news/tangorogna-2017.php.en
 
Description Public webinar hosted by World Agro-Forestry Centre on "What are the impacts of conservation interventions on local people-and how can we know?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Julia Jones (p4ges PI) gave a seminar at the World Agro-Forestry centre which was streamed live to their partners around the world and those following on line. It is now available and you tube and has been viewed more than 200 times.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHsdvj6T4yc
 
Description R trainning for researchers in Madagascar 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ruth Kelly (post doc) ran an R course for Malagasy researchers on the project in Madagasikara VOakajy and the University of Antananarivo. They spent 4 days learning data manipulationa nd analysis skills. These are all now being put to good use in producing much higher qyuality graphs for reports and also analysis for papers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/news/ruthsblog.php.en
 
Description Regional events to share results with policy makers, local authorities and other key stakeholders 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We ran two major events to feedback results to our regional stakeholders (some key national stakeholders also attended such as the national coordinator of REDD+ in Madagascar). After two and a half challenging years of field work and data processing it has been satisfying to start sharing our results with local communities (other enteries) that we have been working with but also to potential users of our results in positions of authority in the regions where we worked.

Two regional events were organised in Moramanga and Toamasina; the two cities which are the focus points of partners and organizations working on conservation and development around the Corridor Ankeniheny Zahamena. The aims were to share and to inform our results to all regional stakeholders such as local representatives of government and relevant ministries, local authorities (mayors), NGOs working on development and conservation, private sector partners (the Ambatovy mine), local associations and others sectors in the region. We were also delighted that three members of our national advisory committee also attended: Jean Noel Ndriamiary, Mamitiana Randriamanjato and Andriamandranto Ravoahangy. There were in total about 70 participants at the Moramanga event and 50 at the one held in Toamasina.

After giving a general presentation of the overall project, the biophysical team emphasised the impact of different land use change on ecosystem services. Their research shows that some ecosystem services are rapidly lost (and not easily rebuilt) when forests are converted (through clearance for agriculture) whereas others are quite well retained in fallows, especially tree fallows. They showed that reforestation can rebuild some ecosystem services and also provide jobs (but data on whether active replanting or just controlling fire and grazing is more efficient is not yet available).

The next session was mainly focused on the effect of forest conservation on the local communities. P4ges has demonstrated that conservation projects can have negative effects on the local livelihoods as they are heavily dependent on swidden agriculture and few alternatives exist. There have been around 600 micro-development projects implemented in CAZ since 2006, under different forms, which can ideally compensate for these costs by allowing alternative livelihoods. While these are vital for the success of conservation and its local acceptability and are greatly appreciated, some improvements need to be made with implementation in some areas. Microprojects carried out as part of the social safeguards (implemented explicitly to avoid impacts of conservation) need better targeting to ensure the poorest people wouldn't suffer because of conservation and to make sure that the compensation project would reach the people truly affected by the conservation project (see here for a paper on this subject published in Global Environmental Change).

The session was followed by some recommendations and discussions from the audience. There was a lively discussion about the main issues of implementing safeguard project like the identification of the beneficiaries. There was also a deep discussion about the issue of land tenure which is currently complex and mostly not formalised. Many of the attendees feel tenure needs to be regulated if schemes such as REDD+ or forest conservation more broadly are to be effective.

The participants showed a big interest in our results; they were very engaged in discussions. The Prefect of the Alaotra Mangoro region, Rakotondrasoa Daniel said "the regional event was very useful for practioners to learn new things and improve the way of managing the forest. I encourage more researchers to communicate their finding in this way".

The Regional Development Director of Alaotra Mangoro, Rabenasolo Zakamalala said "The results from the project would help the police makers to take the right decisions ensuring a sustainable management of protected areas, local and regional development."

The Mayor of Ambodimangavalo, representing the voice of the lowest level of administration and remote areas along the protected area, emphasised that it was important that benefits from REDD+ reach remote areas (as they tend to be forgotten but have big needs). The national coordinator of REDD+ in Madagascar Mamitiana Randriamanjato also said that a well-designed project that meets official standards is not enough unless the benefits from conservation reach the right people.

Sam Mwangi from the espa directorate suggested a role play between the State (who are the main deciders) and other stakeholders. The aim of the game was to make people understand that it is not easy to make decisions and to choose the right way by considering the voice of different stakeholders. This helped us all to understand how the state and other all institutions should collaborate to ensure the effectiveness of conservation and development projects in improving local community livelihoods.

Many actors present said they looked forward to the full report of the work (some of the results are still preliminaries). The national project coordinator in Madagascar Bruno Ramamonjisoa mentioned that there will be a national event to present final results in Antananarivo at the end of January 2017.

While Sam Mwangi, the ESPA impact advisor in Africa, was in Madagascar, he has spent time with p4ges team to discuss deeply the impact of the project and advise us on how to improve our impact. He, met all institutions involved in the project at the national level; visiting each partner in turn. He also had the opportunity to come to the field briefly when we returned to one of our pilot sites: Mahatsara, to return research results. He met the president of the fokontany and some local people and saw how we share our research results in the community. He also visited the maternity hospital in Andasibe where some of our equipment has a new lease of life providing light. Sam Mwangi said "P4ges project is the first ESPA project in Africa who is doing feedback to communities." He also mentioned that "the scientists always want to do research but communities want development. So, research for development is a good thing". The local and regional feedback has shown that sharing and discussing our results locally is the starting point to turn on research into use which can eventually lead to development impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/news/stakeholder-results.php.en
 
Description Regional stakeholder event (Andasibe site) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A total of thirty people attended our regional stakeholder's day, including representatives of Madagascar National Parks, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Environment, Ecology, Sea and Forests, the local mayor, representatives of the local community association and researchers from the University of Antananarivo and partner organisations. This involved visits to the field plots, demonstrations of equipment and explanations of the research findings and its wider meaning.

The day was very well received. Nasoavina (former president of local environmental association Mitsinjo) noted "Thank you so much for explaining us what you do in this area. It is very important and our wish is that the final report of this project won't just fill the scientific shelves but will be communicated to the local people and have a real sustainable impact on their livelihood, indeed for poverty alleviation". Another VIP said: "Thanks for giving us some scientific evidences about the affects of the land uses on the streamflow. Please put effort in spreading this to the people around here". Toutoun (Secretary and responsible of the environmental education in Mitsinjo): "Thanks for the presentation, I can see that the complicated research that you are carrying out can be explained in a simple way to the kids in primary school and emphasize the bad and good effects of the land uses on the stream flow".


Nasoavina (former president of local environmental association Mitsinjo) noted "Thank you so much for explaining us what you do in this area. It is very important and our wish is that the final report of this project won't just fill the scientific shelves but will be communicated to the local people and have a real sustainable impact on their livelihood, indeed for poverty alleviation".

Another VIP said: "Thanks for giving us some scientific evidences about the affects of the land uses on the
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://p4ges.org/news/VIPvisitblog.php.en
 
Description Sharing results with policy makers in Antananarivo, Madagascar 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We put a lot of effort into presenting our results from the four years of research we did on the p4ges project to partners in Madagascar. We held an academic conference, a final policy event (attended by two ministers), various visit days at the field sites and many events at the community level to share results (see here, here, here and here).Our PI Julia Jones has even met the president of Madagascar!

However we knew there were stokeholders who weren't aware of our results so I spent a month visiting offices of relevant organisations in Tana and explaining specifically which of our results are most useful to them, sharing copies of reports and policy briefs and explaining their relevance.

The visit of different institutions would help to share and to discuss directly with practitioners who were very involved in conservation and development project. We targeted around 20 institutions which include Departments at the ministry of environment, society civil and NGOs working in conservation. Most of those institutions have been working in the country since many years or/and could have a strategic position in decisions making.

From the state, we have visited the Department of Development and Ecology partners (DDPE), the department of protected areas (DSAP) which are at the ministry of Environment Ecology and Forest . The DDPE are in charge of promoting Payment for Ecosystem Services, ecological certifications and the collaboration with private organisations. The results from the project are very useful to develop the strategy about payment for ecosystem services. For them, it is important to know the social cost for conservation and the others benefits from forest ecosystems.

We also shared our results to national Environmental Office (ONE). ONE is a key office for the conservation areas in Madagascar. It is in charge of delivering environmental permits, engaging in Environmental Impact valuation of the activities carried out by societies or organism and disseminating information and knowledge around conservation. For those purposes, P4ges is relevant because it would provide new insights to help ONE for it missions. The restitution was done with some team member of department and communication and was well received.

The Director of this department underlined the need of collaboration between researchers and practitioners. She also brought remarks about the main causes of the forest destructions in Madagascar despite that the extend efforts to conserve since many years now. She also asked about the lack of engagement from local communities. Fortunately, the project has done a lot of investigations according these issues. The institutional and social work packages for example are looking at the complexity of natural resources management, the local cost of the conservation, and some reasons which might cause the lack of motivation from local people. They are agreed about the results and encourage the team to continue to share the results and to support the results of this project highlighting the values of the tree fallows.

The other meetings with GREET, WCS, ALLIANCE VOARY GASY, ONG PARTAGE,TANY MEVA were mainly focused of the current needs of conservation and the relevance of joining research and practices. For example, GRET has worked in the Corridor Fandriana Vohindrozo and has developed the RHYVIERE project which aims to promote the rural electrification. Now, GRET want to extend the same project by including many localities, they are very keen about the local implication and the approaches used from the project and how they can apply them. From Alliance Voary gasy part, the information and results we provided could help them in understanding the different issues on forest ecosystem conservation.

I conclude that it was very valuable to spend time visiting these institutions and doing bespoke, highly targeted restitution of our results for them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://p4ges.org/news/madagascar-rina.php.en
 
Description Should social survey 'compensate' research participants? (video and open educational resource) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact We made a video (versions in Malagasy/English and Malagasy/French) describing how we made the decision about whether to compensate our research participants and how to compensate them. We have made this available online and provided copies to partners (especially in Madagascar) who have used it in teaching and to facilitate discussions about research ethics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL http://p4ges.org/p4gestv/views-compensation.php.en
 
Description Solar panel for local hospital 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact As the project was coming to an end we wanted to find a good way to use our solar panels and batteries. We had received a formal request from the Mayor of Andasibe commune that they needed light for the hospital and asking if we could help. The team (from University of Zurich, Twente and Antananarivo) were coming to the end of their field work and were able to donate solar panels and batteries. The team worked together with the community members and staff from the hospital to install the equipment. This was extremely well appreciated. I met some people from the area 4 months later (when in another part of Madagascar) and heard what a difference this installation has made to the hospital as they now have reliable light at night. This is not a research output but we thought it is worth recording what we did with this valuable equipment at the end of the project to ensure it benefited as many people as possible.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/news/chandrasolarblog.php.en
 
Description TV item on Malagasy National news about the p4ges project launch 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact When the p4ges project was launched, the event was closely followed by the Malagasy press - here is a story which went out on the TV evening News: News clip (The broadcast was in Malagasy, the language of Madagascar)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://p4ges.org/news/video_news2.php.en
 
Description The impacts of payments for ecosystem services and other conditional transfers linked to environmental management on efforts to reduce poverty 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Julia Jones from the p4ges participated in a workshop in Cambridge which discussed the impacts of payments for ecosystem services and other conditional transfers linked to environmental management on efforts to reduce poverty. Government representatives, NGOs and researchers got together to share experiences from schemes (large and small) in Bangladesh, India, the Philippines, South Africa, Costa Rica, Mexico, Brazil, Ethiopia and Madagascar.

Julia Jones was meant to be accompanied by a representive of the Malgasy government Juliard Rakotomalala but he had visa issues. The workshop was very productive and resulted eventually in a specially focused workshop led by the Ministry of Environment in January 2017 to learn lessons on these sorts of scheme's implementation in Bolivia which p4ges helped facilitate (see here http://www.espa.ac.uk/news-events/espa-blog/can-payments-better-land-management-help-overcome-water-shortages-madagascar)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/news/sharing-experiences.php.en
 
Description WaterWorld and Co$ting Nature ecosystem service mapping and policy support tools trainning 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As part of p4ges, King's College London, together with Bangor University, Conservation International and University of Antanarivo delivered a training workshop on 23 January 2017 in Antananavaro, Madagascar, on applying WaterWorld and Co$tingNature ecosystem service assessment tools focusing on the CAZ. A total of 30 participants included representatives from the Ministry of Water, Ministry of Environment and Forests, university departments, ministry of finance and local and international conservation (WWF, Conservation International, WCS) and development-focused organisations.

The workshop included presentations on specific developments of the WaterWorld and Co$tingNature ES tools for Madagascar and the CAZ and participants were trained on how to use both of these tools. For WaterWorld participants carried out a baseline assessment and explored the implications of a business as usual deforestation scenario for the CAZ. For Co$tingNature, participants assessed a baseline analysis for the whole of Madagascar focusing on analysing spatial and temporal trade-offs in ES provision.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://blog.policysupport.org/2017/01/using-waterworld-and-coting-nature-to.html
 
Description Why should rice farmers care about forest conservation? (video and open educational resource) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We produced a Malagasy language video (with English sub titles) which explains the hydrological research our project has done aimed at local Malagasy stakeholders. The video is available online but has also been shown at universities in Madagascar and in some of our local engagement events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/p4gestv/rice-farmers.php.en
 
Description p4ges PI meets president of Madagascar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact P4ges PI Prof Julia Jones discusses conservation and development in Madagascar with the president of Madagascar.

Prof Jones took part in a round table discussion at Kew Gardens with His Excellency the President of Madagascar, the UK Under Secretary of State at the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Thérèse Coffey MP, and delegates from the International Climate Fund, DEFRA, Durrell, Fauna & Flora International and TRAFFIC to discuss the future of conservation in Madagascar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.kew.org/blogs/kew-science/madagascar%E2%80%99s-wildlife-%E2%80%93-a-president%E2%80%99s-...
 
Description p4ges holds an academic conference to share results of the project with the academic community in Madagascar 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We held an academic conference at the Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques (ESSA), University of Antananarivo in Madagascar to share our results with the academic community, before a policy-focused event next week. The event was very well attended with standing room only in ESSA's largest lecture theatre.

We had a table loaded with various outputs from the projects including summaries of many of our published papers (in English and French) and the project summary booklet which our guests really appreciated.

The event was chaired by Dr Patrick Ranjatson and opened with and introduction to the project from the project lead Prof Julia Jones from Bangor University. Following this, Dr Ramboazanaka Murielle, the Director of research for the University of Antananarivo, Dr Rabemananjara Zo, the head of Water and Forest department and Prof Bruno Ramamonjisoa, Director of the Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques each gave a short speech to put the conference in context.

Dr Ranjatson explained that we had chosen to focus the event on three branches of our research in detail rather than trying to cover everything. However he pointed people to the summaries of our papers for more information.

The first presentation was by Riana Hary Andrisoa (LRI) and was on 'Caron stock surveys I the framework of poverty alleviation in Madagascar: challenges and results'. She presented the very impressive work carried out by LRI during the p4ges project to quantify all five carbon pools (including the 'hidden' below ground pools) across the range of land uses in the swidden agricultural cycle. She emphasised the challenges that the very large stocks of carbon in these hidden pools poses for monitoring and evaluation of REDD+

This was followed by a presentation by Alexandra Rasoamanana (ESSA) looking at 'Who bears the cost of forest conservation in Madagascar?' which was a detailed economic analysis of the magnitude and distribution of opportunity costs of conservation and the magnitude and distribution of compensation under the World Bank social safeguard system.

Finally, Tokihenintsoa Andrianjohaninarivo (CI) continued with the social theme, with an excellent presentation 'Can small scale livelihood projects help contribute to both sustainable development and forest conservation outcomes?' This looked at local perceptions of the range of micro-development projects which have been implements around the CAZ corridor in the context of conservation and the REDD+ pilot project and discussed their role in delivering livelihood benefits and in reducing deforestation.

The talks were followed by a very lively discussion session with questions from researchers from many institutions. The debates continued over an open air reception on the lawn of the Ecole Supérieure des Science Agronomiques.

Dr Ramboazanaka Murielle, the Director of research for the University said in her closing comments: "Congratulations to the team for such excellent and useful research."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://p4ges.org/news/sharing-madagascar.php.en
 
Description p4ges organises a side event at the Conference of the Parties of the Convention of Biological Diversity (Cancun, Mexico) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Some of the P4GES team organised a side event at the Convention of Biological Diversity meeting in Cancun, Mexico on the topic of 'Improving the evidence base on the effectiveness of forest conservation and rural livelihood initiatives in delivering social and ecological benefit'. It was a well attended session which resulted in extensive discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/news/COP13.php.en
 
Description p4ges project launch event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We held a launch event for the p4ges project to introduce the project and its objectives to potential stakeholders at the national level in Madagascar. This was very well attended and we got useful feedback on our planned research and it also helped identified additional pathways to impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://p4ges.org/news/madagascar-launch.php.en
 
Description p4ges project website and twitter account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We have a really up to date project website (and linked twitter account with nearly 800 followers) which we use to promote the project's activities and research results. We post resources (including publications, conference presentations and posters, training materials etc) and regular blogs and videos about our activities. The website is bilingual English/French.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.p4ges.org/
 
Description p4ges researcher Julie Razafimanahaka 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this article Julie Razafimanahaka described her work linking local people and conservation in Madagascar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://psmag.com/conservation-in-the-age-of-climate-change-if-the-government-is-not-bringing-us-ric...
 
Description p4ges team present at the COP of Convention of Biological Diversity in Cancun, Mexico 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact P4ges researcher Alex Rasoamanana attended the Convention of Biological Diversity COP in Mexico recently, and presented in the side event on equity and protected areas. She presented our work on "Distributive equity in a protected area safeguard project in Madagascar".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/news/alex-cop13.php.en
 
Description p4ges team take part in World Environment Day celebrations and share results widely with the public 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The 5th June is celebrated around the world as World Environment Day. There were a number of celebrations in Madagascar on this day including one at the Tsimbaza Zoological and Botanic gardens in the countries capital Antananarivo. A team from Madagasikara Voakajy had a prominent and well-attended stand at the celebrations where they shared research results from the p4ges project (alongside other activities they have been involved in over the last year). The stand was visited by many dignitaries, school kids and members of the public who looked at posters and demonstrations and watched Malagasy language videos about the p4ges project such as this one on our hydrological research and this one showing our local level community feedback of results.

Josue Rakotoarisoa from Madagasikara Voakajy said "Thousands of people visited stands during this day, and we did not have time to take a break. Flyers were distributed to visitors. 10 booklets describing all p4ges work were distributed to authorities and officials who visited our stand."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://p4ges.org/news/world-environment-day.php.en
 
Description prize winning blog on carbon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The LRI team won the winning blog in a blog competition at the World Forestry Congress in 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016