Characterisation of the nature, origins and ecological significance of dissolved organic matter in freshwater ecosystems

Lead Research Organisation: Bangor University
Department Name: Sch of Natural Sciences

Abstract

The UN has listed coastal nutrient pollution and hypoxia as the one of the greatest current threats to the global environment. Impacts include eutrophication of coastal waters and oxygen depletion, and the associated damage to ecosystems, biodiversity & coastal water quality. The UNEP Manila Declaration (Jan 2012) identifies nutrient enrichment of the marine environment as one of 3 foci for its Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, and this was one of the key foci at the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development, June 2012.

Simultaneously, the International Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is revising Annex IX of the Gothenburg Protocol (to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication & Ground-level Ozone) to further reduce the emission of ammonia from land-based activities, and in Europe the control of nutrient flux to all freshwaters & the coastal zone is required in order to meet the target of restoring waters to Good Ecological Status under the EU Water Framework Directive.

Evidence indicating that nutrient flux to waters is increasing worldwide is clear. Although N & P concentrations have recently levelled off or decreased in some European catchments, in others an increase is reported, particularly in rivers draining through rapidly developing economic regions. A rising trend in Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) flux to freshwaters & coastal areas such as the Baltic Sea is also widely reported, particularly across the North Temperate & Boreal regions, where N & P export to the coastal zone continues to rise. Impacts on ecosystem health are extensive & undesirable in both freshwaters & coastal waters, & there are implications for human health where DOC & DON are also known to support carcinogen formation in water supplies.

A detailed understanding of the nature, origins & rates of nutrient delivery to waters is essential if we are to meet the target of control through management intervention, yet much of the necessary evidence base is lacking. Routine nutrient monitoring in waters is largely based on inorganic nutrient fractions, and substantially underestimates the total nutrient flux from source to sea, while research confirms that dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in ecosystem function including supporting microbial metabolism, primary production and pollutant transport, suggesting that its oversight in routine monitoring may undermine international efforts to bring nutrient enrichment impacts under control.

Here, we address this knowledge gap, building on the specific expertise of project members, undertaking a suite of interlinked experimental & observational research from molecular to catchment scale. We will use a combination of well-established approaches widely used in catchment research, with a range of cutting-edge approaches which are novel in their application to nutrient cycling research, or employ novel technologies, bringing new insights into the process controls on nutrient cycling at a molecular to river reach scale.

The programme will deliver improved understanding of:

1. the role of DOM in the transport of N & P from source to sea & the ways in which this might alter nutrient delivery to freshwaters & the coastal zone under a changing climate;
2. the ecological significance of DOM as a source of nutrient uptake & utilisation by algal, plant and microbial communities in waters of contrasting nutrient status & DOM character; and
3. the impacts of DOM flux from soils, livestock & human waste fluxes on the ecological status, goods & services provided by freshwaters.

It will also deliver knowledge exchange between the 5 groups & the wider science community, and have an impact beyond the lifetime of this project, building capacity through staff & PhD appointments in a field where current understanding is uncertain, undermining business planning and international policy development.

Planned Impact

Impact in the user community will primarily be realised through the development of KE partnerships with those involved in policy and operational management of the environment. To this end, we have held a suite of meetings and discussion sessions with a wide range of stakeholders prior to finalising our proposal, in order to ensure that their interests and concerns are properly represented in the programme, and that the science we propose is transferable and useful beyond the immediate academic beneficiaries.

Ten stakeholder organisations have agreed to join the programme as Project Partners, providing access to data and infrastructure assets, staff expertise, project placements and training. These include Government organisations (Defra, Environment Agency, Natural England, Countryside Council for Wales, Drinking Water Inspectorate), charities (The Rivers Trust), and the water utilities including Wessex Water (Hampshire Avon), Welsh Water (Conwy) and Scottish Water who have significant problems associated with DBP formation in a number of their water supply catchments.

In addition, we propose to develop a number of novel technologies under the proposed programme, including the testing of novel sensor technologies to capture high resolution information on CDOM flux at catchment scale, and the development of a novel proteomic/metabolomics approaches to allow holistic study of the metabolic processes controlling nutrient utilisation by microbial communities, and characterisation of the enzymatic functions involved. The group at Bangor is world-leading in this field, and we have secured a letter of support from Manuel Ferrer, Institute of Catalysis, Madrid confirming his support for and involvement in the development of this technology and its application to this project.

Our Impact Plan will deliver KE through a five step process:

1. all Project Partners have participated in the final formulation of this bid, providing valuable suggestions to hone the programme to ensure that anticipated outcomes meet their interests and operational needs; they will join the Project Board to establish a programme of placements and working partnerships with programme staff and PhD students, participating in a start-up workshop to refine the proposed sampling programme, to ensure that this capitalises on existing data, infrastructure assets and focus areas for our partner organisations;
2. we will produce a series of briefing notes on specific policy implications of our research findings for our Project Partner organisations throughout the programme making these publicly available through our project website and the publicity activities of our Project Partner organisations;
3. we will develop links with the wider stakeholder community through the project website and existing KT networks in which we are already involved in our Hampshire Avon and Conwy research, and will ensure wider public engagement through University Science Days and local and national media;
4. we will engage with the wider academic community through: (i) free weekly access for external researchers to our quantitative data via our website; (ii) publication of 10 core papers in international peer reviewed journals, a suite of integrative papers in a special issue of Global Biogeochemical Cycles, and an overarching paper in Nature Geoscience on the 'Environmental Role and Significance of DOM Flux in Freshwaters'; (iii) presentation of our findings at international conferences, and (iv) a contribution to Planet Earth;
5. we will to host an end-of-programme interactive workshop on 'The Role and Management of DOM in Freshwater Systems' for our Project Partners and the wider stakeholder community, and will host an international research meeting at The Royal Society on 'The Global Significance of DOM in Potable, Inland and Coastal Waters' with a programme of invited international speakers, focusing on KE with the wider international research community.

Publications

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Carswell A (2017) Impact of microbial activity on the leaching of soluble N forms in soil in Biology and Fertility of Soils

 
Description See lead PI submission (Penny Johnes, University of Bristol)

That current ways of sampling water quality are fundamentally flawed when it comes to evaluating the flux and concentration of low molecular weight organic molecules.

Discovery of nanobacteria in water
Exploitation Route Yes, improve water quality monitoring
Exploring a new area of biological life
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Other

URL http://www.nerc-domaine.uk
 
Description See submission by lead PI for the project (it is a joint submission from the whole team)
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Other
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Wessex Water Catchment Panel
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Wessex Water founded its Catchment Panel to provide it with scrutiny and advice upon Wessex Water's environmental performance to be achieved through an optimal balance of: - Asset construction and operation - Management of natural resources - Influencing behaviours Professor Johnes is one of two university researchers invited to join the panel, which is otherwise composed of the chairs of local wildlife trusts, government agencies and departments, and local government within the Wessex Water region. One outcome from this role drawing directly on evidence generated from the DOMAINE programme on the quantitative significance of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) in freshwater nutrient flux, has been a change in analytical practice for samples collected from Wessex Water sites and assets. Samples are now analysed to determine the total nutrient concentration in the sample (including the DOM) rather than just the inorganic nutrient fraction as has previously been standard practice.
URL https://www.wessexwater.co.uk/About-us/Environment/Catchment-management/
 
Description NERC GW4 DTP
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2019
 
Description NERC Industrial CASE Studentship
Amount £83,515 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description National University of Ireland Travelling Scholarship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation National University of Ireland 
Sector Academic/University
Country Ireland
Start 08/2015 
End 07/2018
 
Description Collaboration with National Trust staff 
Organisation National Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Knowledge exchange with National Trust staff who manage estate land in the Conwy catchment, particularly at Bodnant Gardens in teh Hiraethlyn catchment where we have been give permission to site one of our high resolution sampling stations, and in the headwaters of the Conwy in the Mignient where The National Trust are undertaking a range of management strategies aimed at increasing the retention of carbon within the peatland landscape.
Collaborator Contribution See above. Local knowledge advice on mitigation measures, and access to sites suitable for the installation and operation of our sampling equipment.
Impact Site access and knowledge exchange. Ongoing at present.
Start Year 2015
 
Description FERA Industrial CASE collaborator 
Organisation Fera Science Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution FERA act as CASE partner on a joint Industrial CASE studentship with Professors Richard Evershed and Penny Johnes as supervisors at the University of Bristol, together with Dr Adrian Charlton of FERA as CASE supervisor. The studentship has been formally linked to the DOMAINE programme, allowing synergies to be identified, for the student to become part of the wider DOMAINE community and to benefit from access to data generated by the programme, and for FERA to benefit from access to new findings of relevance to their activities which are emerging from DOMAINE. The title of the studentship is Comprehensive determination of dissolved organic matter to underpin river water quality assessments.
Collaborator Contribution A CASE partner financial contribution to the studentship. In addition, provision of training for the student, access to in-house expertise, and a recent invitation for the student and our PDRA on WP2 to attend a closed meeting of the UK Water Mutual Aid Group at FERA where they presented a paper to representative of all the major UK water companies plc summariing the work of WP2 in developing methods for "Untargeted Characterisation of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter using a Hierarchy of Mass Spectrometric Methods'.
Impact See entry above. A paper is currently in preparation on this work.
Start Year 2015
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 1 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge, data digests and infrastructure, invited participation on stakeholder workshops, and Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Access to Demonstration Test Catchments data, infrastructure, staff time, Project Partner participation in Programme Advisory Board
Impact None yet. Programme started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 1 
Organisation Environment Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge, evidence to underpin policy, infrastructure, participation in stakeholder workshops, access to programme website, membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of access to infrastructre, long-term and 3rd Party data, provision of staff time input to the programme, membership of Programme Advisory Board, provision of staff placements for project staff to work with Agency staff
Impact None yet. Programme started 1 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 3 
Organisation Natural England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge, evidence to underpin policy, participation in stakeholder workshops, membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of access to River Avon Catchment Sensitive Farming sites and 5 days staff time input per year, to include attendance at Programme Advisory Board meetings
Impact None yet. Project started 1 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 4 
Organisation Rivers Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, infrastructure and guidance to underpin practical management in the field, including participation in stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of field support for project staff in the Hampshire Avon and Conwy catchments, 10 days per year technical input and assistance with dissemination of research findings
Impact None yet. Project started 1 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 5 
Organisation Wessex Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge and evidence to underpin business planning, participation in stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of Sewage Treatment Works effluent quality data, staff attendance at Programme Advisory Board and stakeholder workshops, and provision of river ecology data for the Hampshire Avon
Impact None yet. Project started 1 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 6 
Organisation Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of samples for analysis, joint authorship of publications, attendance at stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of metabolomic analysis on 150 samples, provision of meta-proteomic analysis on 10 samples, attendance at stakeholder workshops and 4 days staff time for attendance at project and Programme Advisory Board meetings
Impact None yet. Project started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 7 
Organisation Scottish Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, infrastructure and evidence to support business planning, participation in stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of access to data assets and infrastructure, 5 days staff time input per year and a placement opportunity for PhD student 1 in Year 3 of their study.
Impact None yet. Project started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 8 
Organisation Welsh Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge, evidence to underpin business planning, participation in stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Access to data assets and infrastructure, 5 days staff time per year and in-kind support for PhD 1 studentship
Impact None yet. Started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 9 
Organisation Government of Wales
Department Wales Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge and evidence to underpin policy, participation in stakeholder events, membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Access to CCW data assets for the Conwy, 5 days staff time input per year and participation in Programme Advisory Board
Impact None yet. Project started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description Wessex Chalk Streams and Rivers Trust 
Organisation Wessex Chalk Stream and Rivers Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Reciprocal exchange of knowledge, advice and access to data generated under the NERC DOMAINE programme. Access to local contacts, landowners and liaison over the timing on instream habitat management and restoration activities being undertaken by the WCSRT at or near our monitoring infrastructure.
Collaborator Contribution See above. Reciprocal exchange of knowledge, contacts and data.
Impact Professor Penny Johnes provided a presentation on the Nature, Origins and Ecological Significance of DOM in Freshwaters to the Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership, chaired by the WCSRT. Dr Paul Jose, Director of the WCSRT has provided dissemination of project information to the WCSRT members on the NERC DOMAINE project, and information on the nature, location and timing of in-channel restoration works in the catchment.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Aberconwy School outreach event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Professor Jones gave a presentation on the NERC DOMAINE and allied research programmes ongoing in the Conwy catchment at an outreach event at Aberconwy School on 13/07/2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Farming Today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Johnes gave the lead interview to BBC Radio 4 Farming Today for its week long focus on Agriculture and Water Quality on 09/02/2015 February drawing on research underway
under the DOMAINE programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b051rflx
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Farming Today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Evershed gave an interview on soils, microbes and methane on Farming Today on 18/02/2015, drawing on research underway under the NERC DOMAINE programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b052j5g6
 
Description CEH Conwy Catchment Stakeholder Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professors Johnes, Jones and Evans gave presentations to a large group of stakeholder organisations as a CEH-led Stakeholder engagement event at the Glasdir Centre in Llanrwst, Conwy catchment on 16/06/2015. New links were made with local Natural Resources Wales staff and National Trust field officers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conwy Catchment Partnership meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 13/02/17, the WP3 project team attended and presented an update on the DOMAINE programme at the Conwy Catchment Partnership Stakeholder Meeting held at Llanwrst, in the Conwy catchment. The meeting was attended by The National Trust, Natural Resource Wales, Welsh Water and RSPB Cymru
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Cumbrian Lakes Research Forum presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 13/10/16 outcomes from our work on the biotic uptake of dissolved organic matter from WP4 were discussed at the annual stakeholder event, the Cumbrian Lakes Research Forum hosted by CEH and attended by representatives from the water industry, Environment Agency, Natural England and The National Trust.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ceh.ac.uk/news-and-media/blogs/cumbrian-lakes-research-forum-2016
 
Description Defra Demonstration Test Catchments Newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Defra Demonstrating Catchments Spring 2015 newsletter featured a 1 page article on the NERC DOMAINE programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.demonstratingcatchmentmanagement.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/DTC-Newsletter-Mar-2015.p...
 
Description Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Johnes gave an invited presentation to the Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership on 15th December, at the invitation of the Wessex Chalk Streams Rivers Trust who Chair the partnership. She presented the DOMAINE and linked Defra-funded Demonstration Test Catchments programme findings on nutrient flux, nutrient chemistry and ecological impacts in the Wylye and Nadder sub-catchments of the Hampshire Avon and explained the implications for the HACP stream management programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.hampshireavoncatchmentpartnership.org.uk/
 
Description Meeting with Welsh Water 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Meeting on 3 occasions to discuss water quality issues
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description OECD Environment Ministerial Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On 28/09/2016 Penny Johnes (WP1 and PI) was invited to brief the OECD Environment Ministers at their biannual Environment Ministerial Conference at OECD Headquarters in Paris. The topic of the briefing was on Nitrogen, and she used images from eutrophicated waters worldwide, including the green pool at the Rio Olympics swimming centre and the Serpentine during the London Olympics triathlon event to drive home the message regarding the widespread, rising and adverse impacts of nitrogen enrichment of waters. This drew directly on findings emerging from the NERC DOMAINE and allied research programmes internationally, and generated some interesting debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.oecd.org/environment/ministerial/
 
Description OECD/UNECE Joint Workshop on The Nitrogen Cascade and Policy - towards integrated solutions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Johnes gave a keynote presentation on 10 May 2016 at the OECD/UNECE joint Paris workshop on The Nitrogen cascade and policy - towards integrated solutions at the invitation of the Chair of the UNECE Task Force for Reactive Nitrogen. In this she briefed attendees on the sources, opportunities and impacts of nitrogen pollution of inland and coastal waters, and the role of organic nitrogen flux in this process, drawing on research findings emerging from the DOMAINE programme and linked Defra-funded Demonstration Test Catchments programme findings on nutrient flux, nutrient chemistry and ecological impacts in the Hampshire Avon, Eden, Wensum and Tamar catchments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.clrtap-tfrn.org/sites/clrtap-tfrn.org/files/documents/TFRN%2011/Nitrogen%20Workshop%20OEC...
 
Description Off-grid water quality monitoring technologies 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact On 20/09/16 Chris Yates (WP1) presented an invited paper on Nutrient and fluorescence sensing at a stakeholder-led workshop at the University of the West of England. The workshop organisers were OTT Hydromet and Sea-bird Coastal, manufacturers of a number of the instruments deployed on the DOMAINE monitoring platform. The workshop brought together like-minded users and researcher using off-grid water quality monitoring technologies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ott.com/ott-hydromet-water-quality-solutions/
 
Description Presentation to the Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact At the invitation of the Wessex Chalk Streams and Rivers Trust, we were invited to present a briefing on the DOMAINE programme to the Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership, a working group of 30 local government, government conservation, NGO and business organisations with interests in and responsibility for the Hampshire Avon and similar chalk catchments in southern England. Professor Penny Johnes gave a joint briefing on both the NERC DOMAINE programme and the allied Defra Demonstration Test Catchments programme, both of which utilise a range of sites (including some shared infrastructure) in the Hampshire Avon catchment. She made the audience aware of the nature of the problems in the Hampshire Avon, the areas of the landscape and activities contributing to C, N, P and sediment enrichment of the river and its tributaries, and the novel findings emerging from each programme, particularly from DOMAINE. The organisations were also given a brief introduction to the data available in real time via our NERC DOMAINE websie (www.nerc-domaine.uk) for all of our sites in the catchment. Opportunities to meet again to discuss options for data access and knowledge exchange were also discussed and agreed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.hampshireavoncatchmentpartnership.org.uk/
 
Description Project website and Twitter feed 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The DOMAINE project website was launched at the end of 2014 and provides a single access point for any external party to view our
sensor data in real time, and has spurred interest from a range of user groups across the platform.

A username and password are available to any viewer via the following link: (www.nercdomaine.uk/data/),, which provides free and open access to view out field sensor data in real time from all 6 instrumented sites in our two tier 1 catchments.

We are now working to develop a series of downloadable monthly data summaries, and project summaries aimed at the general public which will also be available free to download via the website.

DOMAINE also has its own Twitter account at https://twitter.com/dominfreshwater (@DOMInFreshwater) which has attracted interest via a number of other Twitter feeds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nerc-domaine.uk/
 
Description Sensors in Water Interest Group (SWIG) publication outlining our work 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Sensors in Water Group produced an article in International Environmental Technlogy, which outlines the DOMAINE programme and highlights its work in deployment and testing of novel sensor systems for catchment monitoring and research. The article is as follows: Richards, R (2015) Catching up with Catchment Monitoring, International Environmental Technology, June 2015, 21-22. Available from: [http://www.envirotech-online.com/articles/water-wastewater/9/rosa_richards/catching_up_withcatchment_monitoring_/1871/]
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.envirotech-online.com/articles/water-wastewater/9/rosa_richards/catching_up_withcatchment...
 
Description Sensors in Water Interest Group presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Wavelength Environmental gave a presentation on the novel sensor technology used in the NERC DOMAINE programme at the Sensors in Water Group (SWIG) workshop held at Rothamsted Research North Wyke on 18/03/2015. The title of the presentation was 'Integrated sensing and sampling system for catchment based research'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.swig.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Catchment-monitoring-18-Mar-2015-Final-lflt.pdf
 
Description UK Water Mutual Aid Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact On 09/11/16 Charlotte Lloyd and Jon Pemberton (both WP2) presented an invited paper at the closed meeting of the UK Water Mutual Aid Group at FERA. Their paper, presented to representatives of all of the major UK water companies plc summarised the work of WP2 in developing methods for Untargeted Characterisation of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter using a Hierarchy of Mass Spectrometric Methods. This was very well received, pointing the way forward for novel approaches for water companies to assess, anticipate risk and adopt adaptation and mitigation strategies to ensure future legislative compliance and minimise impact on operational business activities.

There is no reporting available from this meeting - Chatham House Rules applied.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Wessex Chalk Streams Rivers Trust Newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Wessex Chalk Streams Rivers Trust produced an article on the NERC DOMAINE programme in its Spring newsletter, aimed at members, practitioners, policymakers andthe general public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.wcsrt.org.uk/News_Letters
 
Description working with industry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact discussion with welsh water on DOC
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020