Resource recovery from wastewater with Bioelectrochemical Systems

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Abstract

Production and recovery of energy and industrial materials from novel biological sources reduces our dependency on the Earth's finitie mineral petrochemical resources and helps the UK economy to become a low carbon economy. Recovering energy and valuable resources such as metals from waste materials is an attractive but challenging prospect. The valuable materials are usually present in wastes at very low levels and present as a highly complex mixture. This makes it very difficult to concentrate and purify them in an economically sustainable manner.

In recent years there have been exciting advances in our understanding of ways in which microorganisms can extract the energy locked up in the organic compounds found in wastewater and in the process generate electricity. This is achieved in devices known as microbial fuel cells (MFC). In an MFC microorganisms on the anode oxidize organic compounds and in doing so generte electrons. These electrons are passed into an electrical circuit and transferred to the MFC cathode where they usually react with oxygen to form water, sustaining an electric current in the process. In theory MFC can be configured such that, rather than conversion of oxygen to water at the cathode they could convert metal ions to metals or drive the synthesis of valuable chemicals. It is our aim to develop such systems that use energy harvested from wastewater to recover metals from metal-containing wastestreams and for the synthesis of valuable chemicals, ultimately from CO2.

This project will bring together experts from academia and industry to devise ways in which this can be achieved and will form the foundation of a research programme where scientists working on fundamental research and those with the skills to translate laboratory science to industrial processes will work together to develop sustainable processes for the production of valuable resources from waste.

Planned Impact

The main impact of the proposed technology that will be evaluated in the context of the Catalyst grant is the application of bioelectrochemical systems to tackle the burden of waste treatment (nationally and eventually Internationally) and transferring the energy, metals and minerals contained within to produce useful products.

The proposed bioelectrochemical system will have wide applications particularly to industries producing wastewater with high organic content. Thus potential non-academic beneficiaries may include the food and drink industry, breweries, agriculture and the paper and pulp industry and also water utilities charged with sustainable treatment of wastewater from a range of sources. The technologies that will be planned in this project and developed in future full research projects will permit them to recover value from their waste products. One further potential application of the technology could be for the clean up and recovery of radionuclides from nuclear industry wastestreams and some of our project partners have good links with the nuclear industry and for example will be able to bring individuals with relevant experience from the industry to the workshop planned as part of this proposal.

More immediately the research will have impact on our industrial collaborators who will be involved in developing new materials and processes as a result of their collaboration with the academic researchers in this project ( e.g. Cheviron Carbon, MagnetoChemie, WH Partnership).

These and other organizations will be involved from the outset in identifying research needs and planning a project that will meet them.

The societal significance of reducing our reliance on fossil fuels and geological resources is immense and this will clearly impact environmental regulators, policy makers and politicians.

The accompanying Pathways to Impact document details how we will maximize the chances of realizing these impacts through various activities designed to foster close collaboration an engagement with potential non-academic beneficiaries, both specifically in relation to this Catalyst grant and in the context of a more comprehensive research programme that will be developed should this Catalyst grant proposal be successful.

Publications

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Ng K (2016) A multilevel sustainability analysis of zinc recovery from wastes in Resources, Conservation and Recycling

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Milner E (2016) Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes in Journal of Power Sources

 
Description This was a catalyst grant and the funds were used to organize workshops with potential partners and collaborators to develop a full proposal which was subsequently successful and which has now just begun. It also funded some "proof of concept" studies to provide pilot data for the full proposal

The key findings from the pilot studies were that it was possible to deposit metallic copper from solution on the cathode of biological electrochemical system and that there were a number of potential routes to organic synthesis at cathodes of BES, and both electrochemical and bioelectrochemical synthesis have potential.
Exploitation Route Findings were used in a full proposal to the Resource Recovery from Waste Programme. This project has recently been funded and as just begun.
Sectors Chemicals,Energy,Environment,Other

 
Description They have been used to develop a full research project that has now been funded. This involves 4 collaborating institutions in the UK (Newcastle University, Manchester University; University of South Wales, University of Surrey), 3 overseas academic institutions (Penn State University, USA; Ghent University, Belgium; Harbin Institute of Technology, China) and 5 partners from the commercial sector (Northumbrian Water; TATA Steel; WH partnership; Chemviron carbon; Magneto Specialist Anodes Netherlands)
First Year Of Impact 2013
 
Description Participatory situational analysis for the implementation of RRfW technologies and vision
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Five workshops were organized across the UK with the aim to engage government and industry partners to carry out situational analyses. After a general introduction of the RRfW programme vision, mission, values and environmental technologies, we carried out a situational analyses for the shared RRfW vision, and the RRfW environmental technologies. In each situational analysis we strive to answer the question: "If we wanted to realize the shared vision/ environmental technology developed in RRfW, would it be possible in our policy and regulatory context?" The results are expected to highlight governance constraints and opportunities for resource recovery from waste. Workshop reports from each event will be shared with the participants. Outcomes will be prepared for professional and scientific publication.
 
Description Innovate UK / BBRSC Management and Use of Biofilms
Amount £30,384 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P000312/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Title LSCA Model for Copper use and recovery 
Description Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LSCA) is a tool to characterise and assess the environmental, economic and societal aspects of a process, which can help in decision making. For example, in choosing between different waste treatment processes to be installed at an industrial site, LCSA can be used to assess the impacts of environmental, economic and societal aspects of different waste treatment technologies. The research has developed LSCA models for use and recovery of copper, to permit an assessment of bioelectrochemical systems to recover zinc from wastewater at the cathode. LSCA assesses inputs (including materials and energy) and outputs (including all co-products) and the associated costs, benefits and impacts. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The model permits a comparison with other wastewater treatment and recovery options. As an initial guide, we are using the model to calculate the economics of bioelectrochemical systems to remove copper which would be required to be cost-competitive with existing treatment methods. 
 
Title LSCA Model for Zinc use and recovery 
Description Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LSCA) is a tool to characterise and assess the environmental, economic and societal aspects of a process, which can help in decision making. For example, in choosing between different waste treatment processes to be installed at an industrial site, LCSA can be used to assess the impacts of environmental, economic and societal aspects of different waste treatment technologies. The research has developed LSCA models for use and recovery of zinc, to permit an assessment of bioelectrochemical systems to recover zinc from wastewater at the cathode. LSCA assesses inputs (including materials and energy) and outputs (including all co-products) and the associated costs, benefits and impacts. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The model permits a comparison with other wastewater treatment and recovery options. As an initial guide, we are using the model to calculate the economics of bioelectrochemical systems to remove zinc which would be required to be cost-competitive with existing treatment methods. 
 
Description Collaboration resulting in application for Mini project within NERC's RRFW programme 
Organisation Cardiff University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration between RAs within NERC RRFW programme, from Cardiff University, Manchester University and Newcastle University. Preparation of a mini project: Selective recovery of copper from mine tailings effluent and production of high-value Cu nanoparticles using bioelectrochemical systems. Project application has been submitted to Programme Coordination Team of the RRFW programme, decision has not yet been made on whether the project will be funded from the Mini Project fund allocated within the RRFW programme.
Collaborator Contribution Contribution of current research work and scope for further work, to integrate across research interests of Cardiff University exploring copper recovery from mine wastewater from one of Cardiff's industrial partners.
Impact A funding application to the NERC RRFW Mini Project funding allocation, via the Programme Coordination Team. Cross disciplinary: chemistry, microbiology, systems engineering.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with Quorn 
Organisation Quorn Foods Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have visited Quorn's production facility in Teesside and discussed how bioelectrochemical systems may be incorporated into their waste treatment systems for resource recovery.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of information about their processes for evaluation of novel applications of bioelectrochemical systems. Collaboration is at an early stage and will need further development.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Working with new industrial partner (Chivas Brothers) to investigate recovery of copper from distillery wastewater 
Organisation Chivas Brothers ltd.
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We contacted Chivas Brothers to invite them to provide distillery wastewater samples so that we could test them in our bioelectrochemical systems, to recover copper (which is present in the wastewater from the copper stills where alcohol distillation is carried out). We visited Chivas Brothers' distilleries to collect samples and make initial contact. We visited again to share our findings with Chivas Brothers technical and environmental sustainability experts, who were interested to become formal industrial partners on the project. We are collaborating with them using their expertise in the distilling industry, and the provision of wastewater samples and composition data, and using our research to explore the efficient recovery of copper from a range of wastewaters, using a range of conditions and materials. The results are expected to be of benefit to the distilling industry, and Chivas Brothers are keen to work with us to explore scope for scaling up our experiments for future use in their business.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of distillery wastewater samples Provision of distillery wastewater composition data Contributing industry knowledge and expertise on wastewater characteristics and treatment processes, particularly to compare our systems with alternatives, using Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis
Impact Generated results on copper recovery from wastewater samples. Shared industry knowledge on current and possible treatment systems, for Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis.
Start Year 2015
 
Title Global Sustainability and Engineering analysis of Resource Recovery Technologies (GSERTTM) 
Description Software development for BES modelling and Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LSCA) taking into consideration mass and energy balance calculation, balanced electrochemical cell equation, anodic and cathodic potentials, current and power densities, environmental impact saving evaluation, economic analysis, capital and operating costs, payback calculation. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact LSCA is a tool to characterize and assess the environmental, economic and societal aspects of a process, which can help in decision making. For example, in choosing between different waste treatment processes to be installed at an industrial site, LCSA can be used to assess the impacts of environmental, economic and societal aspects of different waste treatment technologies. The research has developed LSCA models for use and recovery of copper, to permit an assessment of bioelectrochemical systems to recover zinc from wastewater at the cathode. LSCA assesses inputs (including materials and energy) and outputs (including all co-products) and the associated costs, benefits and impacts. 
 
Description 2016 AIChE Annual Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The AIChE Annual Meeting is the premier educational forum for chemical engineers interested in innovation and professional growth. Academic and industry experts covered wide range of topics relevant to cutting-edge research, new technologies, and emerging growth areas in chemical engineering.
In this meeting, MeteoRR partners from Surrey University contributed with the oral presentation "From Fossils to Bio-Based Economy: A Revolutionary Transformation in Process Industries".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.aiche.org/conferences/aiche-annual-meeting/2016/proceeding/paper/439b-fossils-bio-based-...
 
Description Building a UK wide industrial strategy: perspectives from Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Building a UK wide industrial strategy: perspectives from Wales. Attended by Prof A J Guwy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Development of novel 3-chamber MES for copper recovery from spent lees in collaboration with University of Gent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Postdoctoral Researcher Dr Edward Milner, working on the Newcastle University MeteoRR team, visited the world leading research group of Professor Korneel Rabaey at the Center for Microbial Ecology and Technology at the University of Gent in Belgium. Edward has been working on the use of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) to recover metals from wastewaters. He was fortunate to learn first-hand from Professor Rabaey and his group about their exciting new research in this area and practical details for setting up novel BES (3-chamber MES) for copper recovery from spent lees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/bioelectrochemical-systems-resource-recovery-from-resource
 
Description EU-ISMET 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Newcastle University organized and hosted the International Society for Microbial Electrochemistry and Technology EU-ISMET Meeting in 2018. Project team members were the meeting chairs and with international partners formed the organisation and scientific advisory committee.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://conferences.ncl.ac.uk/eu-ismet2018/
 
Description European Biomass Conference & Exhibition EUBCE, 2017, Stockholm. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Oral presentation "Chemicals from Biomass: Chemistry, Synthesis, Engineering and Sustainability Analyses" at the European Biomass Conference & Exhibition EUBCE, 2017, Stockholm.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Flexible and Integrated Energy Systems: a smart opportunity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Flexible and Integrated Energy Systems: a smart opportunity. European Commission Research and Innovation. Attended by Prof A J Guwy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited presentation at workshop 'Bio-refinery - Dream or Reality' in Chile. Prof Premier 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation at workshop, which had good Q&A afterwards and opened up opportunities for international collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Key Note Oral Presentation APEC-ABT/ABBS 2015, Taiwan Prof Premier 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited key note speaker attracted good discussion afterwards, opening up potential for future collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Low-Carbon Energy Future: Efficient Management of Resources at Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On September 26-29 2016, the National Laboratory Astana hosted a 3-days workshop entitled Low-Carbon Energy Future: Efficient Management of Resources at Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan. The workshop, which was funded under the Newton - Al-Farabi Partnership Programme, brought together early career researchers from the UK and Kazakhstan to share their knowledge and experience, exchange ideas and generate future collaborations to promote sustainable energy system research and development in Kazakhstan. The 40 selected participants consisted of early career academics from Cranfield University, University of Surrey, University of Oxford, Imperial College London, National Laboratory Astana and International Information Technology University of Kazakhstan to mention a few among many and also industrial experts from several well-known companies in Kazakhstan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.theibest.org/apps/blog/entries/show/44215936-newton-al-farabi-funded-workshop-low-carbon-...
 
Description Meeting with Johnson Matthey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Manchester team visited Johnson Matthey to discuss the development of high value nanoparticle products.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Meeting with Shell's Chief Scientist (Jeremy Shears) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussions with Jeremy Shears (Shell Chief Scientist) on:
Bioelectrochemical systems for low carbon fuels and the LifesCO2R project
Energy from waste
Oil and Gas related research
Newcastle University industrial collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description MeteoRR & LifesCO2R 6-month meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Newcastle University leads two major research projects focused on BES: The MeteoRR project led by Professors Ian Head and Tom Curtis in the school of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, and the LifesCO2R project led by Dr Eileen Yu and Professor Keith Scott in the school of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials. The projects develop BES for the recovery of pure metals or valuable chemicals with market value from wastewater containing organic, metal and CO2 pollutants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
 
Description Microbial Electrochemistry Workshop- Anaerobic Digestion Network (BBSRC) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop hosted by Professor Tom Curtis and his research group from Newcastle University, offered an excellent opportunity for attendees to learn about the latest research from experts in the field of microbial electrochemistry. The series of talks on the first day was followed by an evening network dinner that gave ample opportunity for attendees to informally formulate ideas for the AD Network's Proof of Concept call which was open later this same year. During the second day of workshop the attendees had the opportunity to visit the University's pilot MEC plant at Chester le Street.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://powerfrompoo.wordpress.com/2016/09/21/bes-biosensors-and-bots-an-ad-network-meeting-on-micro...
 
Description Natural Resources Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact R Dinsdale and A Guwy (USW) hosted the meeting with Natural Resources Wales, main environmental policy implementer in Wales.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Oral Presentation at AD 14, Chile, Prof Premier 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at international conference (AD 14, Chile): Sizing longitudinal modularised up-scalable MFCs for their use in the wastewater treatment, followed by interactive discussion and opening up potential for future collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ad14chile.com/information/scientific-programme
 
Description Oral presentation at Conference of International Society for Industrial Ecology July 2015 - Prof Ian Head 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact to be completed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Oral presentations at conference on metal-microbe interactions (Mineralogical Society, London) Prof Head 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of research led to good Q&A and further discussions, to embed existing research collaborations and potentially lead to new collaborative research efforts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description RSC Workshop on Renewables Materials from Waste 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Networked extensively at the conference to make connections with other researchers in the field, extensive discussion with industry-universities collaborative initiative on bioeconomy (BioVale) for possible future interaction, detailed discussions with Defra official regarding findings of the research and potential policy implications, useful strategic discussion with NERC representative.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Resource Recovery from Waste Annual Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Resource Recovery from Waste (RRfW) Annual Conference in Leeds focused on better policy-making and regulations in relations to waste covering the national industrial symbiosis approach as a pillar of an industrial strategy. Day one included the RRfW showcase, exhibition and best practice in policy-making and regulating resource recovery from waste and day two was an industry workshop for co-creation of shared vision for waste and resource management and a mini-project workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://rrfw.org.uk/resource-recovery-from-waste-annual-conference-2016/
 
Description Science for Wales Strategy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact UWS team met Chief Scientific Officer for Wales. Science for Wales Strategy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Visit by BBSRC Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy Head of Strategy, Colin Miles 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We organized a meeting on industrial biotech and invited Colin Miles, Head of Strategy for BBSRC Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy, who provided an overview of the BBSRC Research Strategy with a focus on Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy. Newcastle University showcased research funded by or relevant to Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy. The event also provided valuable networking time with colleagues across the University. Discussions about BBSRC strategic direction and future opportunities were conducted in a number of break out meetings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Visit from Commerical Director of Northumbrian Water 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Gave the commercial director a tour of research labs and an overview of the scientific research on the project, focussing on the possible application of the research for wastewater treatment plants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Visit to Chivas Brothers Distilleries at Speyside 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact As part of the MeteoRR activities for industrial engagement, on the 21st of October researchers from the Newcastle and Surrey University teams visited two distilleries at Speyside (The Glenlivet and Dalmunach distilleries) and met with representatives from the Chivas Brothers distilleries to learn about Scotch whisky business operations and activities. Sector strategy, environmental objectives, distilling processes, parameters and constraints, and integrated wastewater management were all discussed.
MeteoRR is using bioelectrochemical systems (BES) to recover pure copper from distillery 'spent lees' (the wastewater from the bottom of the copper stills used to distil alcohol for whisky making). Bacteria in the anode chamber of the BES provide a current (a flow of electrons) by consuming organic matter in the wastewater. In the cathode chamber of the BES, copper ions in solution pick up electrons from the anode and form solid copper which plates out onto the cathode.
This site visit has been crucial to identify future research opportunities and knowledge gaps.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/industrial-engagement-site-visit-chivas-brothers-resource?trk=v-feed&...
 
Description Visit to Quorn foods to explore future research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Newcastle team visit to Quorn foods to explore future research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Visit to engage new industrial partner (Chivas Brothers) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Two RAs visited Chivas Brothers to present preliminary findings of research and overview of the research project. Visited 6 distilleries and technical centre, to engage on collection of samples and composition data. Resulted in Chivas Brothers coming on board as an industrial partner, bringing a contribution in kind of £5000.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Workshop for academic and industrial partners interested in applications of microbial electrochemical systems in the water sector 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Broad ranging discussion of potential applications of microbial electrochemical systems in the water and waste sector. Resulted in preparation of a £1.2M grant proposal that was funded in 2014.

Successful grant application and new project now due to begin.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Workshop with Professor Aijie Wang, Chinese Academy of Sciences 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact USW hosted a workshop with Professor Aijie Wang, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017