Sharing the benefits of sustainable fisheries: from global to local legal approaches to marine ecosystem services for poverty alleviation

Lead Research Organisation: University of Strathclyde
Department Name: Law

Abstract

How can science be translated into law in ways that encourage more sustainable fishing that benefits the poor? This inter-disciplinary project explores whether and how the innovative legal tool "benefit-sharing" can be integrated with the concept of marine ecosystem services to reduce the systemic poverty of coastal societies who depend upon marine resources for both food security and income generation. Benefit-sharing and ecosystem services are rapidly maturing concepts aspiring to reduce overexploitation of the world's diminishing natural capital. Each, however, has evolved in relative disciplinary isolation, missing potential synergies when considered together.

Fisheries remain a highly contested ecosystem service arena, challenged by complex and fragmented arrays of legal instruments that affect access to and management of marine resources by developing countries and by small-scale fishing communities. The ability of marine ecosystems to provide abundant fish and fish products has been compromised by unsustainable fishing practices and associated biodiversity loss. Developing countries, especially least developing countries (LDCs) and small island developing States (SIDS), and their coastal inhabitants are the most vulnerable to these marine ecosystem services losses, as they are deeply reliant on fisheries for income and food, and are some of the poorest societies in the world.

The hypothesis is that benefit-sharing when framed as part of ecosystem service sustainability can address poverty issues among and within States, in the context of sustainable fisheries management. A combination of science, policy and legal research is needed to understand whether, how and to what extent benefit-sharing can effectively support both developing countries and small-scale fishing communities within these countries to achieve sustainable fisheries. Ultimately, this project aims to provide a better understanding of the role of law in equitably regulating sustainable fisheries as a provisioning ecosystem service, thereby contributing to a fairer regime among States, and to poverty alleviation within States.

The project is designed around interdisciplinary partnerships, with a number of envisaged beneficiaries at the international, national and local levels. Through its policy outputs (think-pieces), the project will benefit international policy-makers by translating standards dispersed through several instruments into workable guidance to ensure consistency in relevant international processes. Furthermore, the think-pieces will provide a clear understanding of emerging international guidance for national law-makers and managers responsible for their implementation at national and local levels, by clarifying whether and how legal arrangements for benefit-sharing can enable sustainable livelihoods through the conservation and sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Similarly, the think-pieces will target NGOs, think tanks and bilateral donors that support regional, national and sub-national decision-making and implementation processes related to marine ecosystems. By targeting decision-makers and advisors at various levels, the project aims to reach as its ultimate beneficiaries small-scale fishing communities (over 50 million people) in developing countries, especially LDCs and SIDS.

In addition to the wide distribution of think pieces in English, French and Spanish, the project seeks long-lasting impacts on non-academic stakeholders through: its project website (including Twitter, blog posts, Facebook); an open-access legal journal article and interdisciplinary edited collection; and the identification of "champions for change" among the selected international experts involved in the project. In sum, the project aims at focusing and guiding practical approaches to marine ecosystem services for poverty alleviation on "global-to-local" legal approaches.

Planned Impact

The project will benefit international policy-makers by translating international standards dispersed through a myriad of decisions, recommendations and guidelines into workable guidance on legal tools for benefit-sharing and marine ecosystem services in current international processes. In that, the project will be particularly timely: oceans and seas have been a prominent topic in the Sustainable Development Goals debate, which will feed into the Global Summit of September 2015 to agree on a new UN development agenda; negotiations of a new treaty on marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction are likely to be launched in September 2015. In addition, and the implementation of the Fish Stocks Agreement continues to be regularly reviewed.

Furthermore, the projects will provide a clear understanding of emerging international guidance to the benefit of national law-makers and environmental managers who are responsible for implementation at national and local levels, by clarifying whether and how legal arrangements for benefit-sharing can enable sustainable livelihoods through the conservation and sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Similarly, the project will target NGOs, think tanks and bilateral donors that support regional, national and sub-national decision-making and implementation processes related to marine ecosystems. By impacting on decision-makers and advisors at various levels, the project aims to reach as its ultimate beneficiaries small-scale fishing communities (over 50 million people) and local villagers in developing countries, especially least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing states (SIDS).

The project pathway, and resulting impact is designed around 3 iterative phases, which incorporate several of ESPA's pathway-to-impact (PTI) pillars. The project baseline is developed through two sequential situational analyses: the first being the science-policy analysis, the second being the legal assessment of tackling identified gaps and opportunities against the notion of benefit-sharing. The third part of the PTI cycle is the use of exemplary case studies as the evidence settings to test and demonstrate the knowledge insights from the situational analyses and to strengthen the capacities of a wide range of beneficiaries to translate pivotal research into practice on the ground (and in the sea). In order to build individual and collective capacity (communities, institutions) to understand, test and support the concept of benefit-sharing for long-term gains of small-scale fishing communities, the project will work in partnership with intermediary users (world-leading academics and practitioners from natural and social sciences) through remote dialogue and Edinburgh-based workshops to enhance research uptake and wide range of stakeholders. Based on the situation analysis, and stakeholder inputs (knowledge production) a selection of exemplars will be undertaken to capture a representative and illustrative suite of biomes, based on SIDS and large marine ecosystems, reflecting different applications of legal options for benefit-sharing among and within States.

A series of think-pieces presenting in a succinct and accessible way whether and how benefit-sharing can (and crucially when it cannot) contribute to poverty reduction through sustainable fisheries will be specifically targeted to: a) international negotiators; b) national decision-makers; c) NGOs advising small-scale fishing communities, as well as operating at the international and regional levels; and d) bilateral development partners. They will be available on the project website, distributed through targeted mailing lists (translated in French and Spanish) and also discussed in an international side-event. At no cost for the project, the findings will also be included in an online training module on benefit-sharing targeting indigenous peoples and local communities (in English, French or Spanish)

Publications

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Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
NE/M007650/1 01/09/2015 31/08/2016 £117,191
NE/M007650/2 Transfer NE/M007650/1 01/09/2016 31/03/2017 £18,574
 
Description - Multi-scalar considerations: Marine ecosystem services (ES) and natural capital accounting mechanisms to date have tended to focus on local contexts, although literature has started to emerge on transboundary ecosystems, where regional and global-level beneficiaries have been identified. This means that most of the ES literature is helpful to explore intra-State dimensions of equity and fairness, but only little research is available to contextualise ES from an inter-State perspective. It is thus difficult to rely on existing ES research to better understand ES flows from the local to the global level and vice versa, which is essential for marine ecosystems.+ SDGs
- Non-economical values: A better understanding of marine supporting, regulating and cultural services is still needed not only for the realization of the full potential of the ES concept(s) towards human wellbeing, but also to implement the ecosystem approach.
- Equity and poverty alleviation: It is helpful to contrast the lack of clarity on the link between equity and ecosystem services with intra- and inter-generational equity components of the international obligations concerning the ecosystem approach, which provides a broader and complementary framework than the ES framework alone, especially when considering wellbeing in all its forms and poverty in all its dimensions.
- Marine context: There are still few ES studies that explore marine systems, and of these none explores the linkages between marine ecosystem systems and poverty alleviation. Beyond the ES literature, however, an extensive body of literature exists on the human dimensions of small-scale fisheries including poverty and livelihood security considerations. A systemic interpretation of the ecosystem approach in light of international instruments including the CBD Chennai Guidance for the Integration of Biodiversity and Poverty Eradication, the FAO Small-Scale Fishing Guidelines and the Sustainable Development Goals, can help fill the gap.
.• Several of the multiple dimensions of poverty (as reflected in the SDG 1) rest also on international human rights law, notably the right to food (linked with SDG 2 and the FAO Small Scale Fisheries (SSF) Guidelines). Our key finding in this connection is that an integrated impact assessment (environmental, social, human rights, etc) is needed for ecosystem services for poverty alleviation, with the involvement of fishing communities potentially affected by planned large-scale fishing activities, including by third country's distant-water fishing vessels.
Exploitation Route Our findings are being considered by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to include in their support to the implementation of the ecosystem approach to fisheries and in their legislative guidance tools on small-scale fisheries.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://www.strath.ac.uk/research/strathclydecentreenvironmentallawgovernance/marinebenefits/
 
Description The Marine Benefits project has been recognised as an important contributor in the SDG discussions and has raised awareness of key development partners such as IIED, UK CEFAS, Marine Scotland, GOBI, FAO, Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans, WWF, Bioclimate, as well as other relevant government officials from DEFRA, Government of Eritrea, Peruvian Mission to the UN, US State Department, among others. - The project has also attracted the attention of international organisations like the Convention on Biological Diversity Secretariat, which has been inviting our research fellow to participate in a number of CBD expert meetings. Participation in these meetings have served to further promote the project and influence international policy-making through expert recommendations which have been integrated into the thirteenth meeting of the CBD Conference of the Parties (COP 13) decisions regarding: o marine protected areas (MPAs) for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services; o equitable management of MPAs; o ecologically representative networks of MPAs; o Other effective area-based management measures; o Ecologically or biologically significant marine areas; o benefit-sharing required for climate change and ocean acidification monitoring, mitigation and adaptation measures, including identification of areas for refugia; and o mainstreaming of biodiversity into the fisheries sector and the Sustainable Development Goals. All the above discussions at the international and national levels are ongoing and are likely to take years to develop. It is therefore not possible yet to pinpoint a specific impact that our research has had on them yet, but we have good indications that our research is influencing these processes.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Influence in CBD decisions on marine and coastal biodiversity
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description GCRF One Ocean Hub
Amount £18,181,219 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/S008950/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 04/2024
 
Description Inception grant: GCRF One Ocean Hub
Amount £180,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S516156/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description Marine Policy Special Issue on Sustainable Development Goals 
Organisation Centre For Environment, Fisheries And Aquaculture Science
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Contributed expertise and intellectual input to marine governance challenges, especially related to sustainable fisheries, ecosystem approach, benefit sharing, ecosystem services and poverty alleviation.
Collaborator Contribution As part of our project, we developed a proposal for a Special Issue of the Marine Policy Journal looking into the Sustainable Development Goals and linkages to these themes, which was accepted, and these collaborators have authored articles in the special issue (which is currently in preparation/revision stages). These collaborators have also provided feedback to our ESPA project findings and reports.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary including disciplines such as: law, policy, marine biology and ecology, oceanography, fisheries management, and economy. The output will be a Special Issue of the Marine Policy journal on the Sustainable Development Goal 14 (on oceans), with a special focus on sustainable fisheries, ecosystem services for poverty alleviation and linkages with other SDGs.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Marine Policy Special Issue on Sustainable Development Goals 
Organisation Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Contributed expertise and intellectual input to marine governance challenges, especially related to sustainable fisheries, ecosystem approach, benefit sharing, ecosystem services and poverty alleviation.
Collaborator Contribution As part of our project, we developed a proposal for a Special Issue of the Marine Policy Journal looking into the Sustainable Development Goals and linkages to these themes, which was accepted, and these collaborators have authored articles in the special issue (which is currently in preparation/revision stages). These collaborators have also provided feedback to our ESPA project findings and reports.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary including disciplines such as: law, policy, marine biology and ecology, oceanography, fisheries management, and economy. The output will be a Special Issue of the Marine Policy journal on the Sustainable Development Goal 14 (on oceans), with a special focus on sustainable fisheries, ecosystem services for poverty alleviation and linkages with other SDGs.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Marine Policy Special Issue on Sustainable Development Goals 
Organisation Government of Scotland
Department Marine Scotland Directorate
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Contributed expertise and intellectual input to marine governance challenges, especially related to sustainable fisheries, ecosystem approach, benefit sharing, ecosystem services and poverty alleviation.
Collaborator Contribution As part of our project, we developed a proposal for a Special Issue of the Marine Policy Journal looking into the Sustainable Development Goals and linkages to these themes, which was accepted, and these collaborators have authored articles in the special issue (which is currently in preparation/revision stages). These collaborators have also provided feedback to our ESPA project findings and reports.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary including disciplines such as: law, policy, marine biology and ecology, oceanography, fisheries management, and economy. The output will be a Special Issue of the Marine Policy journal on the Sustainable Development Goal 14 (on oceans), with a special focus on sustainable fisheries, ecosystem services for poverty alleviation and linkages with other SDGs.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Marine Policy Special Issue on Sustainable Development Goals 
Organisation IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
Department Global Ocean Biodiversity Initiative
Country Global 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Contributed expertise and intellectual input to marine governance challenges, especially related to sustainable fisheries, ecosystem approach, benefit sharing, ecosystem services and poverty alleviation.
Collaborator Contribution As part of our project, we developed a proposal for a Special Issue of the Marine Policy Journal looking into the Sustainable Development Goals and linkages to these themes, which was accepted, and these collaborators have authored articles in the special issue (which is currently in preparation/revision stages). These collaborators have also provided feedback to our ESPA project findings and reports.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary including disciplines such as: law, policy, marine biology and ecology, oceanography, fisheries management, and economy. The output will be a Special Issue of the Marine Policy journal on the Sustainable Development Goal 14 (on oceans), with a special focus on sustainable fisheries, ecosystem services for poverty alleviation and linkages with other SDGs.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Marine Policy Special Issue on Sustainable Development Goals 
Organisation IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
Country Switzerland 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Contributed expertise and intellectual input to marine governance challenges, especially related to sustainable fisheries, ecosystem approach, benefit sharing, ecosystem services and poverty alleviation.
Collaborator Contribution As part of our project, we developed a proposal for a Special Issue of the Marine Policy Journal looking into the Sustainable Development Goals and linkages to these themes, which was accepted, and these collaborators have authored articles in the special issue (which is currently in preparation/revision stages). These collaborators have also provided feedback to our ESPA project findings and reports.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary including disciplines such as: law, policy, marine biology and ecology, oceanography, fisheries management, and economy. The output will be a Special Issue of the Marine Policy journal on the Sustainable Development Goal 14 (on oceans), with a special focus on sustainable fisheries, ecosystem services for poverty alleviation and linkages with other SDGs.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Marine Policy Special Issue on Sustainable Development Goals 
Organisation International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Contributed expertise and intellectual input to marine governance challenges, especially related to sustainable fisheries, ecosystem approach, benefit sharing, ecosystem services and poverty alleviation.
Collaborator Contribution As part of our project, we developed a proposal for a Special Issue of the Marine Policy Journal looking into the Sustainable Development Goals and linkages to these themes, which was accepted, and these collaborators have authored articles in the special issue (which is currently in preparation/revision stages). These collaborators have also provided feedback to our ESPA project findings and reports.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary including disciplines such as: law, policy, marine biology and ecology, oceanography, fisheries management, and economy. The output will be a Special Issue of the Marine Policy journal on the Sustainable Development Goal 14 (on oceans), with a special focus on sustainable fisheries, ecosystem services for poverty alleviation and linkages with other SDGs.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Marine Policy Special Issue on Sustainable Development Goals 
Organisation Scottish Environment LINK
Department Section for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Contributed expertise and intellectual input to marine governance challenges, especially related to sustainable fisheries, ecosystem approach, benefit sharing, ecosystem services and poverty alleviation.
Collaborator Contribution As part of our project, we developed a proposal for a Special Issue of the Marine Policy Journal looking into the Sustainable Development Goals and linkages to these themes, which was accepted, and these collaborators have authored articles in the special issue (which is currently in preparation/revision stages). These collaborators have also provided feedback to our ESPA project findings and reports.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary including disciplines such as: law, policy, marine biology and ecology, oceanography, fisheries management, and economy. The output will be a Special Issue of the Marine Policy journal on the Sustainable Development Goal 14 (on oceans), with a special focus on sustainable fisheries, ecosystem services for poverty alleviation and linkages with other SDGs.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Marine Policy Special Issue on Sustainable Development Goals 
Organisation University of Plymouth
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed expertise and intellectual input to marine governance challenges, especially related to sustainable fisheries, ecosystem approach, benefit sharing, ecosystem services and poverty alleviation.
Collaborator Contribution As part of our project, we developed a proposal for a Special Issue of the Marine Policy Journal looking into the Sustainable Development Goals and linkages to these themes, which was accepted, and these collaborators have authored articles in the special issue (which is currently in preparation/revision stages). These collaborators have also provided feedback to our ESPA project findings and reports.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary including disciplines such as: law, policy, marine biology and ecology, oceanography, fisheries management, and economy. The output will be a Special Issue of the Marine Policy journal on the Sustainable Development Goal 14 (on oceans), with a special focus on sustainable fisheries, ecosystem services for poverty alleviation and linkages with other SDGs.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Marine Policy Special Issue on Sustainable Development Goals 
Organisation World Wide Fund for Nature
Country Switzerland 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Contributed expertise and intellectual input to marine governance challenges, especially related to sustainable fisheries, ecosystem approach, benefit sharing, ecosystem services and poverty alleviation.
Collaborator Contribution As part of our project, we developed a proposal for a Special Issue of the Marine Policy Journal looking into the Sustainable Development Goals and linkages to these themes, which was accepted, and these collaborators have authored articles in the special issue (which is currently in preparation/revision stages). These collaborators have also provided feedback to our ESPA project findings and reports.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary including disciplines such as: law, policy, marine biology and ecology, oceanography, fisheries management, and economy. The output will be a Special Issue of the Marine Policy journal on the Sustainable Development Goal 14 (on oceans), with a special focus on sustainable fisheries, ecosystem services for poverty alleviation and linkages with other SDGs.
Start Year 2016
 
Description CBD Biodiversity Governance meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact On 1 May, PI Elisa Morgera was invited to participate in the Network Meeting on Rethinking Biodiversity Governance, which convened at margins of CBD subsidiary bodies' meetings in Montreal, Canada. The event was organised by PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency with a view to identifying ways in which academic research can contribute to international and national policy-making on how biodiversity conservation, restoration and sustainable use can best be achieved. Prof Morgera shared preliminary findings from the MARINE BENEFITS project indicating actual and potential areas for mutual supportiveness between biodiversity governance, human rights and sustainable fisheries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.marinebenefits.ed.ac.uk/outreach
 
Description CBD COP 13 Side event on mainstreaming biodiversity into fisheries 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Marine Benefits project team co-hosted a side-event at CBD COP 13 on Mainstreaming Biodiversity in the Fisheries Sector: the role of the SDGs and of ecosystem services for poverty alleviation on 16 December 2016. The side-event was co-hosted by the Strathclyde Centre for Environmental Law & Governance (SCELG), the University of Edinburgh and its School of Geosciences, WWF, the Global Oceans Biodiversity Initiative (GOBI) and the UK Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS).
This side-event engaged CBD delegates in an exploration of the interface between the different dimensions of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 14 "Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development" and other SDGs (poverty, hunger, decent work, inequalities, climate, life on land, peace and partnerships). To do so, the event will explore the role of marine ecosystem services to alleviate poverty, with particular attention to the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from sustainable fisheries with small-scale fishing communities.
Research findings were shared from a multi-disciplinary and multi-scale assessment of fisheries governance by academics and practitioners with expertise in international fisheries law and policy, management, science and economics. Specific topics for discussion, with due consideration of climate change and ocean acidification as cross-cutting issues, included: ecosystem approach to fisheries management, environmental impact assessments in the fisheries sector, marine protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, the blue economy and fisheries subsidies, the sharing of fisheries management data and methodologies, the role of traditional knowledge, and the transfer of marine technology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://enb.iisd.org/biodiv/cop13/enbots/16dec.html
 
Description CBD SBSTTA-20 Side-Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On 25 April 2016, MARINE BENEFITS project hosted a side-event titled "Fair and Equitable Benefit-sharing from Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use, Climate Responses and Sustainable Fisheries" in Montreal during the Twentieth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The event was chaired by Prof Nicole Schabus, an expert in constitutional, criminal, Aboriginal and environmental law at Thompson River University (Kamloops, BC, Canada). PI Elisa Morgera and researcher fellow Daniela Diz shared findings on fair and equitable benefit-sharing from sustainable fisheries, based on recent developments in the international law of the sea concerning small-scale fisheries communities, as well as practice related to marine ecosystem services and poverty alleviation. Ensuing discussion focused on inter-generational equity, focusing on ecosystem deficits rather than benefits, and on the need for interdisciplinarity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.marinebenefits.ed.ac.uk/outreach
 
Description CBD SOI Dialogue - Regional Seas and Regional Fisheries Bodies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Marine Benefits project Researcher Daniela Diz was invited to attend the Sustainable Ocean Initiative Global Dialogue with Regional Seas Organizations and Regional Fisheries Bodies on Accelerating Progress Towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets - the first international meeting of regional seas organizations and regional fisheries management organizations convened by the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in Seoul, Republic of Korea on 24-29 September 2016. The meeting explored how possible cooperation and collaboration among regional bodies as well as global ones can contribute to accelerating progress towards the achievement of relevant global goals such as the CBD Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the Sustainable Development Goals. Dr. Daniela Diz contributed to working groups discussions and to the preparation of the "Seoul Outcome" - a document highlighting the main findings of the meeting and next steps for increased collaboration between these bodies, including through the continuation of this global dialogue. In order to prepare for future global dialogues, it was suggested that an informal working group be formed, consisting of the CBD Secretariat, the United Nations Environment Programme, the FAO, and interested regional organizations, to prepare substantive elements of the meeting programme of future global dialogues and maintain intersessional communication among participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.cbd.int/doc/?meeting=SOIOM-2016-01
 
Description CBD Secretariat Side-Event on Sustainable Fisheries (at SBSTTA-20) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On 27 April 2016, MARINE BENEFITS researcher Daniela Diz was invited to contribute to the side event "IMPROVING PROGRESS REPORTING AND WORKING TOWARDS IMPLEMENTATION OF AICHI BIODIVERSITY TARGET 6" on fisheries, on the sidelines of the Convention on Biological Diversity scientific body (SBSTTA) meeting in Montreal, Canada. Dr Diz joined an expert panel commenting on the outcomes of the Expert Meeting on Improving Progress Reporting and Working towards Implementation of Aichi Biodiversity Target 6, which was convened jointly by the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the CBD Secretariat, and IUCN in Rome, from 9-11 February 2016. In particular, Dr Diz contributed to discussions on the meeting outcomes, related issues and potential next steps on assessing "safe ecological levels" of fishing and operationalising the ecosystem approach to fisheries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.marinebenefits.ed.ac.uk/outreach
 
Description CBD meeting of experts on Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Participation in an expert meeting convened by the CBD Secretariat, which took place from 24-26 February 2016. Our group of experts reviewed lessons learned and shared experiences to help achieve the qualitative elements of Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 on marine protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures in marine and coastal areas, including those concerning ecological representation, coverage of areas important for biodiversity and ecosystem services, equitable management, effectiveness, and integration in wider seascapes. The outcomes of our meeting will help inform and guide governments on the implementation of this international target by 2020 while promoting further equitable procedures for establishment and management of MPAs. The findings of our ESPA project will also contribute to further guidance on the implementation of this target (among others).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Capacity Building Workshop for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) on biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Marine Benefits project researcher Daniela Diz participated in a workshop convened by the Government of Belgium and UNESCO-IOC (from 7-9 March) on the various aspects of implementing capacity-development and technology transfer, related to the following elements of a new international instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ): marine protected areas, environmental impact assessments and marine genetic resources.

The workshop brought together representatives of SIDS with a special interest and expertise in the BBNJ process to substantially discuss capacity-building needs and priorities of SIDS concerning biodiversity and oceans and climate change challenges.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting of experts on Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Participation in a CBD meeting of experts on EBSAs, which took place from 22-24 February 2016, and drew upon lessons learned from the description of areas meeting the EBSA criteria to date and developed practical options to further enhance scientific methodologies and approaches on the description of EBSAs, including through the incorporation of traditional knowledge. The results of this meeting will be presented at the 20th meeting of the CBD Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice in April 2016 and will inform decisions of the CBD thirteenth Conference of the Parties in December on marine conservation. Participation in this meeting is relevant because our ESPA project is currently investigating, among other things, the connections between marine biodiversity (including EBSAs) and ecosystem services.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ESPA Annual Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Dr Daniela Diz presented the MARINE BENEFITS findings at the 2016 Annual Science Conference of ESPA (17-18 November 2016, Nairobi, Kenya). The Conference focused on synthesising learning across projects to answer the following questions: How do ecosystem services influence human well-being in different ecosystems / locations and for different socio-economic groups? How will this change over time and what is driving this change? What options exist to mediate linkages so that human well-being is enhanced and ecosystems are conserved? What are the barriers / uncertainties inhibiting simultaneous achievement of the conservation and development outcomes and how can we overcome them? This includes those relating to governance and decision-making.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.espa.ac.uk/news-events/events/thu-2016-11-17-0900/espa-2016-annual-science-conference
 
Description FAO Side Event - Small Scale Fisheries and Food Security 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact PI Elisa Morgera and researcher Daniela Diz presented preliminary findings of the legal analysis at a side-event of the 43rd Session of the Committee on World Food Security, at FAO on 20 October, entitled "Tenure Governance and the Sustainable Development Goals: Leaving no-one behind in the Land and Fisheries Sectors?"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description FAO visit and seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On 26 June 2017, ESPA Director Kate Schreckenberg, PI Elisa Morgera, and Researcher Daniela Diz delivered presentations at the FAO Fisheries Department Seminar on key findings of ESPA fisheries-related projects and their potential contributions to the implementation of an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) and biodiversity mainstreaming. About 30 FAO staff members and other guests attended the event. The event was recorded and distributed to all FAO staff.

ESPA Director Kate Schreckenberg introduced the ESPA research programme, and highlighted that it is currently in its final year and in the process of synthesising evidence around key thematic areas within its portfolio. Dr. Daniela Diz and Prof. Elisa Morgera then discussed relevant findings from ESPA's fisheries-related projects, which provide examples of mainstreaming biodiversity and ecosystem services in fisheries, including through the EAF. They also highlighted how experiences shared through the seminar could contribute to the delivery of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Decision XIII/3 on Strategic actions to enhance the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, including with respect to mainstreaming and the integration of biodiversity within and across sectors. More specifically, how it could contribute to the delivery of a request at paragraph 76 of CBD Decision XIII/3 for FAO to compile experiences in mainstreaming biodiversity in the fisheries sector, including through the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF).

The seminar was well attended and was followed by a meeting with FAO staff from the Fisheries Division (FI) and the Legal Office (LEGN), which discussed further means of collaboration. This resulted in a joint-side event at a CBD meeting in December 2017 in Montreal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://fao.adobeconnect.com/_a1026619000/pgi3rlr3640j/
 
Description IIED round-table on SDGs - Leave No One Behind 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact On 15 April 2016, MARINE BENEFITS PI Elisa Morgera and research fellow Daniela Diz contributed to an expert meeting organised by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) in London on the concept of "leave no one behind" and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The meeting focused on developing a working definition, principles and an analytical framework for the concept of "Leave No One Behind," including on the basis of international law research on fair and equitable benefit-sharing in the fisheries sector under the MARINE BENEFITS project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.iied.org/unpacking-what-we-mean-leave-no-one-behind
 
Description Marine Management Organisation (MMO) Science Alignment Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Participation in the UK MMO workshop on science alignment aiming to foster collaboration between academia and marine managers, developing both research projects and programmes to create excellent science that has maximum impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2015
 
Description Presentation at the ESPA Annual Conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at the ESPA Annual Conference (November 2017). Presented on the contribution of ecosystem services framework to sustainable fisheries and enhanced wellbeing of small scale fishing communities. The presentation highlighted key points covered in the fisheries chapter (chapter 18) co-authored by Researcher Daniela Diz and PI Elisa Morgera, of the ESPA synthesis book to be published in 2018. Policy makers in Africa were particularly interested in the sustainable development focus of the presentation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Second Board of Advisors meeting - 18-19 July 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This workshop was intended to share our project preliminary research findings with our board of advisors and gain input and advice on next steps. We have also discussed collaboration on a Special Issue of the Marine Policy journal linking our research with the Sustainable Development Goals for further impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.marinebenefits.ed.ac.uk/outreach
 
Description Side event at the Convention on Biological Diversity meeting entitled 'Mainstreaming Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services into the Fisheries Sector for Sustainable Development' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A side event entitled 'Mainstreaming Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services into the Fisheries Sector for Sustainable Development' organised by PI Elisa Morgera and Researcher Daniela Diz, and hosted by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme, the Strathclyde Centre for Environmental Law and Governance (SCELG), and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Secretariat, and counting with the participation of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO). Presenters (and participants) shared recent research findings and initiatives on mainstreaming biodiversity with particular emphasis on biodiversity mainstreaming in the fisheries sector, more specifically:

• PI Elisa Morgera, SCELG Director, presented research findings from the BENELEX research programme (fair and equitable benefit-sharing across different areas of international law) that are relevant to biodiversity mainstreaming; and illustrated the Legal Assessment Tool for Biodiversity Mainstreaming that SCELG developed under the IDLO/SwedBio project;

• Researcher Daniela Diz (SCELG) shared the research findings and lessons learned from the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) fisheries projects on the integration of biodiversity and ecosystem services into the fisheries sector, including as part of the ecosystem approach, and links with the SDGs;

• Jihyun Lee (CBD Secretariat) provided an update on the Sustainable Ocean Initiative (SOI) Global Dialogues with regional seas organizations and regional fisheries bodies as well SOI capacity-building opportunities; and

• Kim Friedman (FAO) addressed the consideration of biodiversity in fisheries, and FAO support for CBD Parties in achieving Aichi Biodiversity Target 6 (sustainable fisheries).


Participants were engaged, and shared their views on research gaps and opportunities and capacity-building needs related to mainstreaming biodiversity in the fisheries sector in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Side event at the UN Ocean Conference entitled "SDGs and the Blue Economy: Investing in Marine Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Researcher Daniela Diz and PI Elisa Morgera organised an ESPA side-event at the SDG 14 Ocean Conference at the UN Headquarters in NY on 7 June 2017. The event was hosted by the Eritrean Mission to the UN in partnership with the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme, University of Strathclyde's Centre for Environmental Law and Governance (SCELG), Global Ocean Biodiversity Initiative (GOBI), Marine Scotland, and the UK Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas).

The event was chaired by Mr. Amanuel Giorgio (Eritrean Mission to the UN), and included presentations by Essam Yassin Mohamed (IIED) on ecosystem services valuation, David Jonhson (GOBI) on the role of area based management measures for achieving SDG 14, and Daniela Diz on key messages from ESPA fisheries projects for the implementation of SDG 14 and other relevant SDGs. Some of the side event participants included: Alfonso Ascencio-Herrera (Mexico), Legal Counsel and Deputy to the Secretary-General of the International Seabed Authority (ISA); Sandor Mulsow (Chile), Director of ISA's Office of Environmental Management and Mineral Resources; Chapi Mwango, Chief, Contract Management Unit, ISA; Jessica Battle (WWF International), Nebil Said Ibris, Counsellor, Permanent Mission of Eritrea to the UN, Prof. Murray Roberts (University of Edinburgh); a number of researchers from South America, among others. Participants actively engaged in discussions after the presentations.

This side event demonstrated the complex nature of poverty alleviation, especially in light of a changing climate, and how the ecosystem services framework can help identify appropriate conservation and management measures, as well as beneficiaries and the most vulnerable in society, and inform decision-making processes and trade-offs in the context of an ecosystem approach, and how the multiple dimensions of poverty relevant to multiple SDGs have been addressed by ESPA fisheries-related projects. It also shed light on how the ecosystem services framework can bridge biodiversity law and human rights.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.espa.ac.uk/news-blogs/blog/espa-un-ocean-conference
 
Description Talk about benefit-sharing from the coast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact On Friday 29th January 2016, Dr. Rachel Wynberg (Senior Researcher & Deputy Director of the Environmental Evaluation Unit, Cape Town University) gave a talk at Edinburgh Law School on the findings of her book "Sharing Benefits from the Coast: Rights, Resources and Livelihoods."
The event was organised by the MARINE BENEFITS project. The presentation underscored that benefit-sharing is an iterative long process to identify locally-appropriate solutions, including in terms of governance of benefit-sharing among different actors with conflicting objectives, while taking into account the need to adapt and evolve. The discussion focused on practical challenges in ensuring fair and equitable benefit-sharing across different sectors, in light of the interlinkages between benefits and losses across different sectors (for instance, fisheries, tourism and mining near coasts) as local communities pursue diverse livelihoods.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description UN special consultation on biodiversity and human rights 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact PI Elisa Morgera has been invited to contribute to the UN expert consultation on biodiversity and human rights (20-21 September 2016, Geneva), Switzerland. The consultation, organized in cooperation with the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), is part of the 2016 thematic project studying human rights obligations pertaining to biodiversity and ecosystems of the UN Special Rapporteur John Knox. The report aims to clarify how human rights obligations apply to conservation policies and programmes, how conservation can support human rights, and best practices in avoiding any conflicts between the worthwhile goals of conserving biodiversity and ecosystems, on the one hand, and safeguarding human rights, on the other. The consultation gathered approximately 25 participants, with a wide range of experience and expertise in human rights and/or conservation, including representatives of international institutions and civil society organizations as well as academics. Discussions, challenges and lessons learned identified through the consultation helped inform the report to the UN Human Rights Council . Prof Morgera will share the findings of the MARINE BENEFITS project related to the right to food in the context of small-scale fishing communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/009/97/PDF/G1700997.pdf?OpenElement
 
Description UNEP-WCMC workshop on biodiversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On 10 May 2016, Dr. Daniela Diz, research fellow of the Marine Benefits project, presented on the recent developments and outcomes of the UN General Assembly Preparatory Committee on biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction at a UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre workshop in Cambridge. The two day (10-11 May) workshop, entitled "A Conservation Agenda for Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction" brought together legal, conservation, policy and industry experts who discussed possible governance options for a new implementing agreement on conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.marinebenefits.ed.ac.uk/outreach