Groundwater Risk Management for Growth and Development

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Smith School of Enterprise and the Env

Abstract

Improved understanding of groundwater risks and institutional responses against competing growth and development goals is central to accelerating and sustaining Africa's development. Africa's groundwater systems are a critical but poorly understood socio-ecological system. Explosive urban growth, irrigated agricultural expansion, industrial pollution, untapped mineral wealth, rural neglect and environmental risks often converge to increase the complexity and urgency of governance challenges across Africa's groundwater systems. These Africa-wide opportunities and trade-offs are reflected in Kenya where the government's unifying Vision 2030 aims to double the irrigated agricultural area whilst simultaneously promoting the growth of high-value mineral resources. Institutional capacity to govern interactions between economic activities, water resource demands and poverty outcomes are currently constrained by insufficient knowledge and lack of effective management tools. The overarching project aim is to design, test and transfer a novel, interdisciplinary and replicable Groundwater Risk Management tool to improve governance transformations to balance economic growth, groundwater sustainability and human development trade-offs.

The project will make four major contributions to support interdisciplinary science and governance of managing groundwater risks for growth and development in Africa:
a) An automated, daily monitoring network for shallow groundwater levels - the first system of its kind in the world and replicable at scale.
b) A new Groundwater Risk Management Tool which is transferable and sustainable in Africa.
c) New epidemiological insights into the health impacts of faulty or intermittent water supplies.
d) Improved theory and evidence of groundwater governance and poverty pathways.

Planned Impact

Intended beneficiaries encompass stakeholders from government, enterprise, communities, particularly the poor, women and girls, and the international research and practitioner communities.
a) Kenya
i) Vulnerable rural water users - in the study area there are at least 60,000 rural water users served by the handpump maintenance project (ESRC). The project has three staff including two mechanics who liaise with the communities on a daily and positive basis. Given County Government support at the Ministerial level (Dr Chiguzo) we anticipate and have discussed uptake to all County handpumps (c.600-800) which would at a minimum double the total beneficiaries.

ii) Local water governance - the Water Resources User Association is a key beneficiary institution with linkages to all other WRUAs in Kenya. The project has established working relationships with District Officers (overall, water, health), chiefs, elders, school head teachers, Msambweni hospital and clinics. All are highly supportive of the project including the new County Governor who mentioned the project in his first anniversary address.

iii) Government - the Water Resource Management Authority (WRMA) has indicated the significance, support and scalability of the project in its letter of support. The Water Services Regulatory Board (WASREB, responsible for rural and urban water services) works with Oxford/RFL in existing grants and will continue to translate results into national policy. Ministry of Water and Irrigation are also informed of the work. Prof Olago was former President of the Kenyan Geological Society and remains an active member.

iv) Enterprise - Base Titanium Ltd. and KISCOL have indicated their support through data sharing and collaboration. A major project workshop in Nairobi in Year two will convene major enterprises reliant on groundwater from oil and gas, mining and irrigation sectors.

iv) National and International research institutes - led by JKUAT and University of Nairobi the research will benefit the national research community in events and networking through their respective centres, WARREC and ICCA. Further, the team has established and deep relationships with the UN (UNICEF, UNDP), water-focused donors (SIDA, GIZ, DGIS) and the Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank.

b) International
i) Oxford and UPC will mobilise global science and policy networks through senior staff (Edmunds, Bradley, Hope, Custodio, Carrera). These include IAH, UNESCO-GWADI, UNICEF-WASHnet (global), RWSN, World Bank-WSP, UKGS, etc.

ii) UPGro Knowledge Broker activities, outreach and events will be developed and build on established relationships with RWSN through Hope, which currently includes webinars, D-groups and events linked to his research group.

iii) Enterprise partnerships and collaboration will build on Dr Hope's role in the Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment. He co-leads the Sharing Resource Prosperity programme with Dr McElroy which has a global extractive industry network, including the International Congress of Mining and Minerals led by Ross Hamilton. This work links to DFID's Africa Extractives Adviser, Grundel Holger, who is aware of the Kwale research following a meeting with Dr Hope in February 2014. More widely, Dr Hope is actively engaged with Diageo, SABMiller and the Coca Cola company, who have major African operations relying on groundwater use.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The project is in its final year (end Jan 2019) with five key findings of particular note:

1. Geophysical analysis of the study area has discovered two palaeochannels with significant groundwater resources. Led by the University of Nairobi, this work has provided important insights to help the local government plan their future water resource strategies. The work has been done in collaboration with the national government's Water Resource Authority and has been received extremely well. Modern and traditional techniques were critical to this discovery.

2. Hydrogeological modelling building from 1) and with the collaboration of a mining company with deep borehole data is now completed (Ferrer et al., 2018). The results and implications have wider regional insights on the role of extreme rainfall events disproportionately increasing recharge; this links to the work of Prof Taylor in a sister UPGRo project. The national government (Water Resources Authority) has requested specific training on the groundwater model which will be completed later this year led by UPC.

3. Groundwater and poverty relationships have been examined in four areas.
a) Historical analysis from multi-decadal data analysis of community payments for their handpumps since the 1980s have identified through a series of journal papers new insights on sustainability (Foster and Hope, 2016, 2017; Foster et al., 2018). These include the importance for regular payment for the water from the water quality, distance to the waterpoint, productive uses of the water, such as for livestock, and higher payments in drier months. A major policy challenge from these findings is the paradox of financial sustainability and universal access to the waterpoints. Communities often ensure people pay by limiting access; we found this may lead to poorer people using unimproved sources. However, where pumps are open access they tend to take weeks or months to repair.
b) The priorities of the poor through analysis of the panel data (2014, 15, 16) to determine the role of groundwater in both multidimensional and subject welfare. Initial findings identify drinking water as one of four key priorities along with education, energy and sanitation. This has been shared with the Governor of Kwale's office and discussed in the final workshop. Journal papers from Jacob Katuva's PhD are under review which will formally publish this work later in 2019.
c) The relationship between self-reported water-related illness and handpump reliability was examined to determine the possible health impact of rapid maintenance services. Epidemiological analysis suggests that only extremely rapid repairs of pumps are correlated with better health outcomes, supporting the rationale for professional maintenance services. Other related Gro for GooD research has demonstrated the high variability in the bacteriological water quality of wells used for drinking water in Kwale and provided new empirical data on weather-related changes in water use patterns.
d) Finally, work has continues on using novel machine learning techniques to establish and then model links between groundwater and poverty, and ultimately develop and groundwater risk management tool. Work continues on this conceptually and methodologically challenging problem, with the first paper on this in preparation for publication later in 2019.

4. Institutional analysis of how government, markets and communities interact has theoretically and empirically illustrated how a more integrated (pluralist) approach may support more sustainable models in the future (Koehler et al., 2018). This is captured in our research contributing to the 2016 Water Act's Article 94 (3) which acknowledges for the first time the role of the private sector as a partner in rural water services. Our wider work has incubated a local maintenance service provider, under the FundiFix model, with a legally registered Trust Fund. Investments by mining and agricultural companies are now supporting this company grow and rapidly fix community waterpoints for the 80 communities (>10,000 people) registered. New phases in expanding services to schools and clinics with private sector funding.

5. Aquifer depth monitoring techniques are being advanced as is documented in a recent paper (Colchester et al, 2017). Further work on this exciting but challenging engineering project has been supported separately by UNICEF to predict failure before it happens (condition monitoring, Greeff et al., 2019). This work is now being considered in Bangladesh and many other countries and partners are watching to see how the Technology Readiness Level advances to hopefully a commercial phase and deployment.
Exploitation Route 1. Aquifer estimation and condition monitoring has created significant interest and could be applied in many other contexts in Africa. The deployment of 200 data loggers to Bangladesh provides an example of this but to move beyond research there needs to be wider investment. We are discussing this with the Government of Bangladesh. 2. The institutional and rural water finance work has evolved well and many other countries are actively interested in how a Trust Fund model linked to a performance-based maintenance service provider could be adapted, e.g. Uganda, Ethiopia, Bangladesh. UNICEF as a partner in this work are exploring these options in Kenya and there has been investment in some modest expansion under a USAID grant on Sustainable WASH Systems to inform future USAID programming.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.smithschool.ox.ac.uk/research-programmes/water-programme/
 
Description We are now in the final year of the project with increasing use of the findings generated, including: 1. Multi-decadal analysis of rural payment behaviours and multi-year panela data on poverty profiles by the Gro for GooD project is providing evidence to inform new institutional and financial approaches for rural water service models beyond community management alone. Kenya's new Water Act, which came into force in September 2016, specifically recognises novel approaches to rural water provision (Article 94(3)), including private sector models with investment and financial plans for rural water services, marking an important shift from the exclusive emphasis on community management of water supply in Kenya. Gro for GooD researchers have met with Kenyan civil servants, lawyers and policy-makers, sharing research findings over many years to inform Article 94. It is estimated around one million poor rural Kenyans will progressively benefit from uptake of this policy change. 2. A detailed geological model of the study area in Kwale County, Kenya which will be a published output of the Gro for GooD project, has been produced using modern geophysical techniques as well as traditional geological methods and a review of over 60 years of geological literature. One of the most interesting results from this aspect of the research is evidence of two palaeochannels (filled-in and buried river channels) running across the field area. The findings, based on geological surveys and Electrical Resistivity Tomography transects carried out by the University of Nairobi with the Kenyan Water Resources Authority, constitute a major step forward in understanding the geological controls on groundwater in the study area and strongly suggest that Kwale County has more plentiful groundwater resources than previously thought. The geological studies have been used as the basis of the groundwater flow and transport models developed by the Gro for GooD hydrologists at the Grupo de Hidrología Subterránea at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. These findings have also informed drafting of the Kwale County Water Supply Development Master Plan (see 4.1 below). 3. School Water Clubs have been established at three secondary schools in Kwale County through an outreach programme offered by the Gro for GooD project and local partners including the BASE Titanium mine. Over 100 students have been involved so far (64 girls and 40 boys). Drawing inspiration from local fieldtrips, the students are working on group projects that they will present at an event later this year. Gro for GooD researchers have been supporting the clubs throughout their projects. As the activities and projects continue, a resource package is being developed to capture ideas and learning and the goal is to develop partnerships and networks for wider dissemination of the resource in Kenya. Club members are keen to raise awareness of water issues at school. For example, following their water testing activity, Leila Ismail, the club secretary from Shimba Hills School, reported that the Water Club recommends that the school administration should organise for water to be filtered before use and that the school kitchen should have better hygiene to reduce water contamination. Students in the club at Kingwede Girls School are motivated to bring their knowledge back home - read more about this club at: https://kingwedemaji.wordpress.com/ 4. The Gro for GooD project is establishing itself as an information resource and key partner on water supply issues at the county, national and international level. Items to evidence this include: 4.1 Through a data-sharing agreement with Egis Eau, a French consultancy firm, Gro for GooD contributed hydrogeological and geophysical data and expertise towards the Kwale County Water Supply Master Plan, part of Kenya Water Security and Climate Resilience Program (Kenyan Government/World Bank). The County Government is planning to supplement municipal water supplies using the high-yielding paleochannels identified during the Gro for GooD project. The County Government has employed one of the Gro for GooD's Kenyan ECRs to support this work. http://projects.worldbank.org/P145559/?lang=en&tab=overview 4.2 Gro for GooD researchers and project staff participated in WWF Water Stakeholder Platform (Nov 2016) which brought together 8 local stakeholder organisations in Kwale County to create common understanding on water management issues in Kwale and the Mkurumudzi River catchment in particular. This led to Gro for GooD researchers being asked to provide training to local WWF staff in livelihoods survey methodology to measure WWF project impacts in Kwale County. 4.3 Kenya's national Water Resource Authority mentions Gro for GooD (UPGro) as one of WRMA's projects in the National Performance Report 5 for FY2015/2016 indicating the significance of this work at the national level. https://www.wra.go.ke/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/WRMA_Performance_Report_5.pdf 4.4. Gro for GooD has been part of the 'Improving Sustainable Groundwater Exploration with Amended Geophysics' (ISGEAG) project (partners: Via Water, Aqua for All, Acacia Water B.V., AMREF Kenya, SamSamWater, KenGen) . The ISGEAG project aims to produce better interpreted, consistent and well-founded assessment of geophysical survey results, leading to better drilling results and a more sustainable abstraction of groundwater in Kwale County and elsewhere in Kenya. Gro for GooD supported the ISGEAG project's training week that took place in Kwale County in March 2018, which was attended by Gro for GooD ECRs. 4.5 The REACH programme (DFID-funded global research programme improving water security for the poor, also led by Rob Hope) is investigating whether it can take forward the shallow aquifer prediction work being done as part of the Gro for GooD programme in REACH observatories elsewhere in Kenya, and in Ethiopia and Bangladesh. REACH is also adapting the environmental monitoring and socio-economic survey methodology developed by the Gro for GooD project in REACH observatories 4.6 Three private meetings with the Kenyan Cabinet Secretary for Water and Sanitation have been held at which the project team briefed on key findings and implications from the Gro for GooD research. This includes requested input into the development of a new National Water Policy which is in process (March 2019). 4.7 Following a successful one-day workshop with WRA, presenting the geological model and groundwater flow model for the study area, the project team is currently planning a week-long training course in June 2019 at the behest of WRA management. The UPC team will train staff members from WRA (from both the national and local offices) and Kwale County Government on hydrological modelling, using the Kwale model developed during the Gro of Good project as an example. This workshop will also be the mechanism for handing the model over to WRA, which will support WRA in fulfilling its mandate to undertake groundwater monitoring and resource management.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Contribution to Government of Kenya's Water Policy reforms
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Since 2016, the Gro for GooD team have had an active role in contributing to national water policy reform. This is mainly attributed to the process of decentralisation and the requirement to determine new responsibilities and approaches to managing water resources, including groundwater, at different political and geographic areas. This has include some of our institutional and social work informing a more inclusive approach to managing rural water services. This is an ongoing process with requests from the national government to advise on the draft of National Water Policy and Water Services Regulation. With the University of Nairobi, JKUAT and Rural Focus Ltd., the team has significant and trusted local expertise where senior collaborators have worked with the government over decades. As part of wider collaboration under the REACH programme, the Water Minister (Cabinet Secretary) will be in Oxford in March 2019 with staff from UPGRo to discuss some of this work allowing the legacy and impact of UPGRo to continue and translate into further impacts through long term partnerships.
 
Description USAID Sustainable Wash Systems
Amount $15,300,000 (USD)
Organisation United States Agency for International Development 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 08/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Title Geology field notes with coordinates in Kwale County Kenya 
Description Geological observations during field walks, with coordinates, photographs and descriptions of rocks/geological materials and features at the various stops. Kwale County, Kenya. This dataset is under embargo to allow publication but will be released in 2019. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This dataset is an output of the geological/geophysical research undertaken as part of the Gro for GooD project. The study has identified two probable palaeochannels (ancient filled-in river channels that creating high-yielding aquifers) running NW-SE across the field area. These constitute potential new and significant groundwater resources in the Msambweni area that could provide sustainable municipal water supplies. The Gro for GooD project shared data and findings with the lead consultant on the Kwale County Water Supply Master Plan (part of Kenya's Water Security and Climate Resilience Program run by the Kenyan Government and the World Bank) and is communicating directly with the Kwale County Government on the further investigation and development of this resource. 
URL https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveryMetadata/13607374.html
 
Title Gro for GooD ERT Data, Kwale County, Kenya 
Description Results of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) conducted in Kwale County, Kenya December 2015 and June 2016 by University of Nairobi and Water Resources Management Authority as part of the Gro for GooD project (https://upgro.org/consortium/gro-for-good/) to characterize the aquifers in the study area. There were eight transects of length 1.2 to 6km, running W-E and NNE-SSW parallel to coastline. ERT data was analysed using RES2D inversion software. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This dataset is an output of the geological/geophysical research undertaken as part of the Gro for GooD project. The study has identified two probable palaeochannels (ancient filled-in river channels that creating high-yielding aquifers) running NW-SE across the field area. These constitute potential new and significant groundwater resources in the Msambweni area that could provide sustainable municipal water supplies. The Gro for GooD project shared data and findings with the lead consultant on the Kwale County Water Supply Master Plan (part of Kenya's Water Security and Climate Resilience Program run by the Kenyan Government and the World Bank) and is communicating directly with the Kwale County Government on the further investigation and development of this resource. 
URL https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveryMetadata/13607376.html
 
Title Gro for GooD VES Data, Kwale County, Kenya 
Description Results of Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) study conducted in Kwale County, Kenya in July and August 2017 by University of Nairobi and Water Resources Management Authority as part of the Gro for GooD project (https://upgro.org/consortium/gro-for-good/) to determine the existence of deeper aquifers. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This dataset is an output of the geological/geophysical research undertaken as part of the Gro for GooD project. The study has identified two probable palaeochannels (ancient filled-in river channels that creating high-yielding aquifers) running NW-SE across the field area. These constitute potential new and significant groundwater resources in the Msambweni area that could provide sustainable municipal water supplies. The Gro for GooD project shared data and findings with the lead consultant on the Kwale County Water Supply Master Plan (part of Kenya's Water Security and Climate Resilience Program run by the Kenyan Government and the World Bank) and is communicating directly with the Kwale County Government on the further investigation and development of this resource. 
URL https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveryMetadata/13607375.html
 
Description Article in Sunday Nation (Kenya) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article in Kenya's Sunday Nation entitled To get clean water for all, draw on the 3 streams of finance, groundwork, climate featuring interview with Johanna Koehler.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BBC report on Aquifer depth monitoring techniques 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage: Aquifer depth monitoring techniques as documented in a recent paper (Colchester et al, 2017) have received media coverage on the BBC and have also been picked up by the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-39077761
 
Description Blog on UPGro website - Improving groundwater management and welfare in Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog reporting on final stakeholder workshop Kwale County Kenya
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://upgro.org/2018/11/23/improving-groundwater-management-and-welfare-in-kenya/
 
Description Blog on UPGro website - Young scientist seeks to understand link between access to groundwater and poverty 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Young scientist seeks to understand link between access to groundwater and poverty - blog post based on interview with Gro for Good Early Career Researcher through UPGro programme. The target audience for this item was men and women aged 18 to 65+ in Kenya and the purpose was to reach and inspire young people in Africa about careers in science. The post was boosted on the RWSN Facebook page, receiving 702 clicks, 96 reactions, 5 comments and 12 shares on Facebook.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://upgro.org/2018/06/18/young-scientist-seeks-to-understand-link-between-access-to-groundwater-...
 
Description Can more data reduce poverty? (Seminar, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Evening event showcasing Oxford's Smart Handpump research. Introduced new postgraduate students to the research group; showcased links and potential for increasing impact through collaboration with third sector organisations.

17 October 2018, 5-6pm
Gottmann Room, School of Geography and the Environment, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QY
About the Smart Handpump
Delivering reliable drinking water to millions of rural people in Africa and Asia is an elusive and enduring global goal. A systematic information deficit on the performance of and demand for infrastructure investments limits policy design and development outcomes

Speakers

Professor David Clifton, Department of Engineering Science (IBME)
Heloise Greeff, Department of Engineering Science (IBME)
Patrick Thomson, School of Geography and the Environment (SSEE)
Professor Rob Hope, School of Geography and the Environment (SSEE)

Discussant

Tom Wildman, Oxfam (GB)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://reachwater.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/2018_handpump-event-poster.pdf
 
Description Final stakeholder workshop for Groundwater Risk Management for Growth and Development in Kwale County, Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Groundwater and the poor are easily ignored. Hidden underground or of low political priority, the motivation and ability to improve groundwater management and welfare are often constrained by capacity, resources and governance structures. In much of Africa, the political calculus is changing as severe but unpredictable droughts, increasingly decentralised decision-making, and growing water competition are emphasizing the critical nature of groundwater as a buffer to drought, driver of economic growth, and vital resource for the poor and marginalised.

On the south coast of Kenya, today's situation reflects regional trends with over half a billion dollars of new investments by mining, agriculture and urban development raising concerns about managing and allocating groundwater to protect the resource base and ensure the poor are not marginalised by more powerful interests. As part of the Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor, the Groundwater Risk Management for Growth and Development project has convened researchers from the UK, Kenya and Spain with national and county Government of Kenyan partners and water-related industry.

On 22nd November 2018, the Kwale County Government Water Minister, Hon. Hemed Mwabudzo, convened the final project workshop in Diani with over 30 stakeholder partners to discuss 15 recommendations for policy action across four thematic areas (See link to Full Policy Briefing).

First, geological and geophysical analysis has identified two palaeo-channels (ancient, buried rivers) with significant groundwater resources to contribute to water-related growth and provision of water services to people. Results highlight wider UPGro findings of the critical nature of extreme rainfall disproportionately contributing to recharge replenishing aquifers after droughts. Protecting recharge zones is essential for sustainable management of this 'new' resource, and coupled with monitoring and enforcement, can avoid land use planning mistakes. Due to the proximity to the coast, unregulated groundwater abstraction may lead to saline intrusion which underlines the potential importance of the opportunity that Kenyan partners now have to continue the Environmental Monitoring Strategy developed and tested by the project.

Second, the 2016-17 drought showed the exceptional and unpredictable stress that can suddenly be placed on groundwater resources. The hydrogeological model developed by the project provides the first system-level tool which can be used to support improved management and allocation of resources across multiple and competing groundwater users. This requires improved inter-agency cooperation between the Kwale County Government, Water Resources Authority, National Drought Management Authority, Kenya Meteorological Department and other stakeholders. Immediate steps to deepen priority, shallow dug-wells used by communities would reduce the risk of them drying up and avoid significant social costs, largely borne by poor people. Emergency supplies need to be planned and budgeted for, in the absence of adequate planning, which is a costly response but necessary as expensive vended water costs are absorbed by those least able to pay or least responsible for governance failures.

Third, three rounds of socio-economic surveys were administered in 2014, 2015 and 2016 across 3,500 households across Lunga Lunga, Msambweni and Matuga sub-Counties. Analysis which models the most significant factors to improve household welfare identified four key areas for interventions: a) end open defecation, which occurs in around one third of households, b) increase education attainment from primary to at least secondary level, c) accelerate access to energy services, and d) improve rural water services.
Fourth, linked to improving rural water services and drought resilience, the project has been part of a wider initiative to design and test a performance-based maintenance service for rural water supply infrastructure since 2014. The FundiFix model guarantees repairs to broken infrastructure in three days based on community, school or clinic payment contracts. Currently, 85 handpumps are registered serving 13,000 people, including 4,000 school children, with 99% of repairs completed in less than a day. A Water Services Maintenance Trust Fund was established in 2014 to address the funding gap and test a hybrid financial model blending user, investor and government support. To date, users are paying with private sector support from Base Titanium Limited and doTERRA. These two companies have long-term investments in the county in mining and agriculture and have been founding investors to incubate the model to avoid the traditional approach of building infrastructure with no maintenance provision wasting resources and leaving the poor no better off.
Stakeholders from government, academia, communities, private sector and NGOs discussed these recommendations to identify priority actions against the feasibility of delivery in the next three years. The findings (see bubble figure below) identify the preferences from those stakeholders present. Action is already being taken by county government which has reviewed the project findings and is developing a plan to test the northern palaeo-channel resources in four locations. With a strong evidence base and clear policy messages, wider action is being planned to improve groundwater and welfare outcomes in Kwale County with lessons and methods under consideration nationally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://upgro.files.wordpress.com/2018/11/kwale-county_groundwater-poverty_briefingnote_23nov2018_fi...
 
Description Gro for GooD Newsletter March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gro for GooD newsletter in English and Swahili shared with participants at stakeholder workshop and during liaison with community members on fieldwork and associated activities by local partner organisations. The purpose of the newsletter is to explain the scope and purpose of the project including research activities and local partnerships to the general public and to stakeholder organisations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Gro for GooD Stakeholder Workshop March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 3rd March 2017, the Gro for GooD project held a stakeholder workshop in Ukunda, Kwale County at which local organisations were provided with an update on the monitoring and modelling that will underpin the Groundwater Risk Management Tool, and how the research can contribute to county-wide planning for improved water supplies. Discussions focused on the role that local organisations could play in communicating outputs from the GWRM Tool to local communities and actions that might result from having enhanced information on risks to groundwater.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Gro for GooD newsletter - June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The Gro for GooD newsletter is distributed in the project area to share monitoring information and research findings and provide an update on local engagement activities including the schools outreach work conducted in partnership with Base Titanium.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://upgro.files.wordpress.com/2018/06/upgronewsletterjune2018engprint.pdf
 
Description Participation in Kenya Water Week - 21-25th November 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The inaugural Kenya Water Week was held 21-25th November 2016 in Nairobi under the theme 'From Aid to Trade: Enhancing Business Partnerships and Innovation for Sustainable Water and Sanitation provision in Africa' in which various water resource and water supply issues were explored by more than 500 international and local water sector actors from the public, private and civil society. Gro for GooD researchers Prof. Bancy Mati, Prof. John Gathenya and Mike Thomas actively engaged in the event by being presenters in various sessions including Tomorrow's Partnerships in Water Resources Management, Opportunities for Business Partnerships in Irrigation, Water Storage and Land Reclamation and Innovative and Climate Smart Irrigation, Water Storage and Land Reclamation technologies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.kenyawaterweek.org/2016-kenya-water-week-programme/
 
Description School Water Clubs Event in Kwale County, Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Gro for GooD project delivered a programme of engagement to teach young people in Kwale County about water science and management. Water Clubs at 3 secondary schools participated in field trips, practical activities, experiments and conducting their own group research projects. This outreach work aimed to develop students' research and communication skills and showcase career options in the water sector.

In the run up to World Water Day 2018, the Gro for GooD project was delighted to welcome Madam Bridget Wambua, Director of Education for Kwale County, Kenya, to provide opening remarks at a special event to celebrate the success of the Schools Water Clubs supported by the project in partnership with Base Titanium. As the event got going, students listened with great interest to the keynote speech by Prof. Dan Olago from the University of Nairobi, and then took to the stage themselves for a series of presentations about club activities including water quality testing of school waterpoints, the installation and use of rain-gauges on school grounds, and field trips to the Base Titanium mine to see how the mine manages and recycles water in its operation.

Other students presented their own mini-research projects into topics such as water conservation in agriculture and strategies for keeping water safe to drink, and one group gave an excellent explanation of artesian wells based on an email exchange with Gro for GooD hydrogeologist Mike Lane. Students also brought practical demonstrations and posters to show in the teabreak, including a solar still demonstration from a group of students who were also invited to show their improved solar still design at Kenya's National Science Fair for schools.

Madame Wambua and Professor Dan Olago then presented the schools, water clubs and club patrons with certificates of appreciation for their hard work and dedication to water-related environmental education, and 2 laptops were given to each club. The laptops were provided by the UK charity IT Schools Africa and preloaded with water-related environmental education resources collated by the Gro for GooD team.

Students also received print copies of a newly published Water Module Student Resource which was developed by the Gro for GooD research team with input from students and teachers at the schools. Mr Joseph Kimtai, teacher and club patron at Kingwede Girls Secondary School, said, "I find this module of activities about water so helpful to the students - it complements what we are teaching in class. It also encourages critical thinking and solving problems related to the environment which is in line with one of the competencies of the incoming competency-based curriculum for Kenyan schools."

As a follow up to this, Mr Kimtai met with the Nairobi University Geology Students Association (NUGSA) to advise them on plans for further groundwater-themed outreach to schools in 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://upgro.org/2018/03/22/back-to-school-the-future-of-water-starts-here-wwf8-worldwaterday2018/
 
Description Smart handpumps - Austrian Broadcasting Corporation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact German language article on Austrian Broadcasting Corporation website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://science.orf.at/stories/2830711/
 
Description TV interview with Patrick Thomson on ITV News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Item on Working towards preventing famine in the future - featuring Gro for GooD researcher Patrick Thomson talking about aquifer monitoring using handpump networks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.itv.com/news/meridian/update/2017-03-16/working-towards-preventing-famine-in-the-future/
 
Description Talk to the Rotary Club of Diani 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact 20 members of the Rotary Club of Diani (businesspeople in Kwale County) were presented with findings relating to the importance of groundwater in mitigating the impacts of drought and with evidence for the need for a management plan for new water infrastructure efficacy. The talk was given on request by the club which is seeking advice about a borehole it is planning to drill for a local primary school.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description USAID Webinar on Preventive maintenance models for rural water sustainability 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oxford University is a partner in USAID's Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership (2016-21) with evidence from the Gro for GooD programme informing the global learning network. On August 23rd, Rob Hope drew on work at the Gro for GooD study site in Kwale County during his presentation in a USAID webinar on Preventative Maintenance Models . This event reached an international audience of over 100 participants including representatives from the World Bank.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.globalwaters.org/resources/webinars/sws/preventive-maintenance-for-water-services
 
Description WWF Water Stakeholders Platform - 14th & 15th Nov, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Gro for GooD project participated in WWF Water Stakeholders Platform - 14th & 15th Nov, 2016, which brought together 8 local stakeholder organisations. The goal of participating in this workshop run by WWF was to help create common understanding on water management issues in Kwale in general and Mukurumudzi river catchment in particular
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Why is there a handpump in the carpark? Seminar at the School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A seminar was held at the University of Oxford's School of Geography and the Environment on October 17th 2016 to reveal the purpose behind a handpump which has been installed in the carpark. The 'Smart Handpump' is part of a bold research initiative that connects novel technology, computational informatics, institutional design, sustainable finance and policy reform, to improve poor people's access to safe, reliable water. The event attracted representatives from governmental and third sector organisations and has increased awareness of a new and transferable model to achieve reliable water services in rural Africa.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.water.ox.ac.uk/why-theres-a-handpump-in-an-oxford-car-park/