Developing the Ecotoxicological - Predictive - Information - Connectivity Map (EPIC-map)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Institute of Integrative Biology

Abstract

A fundamental challenge within the environmental sciences is to establish the relationship between exposure to a chemical stressor, its molecular effect and the resulting adverse outcome. Particularly in risk assessment it is desired to identify or predict the adverse outcome before its manifestation. To this effect, computational (predictive) biology aims at developing techniques and methodologies to identify molecular pathways and physiological endpoints that can be directly linked to the adverse outcome. The Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) following a White House Mandate in 2003 has placed computational predictive ecotoxicology at the centre of their R&D strategy and since then has been heavily investing into this technology. In the UK, the NERC has also recognised the importance of a computational approach to integrating multi-level complex datasets by establishing the Environmental Omics Synthesis (EOS) initiative and by including Systems Biology as one of the core research priorities.
An essential part of the these programs is the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework, developed by G. Ankley et al at the US EPA.This was designed to link available knowledge on key events in a logical chain of events, from the molecular initiating event to organism molecular and physiology response and leading up to and including the adverse outcome. The resulting pathways could then be interrogated and used to support risk assessment and environmental monitoring. As the number of AOPs increase more robust predictions can be made on the effect a novel compound may have on a given organism.
At the core of the AOPs is the reconstruction of molecular pathways leading to adverse outcomes. This requires extensive and highly complex datasets allowing for an unbiased approach. The underpinning computational tools required to develop an AOP from such data should therefore be able to
1) reconstruct the underlying regulatory network,
2) link the molecular response to the adverse outcome,
3) link structural features of compounds to molecular response, and
4) provide an interpretive output for AOP and hypothesis generation.
Finally, the results developed from a set of known compounds forms the basis for deriving predictions on the potential molecular effect of novel chemicals on a given organism.
This project proposal addresses this important need by developing the necessary computational framework in collaboration with the US EPA which directly integrates with their FY2015-17 research plan to develop and validate computational (eco)toxicology techniques to integrate and eventually transition away from traditional assays. To achieve its goals the project will start by integrating various publicly available databases with a purpose built standardized dataset of 200 compounds into a single database. Links between the genes and compounds will form the basis of the networking approach, while the standardized dataset will be used for identification purposes and predictive modelling. To interrogate the database the project will utilize a number of tools currently used by many computational biologists and in addition incorporate a set of predictive modelling approaches. This will allow any bench user to identify compounds linked to their molecular response, gene-gene-chemical-adverse outcome networks for AOP development and hypothetical prediction of molecular effect of yet untested compounds via chemical structure. This will provide a basis for risk assessors such as the US EPA, UK Environmental Agency or European Commission Joint Research Center and many other high level and academic organisations to develop hypotheses on the potential risk and effects a chemical may have on an organism.

Planned Impact

The primary objective of this project is to develop a simple to use web-service that allows any bench user to identify and compare their observed molecular response to a database containing an environmentally-relevant standardized dataset and an integration of a number of databases to provide hypotheses on gene-gene-compound interactions and potential adverse outcomes. As such this project has great value in environmental monitoring, risk assessment and identification of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs).

My Fellowship proposal is formally supported by a number of advisory and regulatory bodies within the UK (Cefas - Centre for Environmental, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science - see letter of support (LoS) Ioanna Katsiadaki) and US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency - see LoS Rong-Lin Wang), as well as other leading environmental institutes US ERDC (US Engineer Research and Development Center, Corps of Engineers, see LoS Ed Perkins), NIVA (Norwegian Institute for Water Research, see LoS Knut-Erik Tollefsen), Nanjing University (see LoS Xiaowei Zhang), IGBB (Institute for Genomics, Biocomputing and Biotechnology, Mississippi State University - see LoS Natalia Reyero Vinas), University of Florida (see LoS Nancy Denslow) and the Consortium for Environmental Omics and Technology (see LoS John Colbourne) to develop and advance these techniques in the environmental sciences. Upon successful validation of the tool through the use of data developed at the supporting institutes, access to the wider scientific community will be provided. Additional stakeholders from the following list may also be highly interested in the success of this project:
1. Regulatory and monitoring bodies (US EPA, OECD, UK Environment Agency, Cefas, Defra, Public Health England, European commission Joint Research Centre, ECVAM, Umweltbundesamt (UBA)
2. Industry such as Unilever, AstraZeneca, UK Water and Sewerage Companies, European Chemical Council (CEFIC), Waternet
3. Academia, Groups involved in Ecotoxicology, AOP development and monitoring, NC3Rs
4. General Public
The EPIC-map will provide the international community with the computational tools and hypothesis-generating abilities of state-of-the-art computational biology approaches driving the identification of AOPs and compounds in the environment. In addition, animal usage could be drastically reduced through the use of the zFET. To facilitate the update of this platform, and its incorporation into future risk assessment and environmental monitoring protocols, I will assemble an expert steering panel from international stakeholders and collaborators to this Fellowship. They will consult periodically on a range of issues focused on its relevance to their sector; the selection of compounds, the development of the EPIC web presence, delivery of AOP compliant outputs, coordination of standards for lab protocols and informatics processing, and the need for validation to meet the needs of regulatory authorities etc. Due to the time and distance limitations, this discussion will typically occur via videoconferencing (AccessGrid/Skype). Part of the impact workshop in Year 3, which is described in the next section, will be a key advisory meeting of representatives of stakeholders listed above to focus on the means of seeking regulatory approval and further developmental direction.

Publications

10 25 50

publication icon
Myall AC (2021) An OMICs based meta-analysis to support infection state stratification. in Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)

publication icon
Murphy CA (2018) Incorporating Suborganismal Processes into Dynamic Energy Budget Models for Ecological Risk Assessment. in Integrated environmental assessment and management

 
Description We have identified a discrepancy between the effect of chemicals and their structure. Generally it has been thought that chemical structure drives the effect, and while this has been shown to be true using quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), we find in our data that the underlying molecular responses differ significantly. This suggest two possibilities, a) the molecular responses are so variable that chemical exposure is difficult to distinguish or b) the QSAR approach somehow circumvents the multitude of pathways affected which lead to similar outcomes and thus is able to cluster and predict activities. Interestingly, both a and b seem to be true. Our hypothesis is that there are multiple levels of effect and response and while both, in a statistical sense, give a significant outcome, we are still missing the key link between these two systems and are currently exploring these.
Exploitation Route It will change the way we think about chemical exposure and the effect they have on molecular systems. We will also propose a novel chemical classification that integrates, as much as possible, both structural and molecular effect to ensure that new classification of chemicals is more robust within the biological hierarchy.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Environment,Healthcare,Other

 
Title EPIC-map website 
Description The EPIC-db is the heart of the EPIC-map and is developed as part of the grant. It houses the database and web interface to add data and interact with the data that is available. It is still under construction but is used by the group to test and further develop the tool 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet 
URL http://epic.liverpool.ac.uk
 
Title EPIC-db 
Description The EPIC-db stores and collects data from experiments undertaken during the award. It allows for storage, analysis and visualisation of experimental results. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The EPIC-db allows for rapid analysis and will be made available to the wider scientific community after extensive testing. It is currently in testing with collaborators at Cefas. 
 
Description AstraZeneca EPIC-map Support 
Organisation AstraZeneca
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The EPIC-map will strive to expand the underlying dataset to include multiple concentrations to allow for a more quantitative approach to AOPs which is one of the main interests for AstraZeneca.
Collaborator Contribution AstraZeneca is providing knowledge and experience in the experimental design process and the selection of compounds. The partners have extensive collaborations and experience in the zebrafish embryo test and are proving to be great resource.
Impact The only outcome that has resulted from this collaboration so far is the expanded and improved experimental design for the development of the underlying dataset to the EPIC map. Within the improved design, a specific Zebrafish strain was identified for which a lot of behavioural data is known and AstraZeneca will provide access to as much as possible.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Cefas EPIC-map Support 
Organisation Centre For Environment, Fisheries And Aquaculture Science
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution There will be yearly seminars and additional collaborations with offshoots of Cefas to support the use of computational biology in risk assessment and general science.
Collaborator Contribution The partner is providing animal units and ecotoxicological facilities as well as access to microscopy units specifically designed for these type of analyses. The partner will also engage directly in the selection of compounds and the experimental design - particularly the dosing of the zebrafish eggs.
Impact The outcomes so far include a submission for an industry CASE studentship to Cefas, which sadly wasn't funded. There will be additional papers from the collaboration which will strengthen the use of computational biology in ecotoxicology.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Interaction with Health Canada 
Organisation Government of Canada
Department Health Canada
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am working with several different departments within Health Canada to bring computational biology closer to regulatory application.
Collaborator Contribution We exchange data and analysis pipelines to improve regulatory applications.
Impact It is a multidisciplinary collaboration with regulators, biologist, and computational biologist all coming together. The outputs are still in progress and we are trying to establish new OECD working groups on the use of NAMs for regulatory applications.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Involvement in OECD 
Organisation Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Representation of the UK at the Working Party on Hazard Assessment (WPHA), extended Advisory Group on Molecular Screening and Toxicogenomics (EAGMST), and Accelerating the Pace of Chemical Risk Assessment (APCRA). Through these three OECD groups I represent the UK and provide state-of-the-art computational advise in environmental toxicology.
Collaborator Contribution The OECD is currently examining the use of the data developed in this project to improve AOP development and support risk assessment across the various countries.
Impact Established analytical collaborations with Health Canada, Environment and Climate Change Canada, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (Netherlands) and European Chemicals Agency. I have delivered reports on predictive modelling of data within each of these collaborations. Health Canada and Environment and Climate Change Canada are extremely excited about the provided results and are currently working on including these approaches in their risk assessments. ECHA and RIVM are early collaborations but are looking to use EPIC to get more information on their compounds of interest.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Nimbios 
Organisation Bowling Green State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provide knowledge and techniques for molecular analyses of Daphnia magna. Train PostDoc and Collaborator in RNA extraction and subsequent analysis of data.
Collaborator Contribution As part of the ongoing collaboration, we provide knowledge and expertise around ecotoxicology to each other.
Impact An NSF Eager Grant application in the US. Further publications on the way and more data generation and analysis.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Nimbios 
Organisation Michigan State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provide knowledge and techniques for molecular analyses of Daphnia magna. Train PostDoc and Collaborator in RNA extraction and subsequent analysis of data.
Collaborator Contribution As part of the ongoing collaboration, we provide knowledge and expertise around ecotoxicology to each other.
Impact An NSF Eager Grant application in the US. Further publications on the way and more data generation and analysis.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Nimbios 
Organisation Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provide knowledge and techniques for molecular analyses of Daphnia magna. Train PostDoc and Collaborator in RNA extraction and subsequent analysis of data.
Collaborator Contribution As part of the ongoing collaboration, we provide knowledge and expertise around ecotoxicology to each other.
Impact An NSF Eager Grant application in the US. Further publications on the way and more data generation and analysis.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Nimbios 
Organisation US Army Research Lab
Department Engineer Research and Development Center
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provide knowledge and techniques for molecular analyses of Daphnia magna. Train PostDoc and Collaborator in RNA extraction and subsequent analysis of data.
Collaborator Contribution As part of the ongoing collaboration, we provide knowledge and expertise around ecotoxicology to each other.
Impact An NSF Eager Grant application in the US. Further publications on the way and more data generation and analysis.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Nimbios 
Organisation University of California, Santa Barbara
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provide knowledge and techniques for molecular analyses of Daphnia magna. Train PostDoc and Collaborator in RNA extraction and subsequent analysis of data.
Collaborator Contribution As part of the ongoing collaboration, we provide knowledge and expertise around ecotoxicology to each other.
Impact An NSF Eager Grant application in the US. Further publications on the way and more data generation and analysis.
Start Year 2018
 
Title EPIC Web Interface 
Description The EPIC-db which is the database and the epic web front work closely together. They store all the information developed as part of this project and provide a web interface for interacting with the data. All graphs are build on the fly and provided in high quality svg graphics which allows them to be scaled to any size available. Further development is currently ongoing. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2018 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact It allows quick and easy entry of data and analysis. 
URL http://epic.liverpool.ac.uk
 
Description 13th SETAC Europe Special Science Symposium on the Extrapolation of Effects Across Biological Levels: Challenges to Implement Scientific Approaches in Regulation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A special science symposium to which I was invited to present results regarding the linkage between molecular responses and dynamic energy budget modelling. The group was very diverse including regulatory representatives (ECHA, PHE, EA, EPA), Industry, and researchers were present.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Data Analysis Workshop Transbioline (IMI) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Workshop on the application of variable selection algorithms in the context of human diseases. The workshop was attended by various industrial leaders including Merck, CPATH, Pfizer, etc. I lead a working group on the use of these tools in the context of large cohort datasets and presented the possible approaches and outcomes to be expected from the data. I added towards the discussion and established why more classical univariate techniques are less useful when trying to identify biomarkers of disease.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Developing in-silico predictions of toxicity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk on the utilising large datasets for predicting toxicity and heart rates. Talk was very well received and has lead to various interactions and additional collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Developing models predictive of heart rate across a large set of compounds in the Environmental-Predictive-Information-Connectivity map 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at SETAC Toronto establishing heart rate models using the EPIC datasets. Health Canada and US EPA were very interested in the outcomes and are looking to collaborate further on these.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk at the Annual MEeting of Swedish Society of Toxicology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A talk about computational toxicology and the progresses that have been made.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Linking molecular response and DEB modelling approaches 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk at SETAC Helsinki on Linking molecular response and DEB modelling approaches. The talk was very well received and has lead to various interactions with international collaborators.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Microbiome effects on nutrition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Workshop on the effect of nutrition on microbiome and related metabolic dysfunction. The workshop, organised by the University of Delhi who have numerous large cohorts of children suffering from various metabolic diseases, was looking to establish analytical pipelines to better understand the interplay between these various factors. This will result in an MRC/India grant to develop funding to provide a full analysis of the available data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description NIMBioS sponsored working group "Modeling Molecules-to-Organisms" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A 2 year work group sponsored by NIMBIOS to further develop the application of Dynamic Energy Budget models, a type of models used to link effect on feeding and reproduction to population outcomes, to the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) concept. This work group is currently underway and aims to develop book chapters and papers throughout the 2 year running period to provide guidance documents to enable the use of modelling for AOP development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.nimbios.org/workinggroups/WG_m2o
 
Description OECD Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I was the OECD representative for the UK for the Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology. A large number of countries were represented and talked about the use of AOPs and regulatory components on an international scale.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description SETAC Dublin Session - Perspectives on data driven biology: Applications and safety assessments 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organisation of a Session at SETAC Dublin 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description SETAC Dublin Special Session - How can we utilise new approach methodologies, such as OMICs and AOPs, to empower risk assessment? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOPs) concept has promised to improve mechanistic knowledge, decision making and thus risk assessment. The framework can cover all levels of biological information and thus can provide information for all levels of interest, whether that is of academic, industry or regulatory nature. The advances in new approach methodologies (NAMs) simultaneously have provided a powerful toolset, which includes technologies such as OMICs, to generate information. These integrated with mechanistic modelling approaches are leading the way to the development of quantitative AOPs (qAOP) which can become powerful risk assessment tools. While NAMs data is used by the stakeholders for internal assessments these are still not widely used within regulatory driven risk assessment, leading to a large disconnect between the governing bodies and the scientific progress which can lead to differences in its final conclusions. This is directly linked to regulatory testing approaches, which in many cases are based on traditional molecular biology and/or life history assessments. Although the protection goals between these two regulatory fields are different, NAMs can be utilised to cover both aspects.
As a result, academia is also affected as scientific progress is hindered by acceptance in both industrial and regulatory settings - industry is unlikely to take up novel NAMs because its results aren't accepted by the regulatory body and the regulatory body is unlikely to accept a new NAM only because a different/new technology is used before major validations and robustness assessments are performed. In the context of AOPs and their use in regulatory application, the utilisation of NAMs would be highly beneficial. In particular, the integration of NAMs with the more traditional approaches would enable regulatory bodies to: 1) cover a larger number of adverse outcomes with a single measurement and 2) enable the utilisation of more advanced artificial intelligence tools which could predict future events and improve proactive regulatory tactics including geospatial specific regulation.
This special session will focus on the interplay between academia, industry, and regulatory bodies in utilising NAMs to understand the impact of stress on individuals and populations and how the different approaches to defining the biological knowledge hinder their integration and utilisation. Academia will be represented by Peter Kille (University of Cardiff) and Cheryl Murphy (Michigan State University), industry by Stewart Owen (AstraZeneca) and Pernille Thorbek (BASF), and government by Jose Tarrazona (EFSA) and Georg Streck (EC).
Each stakeholder will give a short 5 minute presentation on their views on the other two stakeholders workflows and approaches to define risk/effect of a common issue in the risk assessment context. To facilitate the discussion, we will focus on the PFAS set of compounds which have recently been much debated. Instead of focusing on the specific issues pertaining to PFAS compounds the panel will openly discuss their views on the other organisations' processes underlying their risk assessment procedures including the use of NAMs to establish an understanding of the effect (i.e. the two academic representatives will each show the approach a regulatory body and the industry body would take). This will highlight the issues and misconceptions that exist between the three types of organisations and provide a basis for a better understanding of each other's processes and requirements.
Following these presentations, both the audience and the panel will engage in a discussion highlighting the identified differences and develop opportunities to better work together. The discussions will be guided by the session chairs to ensure a broad coverage of the identified issues, summarising and reflecting on the sessions' topic. The discussed opinions and proposal will be developed into a review/opinion paper in collaboration with all present organisations and published in a relevant SETAC journal. We aim for this session and the resulting publications to be a steppingstone in bringing industry, academia and government closer together, developing NAMs in conjunction with each other, and guide all organisations to strive towards a better understanding and better regulatory science. Summaries of the discussions will be published in relevant journals and publications.
Panel Members:
1. Academia
a. Peter Kille (University of Cardiff) - confirmed
b. Cheryl Murphy (Michigan State University) - confirmed
2. Industry
a. Stewart Owen (AstraZeneca) - confirmed
b. Pernille Thorbek (BASF) - confirmed
3. Regulatory bodies
a. Jose Tarazona (EFSA) - confirmed
b. Georg Streck (EC) - confirmed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Stoichiometric Ecotoxicology (NIMBIOS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Accurately assessing the risks of contaminants requires more than an understanding of the effects of contaminants on individual organisms, but requires further understanding of complex ecological interactions, elemental cycling, and interactive effects of natural and contaminant stressors. There is increasing evidence that organisms experience interactive effects of contaminant stressors and food conditions, such as resource stoichiometry and nutrient availability. The development of ecotoxicological models over the last few decades have significantly contributed to interpreting how contaminants impact organisms and cycle through food webs. Existing modeling efforts take a variety of approaches to predict the effects of diverse chemical contaminants on organismal growth and survival; however, current models do not consider dynamical interactive effects of contaminant stressors and stoichiometric constraints, such as nutrient/light availability and food quality. This investigative workshop provided a forum for discussions of incorporating multiple essential elements and contaminants in ecotoxicological models. Discussions and breakout sessions throughout the workshop shed light on nutrient and chemical contaminant cycling with the aim of helping to improve toxicological risk assessment protocols. The objectives for the workshop included:

Discussing the importance of linking Ecological Stoichiometry with Ecotoxicology and summarizing the current state of the synthesis of these two theories
Formulating a series of empirically testable and robust models of individual and population dynamics subject to stoichiometric constraints and contaminant stressors
Identifying future directions for models to be used in practice for ecological risk assessments and determining areas where empirical data are lacking in order to parameterize, test, and improve the models
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.nimbios.org/workshops/WS_ecotox
 
Description TG203 Update Workshop, Defra, Cefas, NC3Rs - (London, UK - 2-3.3.2020) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A working group to discuss the update of OECD Test Guideline 203 (the Acute Fish Test). Here we discussed the current use of mortality and moribundity in defining the test and whether it is possible to use early clinical signs to predict death and overall improve welfare of the fish. This will result in several opinion papers and analytical papers to be published shortly. This workshop was funded by Defra, NC3Rs and Cefas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Workshop on Developing Integrated Multi-level models of the Environment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A 1.5 day workshop organised by myself and a colleague to address the issue of integration, interrogation and interpretation of multi-level datasets currently created by large consortia meetings. The workshop is sponsored by an STFC/NERC grant and brings together experts across the world to create a guidance document on the use of computational approaches in large consortia grants, how to maximize integration and hence maximize interpretation of the underlying biology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshop on Epigenetics in Environmental Science - from mechanisms to regulation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A workshop was held on the Epigenetics in Environmental science. The output will be a paper that is due to come out in the near future. Governmental representatives (Public Health England, Environmental Protection Agency USA, and Swedish Environmental Agency) were present.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019