CAMPUS (Combining Autonomous observations and Models for Predicting and Understanding Shelf seas)

Lead Research Organisation: Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Department Name: Plymouth Marine Lab

Abstract

Shelf seas are of major societal importance providing a diverse range of goods (e.g. fisheries, renewable energy, transport) and services (e.g. carbon and nutrient cycling and biodiversity). Managing UK seas to maintain clean, healthy, safe, productive and biologically diverse oceans and seas is a key governmental objective, as evidenced by the obligations to obtain Good Environmental Status (GES) under the UK Marine Strategy Framework, the Convention on Biological Diversity and ratification of the Oslo-Paris Convention (OSPAR) .. The delivery of these obligations requires comprehensive information about the state of our seas which in turn requires a combination of numerical models and observational programs.

Computer modelling of marine ecosystems allows us to explore the recent past and predict future states of physical, chemical and biological properties of the sea, and how they vary in 3D space and time. In an analogous manner to the weather forecast, the Met Office runs a marine operational forecast system providing both short term forecast and multi-decadal historical data products. The quality of these forecasts is improved by using data assimilation; the process of predicting the most accurate ocean state using observations to nudge model simulations, producing a combined observation and model product.

Marine autonomous vehicles (MAVs) are a rapidly maturing technology and are now routinely deployed both in support of research and as a component of an ocean observing system. When used in conjunction with fixed point observatories, ships of opportunity and satellite remote sensing, the strategic deployment of MAVs offers the prospect of substantial improvement in our observing network. Marine Gliders in particular have the capability to provide depth resolved data sets of high resolution from deployments that can endure several months and cover 100s kms, allowing the collection of sufficient information to be useful for assimilation into models.

We will improve the exchange of data between model systems and observational networks to inform an improved strategy for the deployment of the UK's high-cost marine observing capability. In particular we will utilise mathematical and statistical models to develop and test "smart" autonomy - autonomous systems that are enabled to selectively search and monitor explicit features within the marine system. By developing data assimilation techniques to utilise autonomous data, our model systems will be able to better characterise episodic events such as the spring bloom, harmful algal blooms and oxygen depletion, which are currently not well captured and are key to understanding ecosystem variability and therefore quantifying GES.
In doing so CAMPUS will provide a step change in the combined use of observation and modelling technologies, delivered through a combination of autonomous technologies (gliders), other observations and shelf-wide numerical models. This will provide improved analysis of key ocean variables, better predictions of episodic events, and 'smart' observing systems in order to improve the evidence base for compliance with European directives and support the UK industrial strategy.

Planned Impact

This project will be of interest and benefit to a wide community, ranging from policy makers to end users of operational forecasts, and industry, underpinning the development of strategies to achieve a healthy marine environment, rendering ecosystems more resilient to climate change and variability, and assisting sustainable exploitation of marine resources.
Policy and Marine Management: Defra, Marine Scotland and Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI are responsible for implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in the UK and the establishment of clear environmental targets and monitoring programmes. They will benefit from improved knowledge and predictive skill for key indicators of the state of the marine environment. We will inform the assessment of Good Environmental Status, through demonstrating that data assimilated model products can provide a complete and contiguous information resource. This work will also inform the OSPAR assessment and future advances in the indicators used. Other policy areas that will benefit are marine spatial planning, fisheries policy and environmental assessment for off-shore operations. We will also engage with relevant international actors, e.g. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea; and non-governmental organisations (e.g. WWF), who develop science and advice to support the sustainable use of the oceans. CAMPUS will seek to engage with policy makers, via briefing notes, POSTnotes, or via the Parliamentary & Scientific Committee.
Marine Monitoring strategies: Optimising the use of the UK's high-cost marine observing capability requires integrated network design and cost benefit analysis: CAMPUS will provide understanding of the scales and variability of the shelf sea system in the context of GES indicators and thus advise on the optimal observation network design for monitoring. This will assist the UK Integrated Marine Observing Network (UK-IMON); UK Marine Monitoring and Assessment Strategy (UKMMAS); the UK Marine Science Co-ordination Committee (MSCC). Key stakeholders include Defra, Marine Scotland, UKMO and AFBI.
Operational Ocean forecast: The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) provides regular and systematic reference and monitoring information on the state of the oceans and regional seas, for both policy applications, such as MSFD, businesses and marine operators to exploit commercially. CAMPUS will integrate improved model-data systems into existing CMEMS operational oceanographic simulation and data delivery systems, further providing a template as to how this might be effected in other regions. Key stakeholders include MERCATOR and the UKMO
Industry: Dynamic sampling and truly autonomous vehicles open up the potential for a) new technology developments in the AV industry b) wider applications for monitoring in the energy / offshore industry and c) risk assessment for the aquaculture industry. Key stakeholders include DSTL, the MASSMO consortium and the Scottish aquaculture industry.
Data delivery: A key challenge for encouraging the use of model data products is the ability to make them easily accessible to the full range of stakeholders (e.g. policy, NGO, business, academics, general public). Model and data products will be made accessible via working with BODC, the Marine Environmental Data and Information Network (MEDIN) and international data infrastructures provided by ICES and EMODnet. A public facing web-based GIS data portal will allow users to browse and map data.
Overseas Development Assistance: CAMPUS will provide a template for closely aligning models and observations in the ODA context, for example using models to aid the design of monitoring effort and inform model system configuration. We will explore how this would work in practice in a short desk study, focusing on Living Marine resources in the Bay of Bengal. This project will contribute in particular to UN Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDG14)

Publications

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Powley H (2020) Sensitivity of Shelf Sea Marine Ecosystems to Temporal Resolution of Meteorological Forcing in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans

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Groom S (2019) Satellite Ocean Colour: Current Status and Future Perspective in Frontiers in Marine Science

 
Description Following initial discussion with Defra Marine and Fisheries Science and Analysis Team, MMO Evidence Team, and members of the Marine and Fisheries Monitoring Steering Group as part of WP1, it was decided that a review and alignment exercise across multiple NERC modelling programmes was needed. This provides a clear line of sight for government users as to how these models can be incorporated into their decision making, and allow CAMPUS to look for opportunities to ground truth existing models that may not previously have been recognised.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Environment
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Title Boundary conditions for 1D modelling 
Description Extracts ERA5 meteorological data and tidal forcings for any location worldwide, which is required as boundary conditions to the 1D GOTM-ERSEM model. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Delivery of CAMPUS project for the setup of 1D model systems at a range of UK sites. 
 
Title Multi-platform data assimilation on the North-West European Shelf 
Description We developed and validated a method to consistently assimilate glider biogeochemical data into NEMO-FABM-ERSEM model on the NWE Shelf. This method was subsequently extended to multi-platform (glider-satellite) data assimilation. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The plan is to use this method in a future operational system on NWE Shelf in order to assimilate multi-platform biogeochemical data. The results of this work will be available to the wide scientific community through a scientific publication (the relevant paper is currently submitted to journals). 
 
Title 3D configuration for NEMO-FABM-ERSEM using stand-alone optical module 
Description 3D NEMO-FABM-ERSEM model configuration for the AMM7 domain (North West European Shelf) using novel spectrally resolved stand-alone optical module. The optical module uses atmospheric fields (eg ozone, clouds, water vapour) to calculate both spectra and direction (diffuse or direct) of the incoming light into the water column. This information is crucial to improve how the model represents primary production and consequently ecosystem dynamics. The 3D configuration will be used to assimilate optical data (phytoplankton functional type absorption) into the NEMO-FABM-ERSEM model. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Will be used to better simulate ecosystem dynamics on the North-West European (NWE) Shelf. This development will eventually contribute to reanalysis of the ecosystem state on the NWE Shelf. 
 
Title Implementation of GOTM-ERSEM at various locations on UK shelf 
Description A GOTM-ERSEM 1D model has been implemented for: Station E1 in the Western Channel Observatory, the Candyfloss station in the Central Celtic Sea, Liverpool Bay and a station in the North Sea for the time period 2008-2017. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The models are currently being used to test the impact of meteorological resolution on phytoplankton phenology and assessment of ERSEMs ability to capture inter-annual variability in shelf seas as part of the CAMPUS project. The model setups have already been used and will likely further be used by other researchers to test model developments and process understanding at these data rich sites. 
 
Title NEMOVAR capacity to assimilate PFT absorption for different wavelengths 
Description Extension of the observation operator and balancing code to handle 24 (6 wavelengths times 4 Phytoplankton Functional Types) new variables. The code translates PFT absorption increments into increments of the PFT components (ERSEM state variables) based on background ratios. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact 2016 1 year reanalyses for PFT absorption and biogeochemistry on the NWE Shelf. 
 
Title Reanalysis and regionalization of the biogeochemistry of the Mediterranean Sea (1998-2014) 
Description We assimilated ocean-colour phytoplankton functional types into a three dimensional physical-biogeochemical model of the Mediterranean Sea, in a reanalysis spanning 1998-2014. Daily and/or monthly outputs were collected in a database (NETCDF files) that is freely available on request to Stefano Ciavatta 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The post-processing of the database led to a novel definition of ecoregions in the Mediterranean Sea, based on the spatial distribution of the phytoplankton community structure and related carbon fluxes. The main purpose of such regionalization is to support Blue Growth in the Mediterranean Sea, and to test analysis tecniques that can be applied in the context of the North West European Shelf-Seas. These findings are the object of a manuscript submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, by Ciavatta et al. 
 
Description GODAE DA-TT 
Organisation Data Assimilation Task Team (DA-TT)
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Scientific discussion
Collaborator Contribution Scientific discussion
Impact Scientific discussion
Start Year 2015
 
Description GODAE MEAP-TT 
Organisation Marine Ecosystem And Prediction Task Team (MEAP-TT)
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Scientific discussion on marine modelling/data assimilation; Oral presentation on data assimilation, through skype, at the "MEOPAR/ GOV Marine Ecosystem Analysis and Prediction Workshop", Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, 23-24 June 2015
Collaborator Contribution Scientific discussion on marine modelling/data assimilation
Impact Oral presentation on data assimilation, through skype, at the "MEOPAR/ GOV Marine Ecosystem Analysis and Prediction Workshop", Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, 23-24 June 2015
Start Year 2015
 
Description NPOP DA WG 
Organisation National Partnership for Ocean Prediction (NPOP)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Scientific discussion; Oral presentation at the 3rd NPOP/NCOF Data Assimilation Workshop (University of Reading, 26/10/2015)
Collaborator Contribution Scientific discussion; Workshop organization
Impact Oral presentation at the 3rd NPOP/NCOF Data Assimilation Workshop (University of Reading, 26/10/2015)
Start Year 2014
 
Description Royal Met Soc - DA SIG 
Organisation Meteorological Office UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am member of the Organizing Committee of the Special Interest Group of the Royal Meteorological Society
Collaborator Contribution I brought unique expertise on ocean biogeochemical data assimilation within the workshops organized by this SIG
Impact Workshops and discussions on the advancement of data assimilation.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Royal Met Soc - DA SIG 
Organisation University of Reading
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am member of the Organizing Committee of the Special Interest Group of the Royal Meteorological Society
Collaborator Contribution I brought unique expertise on ocean biogeochemical data assimilation within the workshops organized by this SIG
Impact Workshops and discussions on the advancement of data assimilation.
Start Year 2015
 
Description CAMPUS project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Website created to highlight the project, its aims and objectives. The website has helped to engage with target user audiences and will be regularly updated throughout the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.campus-marine.org
 
Description Co-charing the session of the Copernicus Marine Enviornment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) at EGU General Assembly 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The session provided scientific basis and ideas to define the future development of operational oceanography.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2018/session/26768
 
Description Inited talk at the Mercator Ocean International Marine Data Assimilation workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Being a recognized expert in marine biogeochemical data assimilation, I was invited to give a talk entitled "State-of-the-art of biogeochemical data assimilation" at the international workshop organized by Mercator Ocean International (which is the organization implementing the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service in the framework of a delegation agreement with the European Union), in Toulouse, France, 5-6 September 2018 (https://www.mercator-ocean.fr/en/news/marine-data-assimilation/).
The workshop objective was to set the scene for creating a long-term European infrastructure in marine data assimilation.
The works of the workshop were reported in a document that has the aim to support the definition of a strategy for the development of Marine Data Assimilation in Europe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.mercator-ocean.fr/en/news/marine-data-assimilation/
 
Description Invited plenary talk at the OceanPredict 19 Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a talk on the future directions that marine biogeochemical DA should take, to an audience including the leading global actors of operational oceanography as well as the private sector and governmental users. The talk sparked question and interest on marine ecoystems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://oceanpredict19.org/
 
Description Invited talk (via teleconference) to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Ocean Color Coordinating Group (NOCCG) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to talk about my ocean-colour data assimilation work to the NOCCG is a NOAA organization founded in 2011 by Dr. Paul DiGiacomo, Chief of the Satellite Oceanography and Climatology Division at NOAA/NESDIS/STAR. The purpose of the NOCCG is to keep members up to date about developments for satellite ocean color. They have representatives from all the NOAA line offices, including National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Ocean Service, National Weather Service and from several levels of the National Environmental and Satellite Data and Information Service.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk at the CMEMS General Assembly 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I represented the CMEMS Service Evolution (SE) programme in a talk on the impacts of the SE projects on CMEMS operational systems (including my SE projects TOSCA and OPTIMA). This wass an ideal venue to highlight PML/NCEO/NERC Data Assimilation impact on Copernicus marine services and beyond. The talk sparked questions and interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://marine.copernicus.eu/copernicus-marine-service-general-assembly/
 
Description Invited talk at the Metcator Ocean Interantional Data Assimilation Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This workshop aimed to shape the strategy for the future development of marine data assimilation for operational oceanography and research in Europe and beyond.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Oral presentation at the ESA's workshop "Atlantic from space", Southampton, UK, 23-25 January 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a talk entitled "Decadal reanalysis of biogeochemical indicators and fluxes in the North East Atlantic ecosystem" at the ESA's workshop "Atlantic from space", Southampton, UK, 23-25 January 2019. This talk provide my expert contribution to the objective of the workshop, which was to assess the opportunities for Atlantic region focussed Earth Observation research and development, downstream activities and Information and communications technology (ICT) evolution, which may be the basis for future ESA investments to address some of the key information needs of this important area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://eo4society.esa.int/event/atlantic-from-space/
 
Description Strategic discussions with JNCC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Alignment of research strategy with JNCC governance responsibility for Marine Protected Areas
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk at conference (Ocean Sciences Meeting 2020) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk sparked questions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.agu.org/ocean-sciences-meeting/
 
Description Talk at conference - EGU Assembly 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Around 50 scientists assisted the talk, which stimulated questions and discussion. In particular, after listening my talk, the session convener asked me to develop a future collaboration to couple ERSEM to the MIT model of the Mediterranean Sea
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://egu2019.eu/