Seasonal evolution of Ku- and Ka-band backscattering horizon over snow on first-year and multiyear sea ice

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Earth Sciences

Abstract

Arctic sea ice area has been mapped for nearly four decades using the long-term data record provided by successive passive microwave satellite missions; showing an accelerated pace of ice loss since 1979. Less is known about how much the ice has also thinned, in part because of the lack of a similarly long-term and consistent data record on sea ice thickness. Radar altimeters, such as the one flown on the European Space Agency (ESA)'s CryoSat-2 (CS2) since April 2010, and the SARAL/AltiKa satellite, launched in February 2013 as part of a joint mission by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), are now providing pan-Arctic (or up to 81.5N for AltiKa) thickness observations. However, one key uncertainty in using these data is how far the radar actually penetrates into the overlying snow cover. The general assumption has been that the radar return is from the snow-ice interface at Ku-band (CS2) frequencies, and from the snow-air interface at Ka-band (AltiKa) frequencies. Using this information together with assumptions on the depth of the overlying snow pack and its density, scientists can then convert the radar returns into total ice thickness assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. However, field evidence has put this general assumption into question, even for a homogeneous snowpack. A further complication is the lack of knowledge on how deep the snow pack is and its density. Typically, snow depth and density information based on a climatology constructed over thick multiyear ice in the 1980s have been used. However, as the total area in the sea ice cover has declined, there is now a larger proportion of first-year sea ice in the Arctic Basin. Snow over first-year ice tends to be more saline than over multiyear ice, and as such it has the potential for a significant impact on the radar returns. In addition, autumn and winter freeze-up has been delayed by several weeks to months in certain regions of the Arctic, shortening the duration for accumulation of snow. Given these current uncertainties, it is difficult to accurately assess how sea ice thickness is changing from year to year and over the long-term.

Because sea ice is an important indicator of climate change, plays a fundamental role in the Arctic energy and freshwater balance, and is a key component of the marine ecosystem, it is essential that we improve the accuracy of thickness retrievals from radar altimetry. This project aims to do just that by making ground-based observations of the radar penetration depth over a full annual cycle at both Ku- and Ka-band frequencies, from autumn freeze-up, through winter snow metamorphism and summer melt. This information, together with detailed snow pack characteristics, will allow us to assess how changes in snow accumulation, snow morphology and snow salinity impact Ku- and Ka-band penetration factors. The MOSAiC drifting station provides a unique opportunity, possibly the only opportunity, to obtain a benchmark dataset that involves coherent field, airborne and satellite data. Analysis of this information will enable scientists to better characterize how the physical properties of the snow pack (above different ice types) influence the penetration of Ka and Ku band radar. Importantly, we will be able to evaluate the seasonal evolution of the snow pack over first-year (sea ice greater than a few cm) and multiyear sea ice. MOSAiC additionally provides the opportunity for year-round observations of snow depth and density that will allow for assessment of the validity of climatological assumptions typically employed in thickness retrievals from radar altimetry and provide data for validation of snow depth products. These activities are essential in order to improve sea ice thickness retrievals from radar altimetry over the many ice and snow conditions found in the Arctic.

Planned Impact

Arctic change presents opportunities, but it also presents regional and global challenges and risks. Although the UK is not an Arctic nation, it plays a proactive role on international Arctic bodies, such as our observer status in the Arctic Council. Over the past 12 months policy makers, businesses leaders and philanthropists have all been involved in meetings dedicated to the Arctic. A good example is the White House Science Ministerial which brought together leaders from around the world, with the aim to expand joint collaborations focused on Arctic science.

To ensure our programme's impact goes beyond catchy headlines we will work in close contact with our Project Partners, MOSAiC and with the UK Arctic Office, to ensure the widest dissemination, and the involvement of a broad range of stakeholders. All data sets will be made freely available on a project website, with targeted adverts to key listservs (e.g. CRYOLIST). We will implement a range of activities with the aim of achieving the greatest potential for knowledge dissemination and socio-economic impact. We list some examples below.

Press office network: The press offices at BAS and UCL have a wide expertise in communicating with the media and public, as well as assisting and training staff in doing so. In order to attain a broader communication strategy, we will build on our established working relationship between our institutions. By doing so we are able to keep our press offices fully abreast of our project, and to facilitate communication to a wider audience, as well to co-ordinate 'on message' media activities. When appropriate, we will actively pursue a reputable scientific journalist (BBC or similar) to participate and record our cruise and scientific discoveries.

Outreach: Wider interest groups include school children, students and the general public. We will engage with them via outreach channels available to UCL and BAS, UCL, including the press offices, websites and publications such as NERC's Planet Earth magazine, and presentations to the local community. Our cruise blogs will be of particular interest, as will our real time imagery from the ship. We will use the knowledge gained within our project to develop new and innovative outreach activities to educate and enthuse a broad range of audiences about the importance of the Arctic in the climate system.

Website: The UCL CPOM website is the central point for gathering, redistributing, disseminating and enhancing project information and provides information on different aspects of the project, its topics, education and data accessibility. Additional impact will be achieved through, ship blogs, real-time data feeds from our time on MOSAiC, a Press Room for journalists, and more.

Training and Education: Training and education within our programme will mostly be delivered through a post-graduate post, who will spend time at both UCL and BAS. The purpose of the exchange is to encourage the post-doc to interact with different UK institutions and establish lifelong collaborations.

Expert workshop: In the later stages of our project we will run a 2-day international impact workshop on radar altimetry and sea ice thickness retrievals. Beside our international invitees we will provide dedicated space for key UK and MOSAiC groups. This workshop will consolidate our current understanding and include the new insight from this project, as well as to identify the pathways to incorporating the knowledge gained into more accurate sea ice thickness estimates.
 
Description Key findings pertain to current assumptions used in converting satellite radar altimetry data to sea ice thickness. Our results questions those current assumptions, with impacts on how accurately we can retrieve sea ice thickness using this data. This is crucial for understanding how quickly sea ice is disappearing.
Exploitation Route The improved understanding gained from this research can lead to improved estimates of sea ice thickness and snow depth...
Sectors Environment

 
Title New dual frequency radar for sea ice and ice sheet studies 
Description We designed and built a new dual frequency radar instrument for polar applications 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We have a novel instrument that will be useful to scientists doing polar research 
 
Title Ku- and Ka-band polarimetric radar backscatter of Arctic sea ice between October 2019 and September 2020 
Description This data set provides processed Ku- and Ka-band fully-polarimetric backscatter and derived polarimetric parameters from hourly scans, acquired using the KuKa radar, during Legs 1, 2, 4 and 5 of the 2019-2020 MOSAiC International Arctic Drift Expedition. Scans were acquired during winter (Legs 1 and 2), advanced melt (leg 4) and freeze-up (Leg 5) seasons, from various Remote Sensing (RS) sites, located in the MOSAiC ice floe. The first deployment of the KuKa radar was on 18 October 2019 at RS1 site and the radar was retreated (due to ice break up) on 18th November. The radar was redeployed on 29th November at RS2 site until 13th December when cracks were observed at the site and the instrument was turned off and moved to a safe location. The radar was redeployed at RS3 site and started measuring again on 21st December 2019 until 31st January 2020, after which the radar was taken off the RS site to conduct maintenance. The radar was not operational during Leg 3. During Leg 4, the radar was operational between 25th June and 19th July 2020, and later retreated back to the ship, for deployment in Leg 5. The radar was deployed on 24th August 2020 and operational until the end of the MOSAiC expedition. The dataset was collected by MOSAiC Team ICE participants and processed by Vishnu Nandan at the University of Manitoba, Canada. This work was funded in part through NERC grant NE/S002510/1, the Canada 150 Chair Program and the European Space Agency PO 5001027396. The authors thank Marine Environmental Observation, Prediction and Response Network (MEOPAR) Postdoctoral Fellowship grant to Vishnu Nandan. The authors also thank the crew of R/V Polarstern and all scientific members of the MOSAiC expedition for their support in field logistics and field data collection. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact First ever dual-frequency Ka/Ku band data collected over sea ice 
URL https://data.bas.ac.uk/full-record.php?id=GB/NERC/BAS/PDC/01437
 
Description Collaborations with researchers funded under MOSAiC Expedition 
Organisation Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We participated in the year-long MOSAiC research expedition together with scientists around the world. This expedition was led by the Alfred Wegener Institute but collaborations with all scientists on board over the full year is part of the research deliverables. Too many partners to list here but we all contribute to publications and research dissemination from the expedition as well as we all helped each make observations.
Collaborator Contribution Logistics to pull off such a massive research expedition, field collection, joint research projects, joint publications. It is too much to list all contributions here, for more information about the expedition and publications, it's best to look here: https://mosaic-expedition.org/ and here: https://mosaic-expedition.org/publications-2/
Impact All publications from the MOSAiC expedition are listed here: https://mosaic-expedition.org/publications-2/ and include the ones listed below, though other publications are in progress. 2022 Rabe, B., Heuzé, C., Regnery, J., Aksenov, Y., Allerholt, J., Athanase, M., Bai, Y., Basque, C., Bauch, D., Baumann, T.M., Chen, D., Cole, S.T., Craw, L., Davies, A., Damm, E., Dethloff, K., Divine, D.V., Doglioni, F., Ebert, F., Fang, Y.-C., Fer, I., Fong, A.A., Gradinger, R., Granskog, M.A., Graupner, R., Haas, C., He, H., He, Y., Hoppmann, M., Janout, M., Kadko, D., Kanzow, T., Karam, S., Kawaguchi, Y., Koenig, Z., Kong, B., Krishfield, R.A., Krumpen, T., Kuhlmey, D., Kuznetsov, I., Lan, M., Laukert, G. Lei, R., Li, T., Torres-Valdés, S., Lin, L., Lin, L., Liu, H., Liu, N., Loose, B., Ma, X., MacKay, R., Mallet, M., Mallett, R.D.C., Maslowski, W., Mertens, C., Mohrholz, V., Muilwijk, M., Nicolaus, M., O'Brien, J.K., Perovich, D., Ren, J., Rex, M., Ribeiro, N., Rinke, A., Schaffer, J., Schuffenhauer, I., Schulz, K., Shupe, M.D., Shaw, W., Sokolov, V., Sommerfeld, A., Spreen, G., Stanton, T., Stephens, M., Su, J., Sukhikh, N., Sundfjord, A., Thomisch, K., Tippenhauer, S., Toole, J.M., Vredenborg, M., Walter, M., Wang, H., Wang, L., Wang, Y., Wendisch, M., Zhao, J., Zhou, M., Zhu, J. (2022): Overview of the MOSAiC expedition: Physical oceanography. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 10(1), doi: 10.1525/elementa.2021.00062 . Ocean Shupe, M.D., M. Rex, B. Blomquist, P.O.G. Persson, J. Schmale, T. Uttal, D. Althausen, H. Angot, S. Archer, L. Bariteau, I. Beck, J. Bilberry, S. Bussi, C. Buck, M. Boyer, Z. Brasseur, I.M. Brooks, R. Calmer, J. Cassano, V. Castro, D. Chu, D. Costa, C.J. Cox, J. Creamean, S. Crewell, S. Dahlke, E. Damm, G. de Boer, H. Deckelmann, K. Dethloff, M. Dütsch, K. Ebell, A. Ehrlich, J. Ellis, R. Engelmann, A.A. Fong, M.M. Frey, M.R. Gallagher, L. Ganzeveld, R. Gradinger, J. Graeser, V. Greenamyer, H. Griesche, S. Griffiths, J. Hamilton, G. Heinemann, D. Helmig, A. Herber, C. Heuzé, J. Hofer, T. Houchens, D. Howard, J. Inoue, H.-W. Jacobi, R. Jaiser, T. Jokinen, O. Jourdan, G. Jozef, W. King, A. Kirchgaessner, M. Klingebiel, M. Krassovski, T. Krumpen, A. Lampert, W. Landing, T. Laurila, D. Lawrence, B. Loose, M. Lonardi, C. Lüpkes, M. Maahn, A. Macke, W. Maslowski, C. Marsay, M. Maturilli, M. Mech, S. Morris, M. Moser, M. Nicolaus, P. Ortega, J. Osborn, F. Pätzold, D.K. Perovich, T. Petäjä, C. Pilz, R. Pirazzini, K. Posman, H. Powers, K.A. Pratt, A. Preußer, L. Quéléver, M. Radenz, B. Rabe, A. Rinke, T. Sachs, A. Schulz, H. Siebert, T. Silva, A. Solomon, A. Sommerfeld, G. Spreen, M. Stephens, A. Stohl, G. Svensson, J. Uin, J. Viegas, C. Voigt, P. von der Gathen, B. Wehner, J.M. Welker, M. Wendisch, M. Werner, Z. Xie, F. Yue, (2022): Overview of the MOSAiC expedition: Atmosphere. Elementa, Science of the Anthropocene, 10 (1), doi: 10.1525/elementa.2021.00060 . Atmosphere Nicolaus, M., Perovich, D.K., Spreen, G., Granskog, M.A., Albedyll, L.V., Angelopoulos, M., Anhaus, P., Arndt, S., Belter, H.J., Bessonov, V., Birnbaum, G., Brauchle, J., Calmer, R., Cardellach, E., Cheng, B., Clemens-Sewall, D., Dadic, R., Damm, E., de Boer, G., Demir, O., Dethloff, K., Divine, D.V., Fong, A.A., Fons, S., Frey, M.M., Fuchs, N., Gabarro, C., Gerland, S., Goessling, H.F., Gradinger, R., Haapala, J., Haas, C., Hamilton, J., Hannula, H.-R., Hendricks, S., Herber, A., Heuzé, C., Hoppmann, M., Hyland, K.V., Huntemann, M., Hutchings, J.K., Hwang, B., Itkin, P., Jacobi, H.-W., Jaggi, M., Jutila, A., Kaleschke, L., Katlein, C., Kolabutin, N., Krampe, D., Kristensen, S.S., Krumpen, T., Kurtz, N., Lampert, A., Lange, B.A., Lei, R., Light, B., Linhardt, F., Liston, G.E., Loose, B., Macfarlane, A.R., Mahmud, M., Matero, I.O., Maus, S., Morgenstern, A., Naderpour, R., Nandan,V., Niubom, A., Oggier, M., Oppelt, N., Patzold, F., Perron, C., Petrovsky,T., Pirazzini, R., Polashenski, C., Rabe, B., Raphael, I.A., Regnery, J., Rex, M., Ricker, R., Riemann-Campe, K., Rinke, A., Rohde, J., Salganik, E., Scharien, R.K., Schiller, M., Schneebeli, M., Semmling, M., Shimanchuk, E., Shupe, M.D., Smith, M.M., Smolyanitsky,V., Sokolov,V., Stanton, T., Stroeve, J., Thielke, L., Timofeeva, A., Tonboe, R.T., Tavri, A., Tsamados, M., Wagner, D.N., Watkins, D., Webster, M., Wendisch, M. (2022): Overview of the MOSAiC expedition: Snow and sea ice. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 10(1), doi: 10.1525/elementa.2021.000046 . Sea Ice & Snow 2021 Ohneiser, K., Ansmann, A., Chudnovsky, A., Engelmann, R., Ritter, C., Veselovskii, I., Baars, H., Gebauer, H., Griesche, H., Radenz, M., Hofer, J., Althausen, D., Dahlke, S., and Maturilli, M. (2021): The unexpected smoke layer in the High Arctic winter stratosphere during MOSAiC 2019-2020. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(20), 15783-15808, doi: 10.5194/acp-21-15783-2021 . Atmosphere Wohltmann, I., von der Gathen, P., Lehmann, R., Deckelmann, H., Manney, G.L., Davies, J., Tarasick, D., Jepsen, N., Kivi, R., Lyall, N., and Rex, M. (2021): Chemical Evolution of the Exceptional Arctic Stratospheric Winter 2019/2020 Compared to Previous Arctic and Antarctic Winters. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(18), doi: 10.1029/2020JD034356 . Atmosphere Koo, YH., Lei, R., Cheng, Y., Cheng, B., Xie, H., Hoppmann, M., Kurtz, N.T., Ackley, S.F., and Mestas-Nuñez, A.M. (2021): Estimation of thermodynamic and dynamic contributions to sea ice growth in the Central Arctic using ICESat-2 and MOSAiC SIMBA buoy data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 267, 112730, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2021.112730 . Remote SensingSea Ice & Snow Engelmann, R., Ansmann, A., Ohneiser, K., Griesche, H., Radenz, M., Hofer, J., Althausen, D., Dahlke, S., Maturilli, M., Veselovskii, I., Jimenez, C., Wiesen, R., Baars, H., Bühl, J., Gebauer, H., Haarig, M., Seifert, P., Wandinger, U., and Macke, A. (2021): Wildfire smoke, Arctic haze, and aerosol effects on mixed-phase and cirrus clouds over the North Pole region during MOSAiC: an introduction. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(17), 13397-13423, doi: 10.5194/acp-21-13397-2021 . Atmosphere Rinke, A., Cassano, J.J., Cassano, E.N., Jaiser, R., and Handorf, D. (2021): Meteorological conditions during the MOSAiC expedition: Normal or anomalous?. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 9(1), doi: 10.1525/elementa.2021.00023 . AtmosphereModelling Krumpen, T., von Albedyll, L., Goessling, H.F., Hendricks, S., Juhls, B., Spreen, G., Willmes, S., Belter, H.J., Dethloff, K., Haas, C., Kaleschke, L., Katlein, K., Tian-Kunze, X., Ricker, R., Rostosky, P., Rückert, J., Singha, S., and Sokolova, J. (2021): MOSAiC drift expedition from October 2019 to July 2020: sea ice conditions from space and comparison with previous years. The Cryosphere, 15 (8), pp 3897-3920, doi: 10.5194/tc-15-3897-2021 . Remote SensingSea Ice & Snow von der Gathen, P., Kivi, R., Wohltmann, I., Salawitch, R.J., and Rex, M. (2021): Climate change favours large seasonal loss of Arctic ozone. Nature Communications, 12, 3886 , doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-24089-6 . Atmosphere Belter, H.J., Krumpen, T., von Albedyll, L., Alekseeva, T.A., Birnbaum, G., Frolov, S.V., Hendricks, S., Herber, A., Polyakov, I., Raphael, I., Ricker, R., Serovetnikov, S.S., Webster, M., and Haas, C. (2021): Interannual variability in Transpolar Drift summer sea ice thickness and potential impact of Atlantification. The Cryosphere, 15 (6), pp 2575-2591, doi: 10.5194/tc-15-2575-2021 . AirborneSea Ice & Snow 2020 Muñoz-Martín, J.R., Perez, A. , Camps, A. , Ribó, S. , Cardellach, E. , Stroeve, J. , Nandan, V. , Itkin, P. , Tonboe, R. , Hendricks, S. , Huntemann, M. , Spreen, G. and Pastena, M. (2020): Snow and Ice Thickness Retrievals Using GNSS-R: Preliminary Results of the MOSAiC Experiment. Remote Sensing, 12 (24), p. 4038, doi: 10.3390/rs12244038 . Remote SensingSea Ice & Snow Stroeve, J. , Nandan, V. , Willatt, R. , Tonboe, R. , Hendricks, S. , Ricker, R. , Mead, J. , Mallett, R. , Huntemann, M. , Itkin, P. , Schneebeli, M. , Krampe, D. , Spreen, G. , Wilkinson, J. , Matero, I. , Hoppmann, M. and Tsamados, M. (2020): Surface-based Ku- and Ka-band polarimetric radar for sea ice studies. The Cryosphere, 14 (12), pp. 4405-4426, doi: 10.5194/tc-14-4405-2020 . Remote SensingSea Ice & Snow Wohltmann, I., von der Gathen, P., Lehmann, R., Maturilli, M., Deckelmann, H., Manney, G.L. , Davies, J. , Tarasick, D. , Jepsen, N. , Kivin, R. , Lyall, N. and Rex, M. (2020): Near-Complete Local Reduction of Arctic Stratospheric Ozone by Severe Chemical Loss in Spring 2020. Geophysical Research Letters, 47(20), doi: 10.1029/2020GL089547 . Atmosphere Katlein, C. , Mohrholz, V. , Sheikin, I. , Itkin, P. , Divine, D. V. , Stroeve, J. , Jutila, A. , Krampe, D. , Shimanchuk, E. , Raphael, I. , Rabe, B. , Kuznetsov, I. , Mallet, M. , Liu, H. , Hoppmann, M. , Fang, Y.-C., Dumitrascu, A. , Arndt, S. , Anhaus, P. , Nicolaus, M. , Matero, I. , Oggier, M. , Eicken, H. and Haas, C. (2020): Platelet Ice Under Arctic Pack Ice in Winter. Geophysical Research Letters, 47 (16), doi: 10.1029/2020GL088898 . AircraftBio-GeochemistrySea Ice & Snow Krumpen, T. , Birrien, F. , Kauker, F. , Rackow, T. , von Albedyll, L. , Angelopoulos, M. , Belter, J. , Bessonov, V. , Damm, E. , Dethloff, K. , Haapala, J. , Haas, C. , Harris, C. , Hendricks, S. , Hoelemann, J. , Hoppmann, M. , Kaleschke, L. , Karcher, M. , Kolabutin, N. , Lei, R. , Lenz, J. , Morgenstern, A. , Nicolaus, M. , Nixdorf, U. , Petrovsky, T. , Rabe, B. , Rabenstein, L. , Rex, M. , Ricker, R. , Rohde, J. , Shimanchuk, E. , Singha, S. , Smolyanitsky, V. , Sokolov, V. , Stanton, T. , Timofeeva, A. , Tsamados, M. and Watkins, D. (2020): The MOSAiC ice floe: sediment-laden survivor from the Siberian shelf. The Cryosphere, 14 (7), pp. 2173-2187, doi: 10.5194/tc-14-2173-2020 .
Start Year 2019
 
Description Collaborations with researchers funded under MOSAiC Expedition 
Organisation University of Bremen
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We participated in the year-long MOSAiC research expedition together with scientists around the world. This expedition was led by the Alfred Wegener Institute but collaborations with all scientists on board over the full year is part of the research deliverables. Too many partners to list here but we all contribute to publications and research dissemination from the expedition as well as we all helped each make observations.
Collaborator Contribution Logistics to pull off such a massive research expedition, field collection, joint research projects, joint publications. It is too much to list all contributions here, for more information about the expedition and publications, it's best to look here: https://mosaic-expedition.org/ and here: https://mosaic-expedition.org/publications-2/
Impact All publications from the MOSAiC expedition are listed here: https://mosaic-expedition.org/publications-2/ and include the ones listed below, though other publications are in progress. 2022 Rabe, B., Heuzé, C., Regnery, J., Aksenov, Y., Allerholt, J., Athanase, M., Bai, Y., Basque, C., Bauch, D., Baumann, T.M., Chen, D., Cole, S.T., Craw, L., Davies, A., Damm, E., Dethloff, K., Divine, D.V., Doglioni, F., Ebert, F., Fang, Y.-C., Fer, I., Fong, A.A., Gradinger, R., Granskog, M.A., Graupner, R., Haas, C., He, H., He, Y., Hoppmann, M., Janout, M., Kadko, D., Kanzow, T., Karam, S., Kawaguchi, Y., Koenig, Z., Kong, B., Krishfield, R.A., Krumpen, T., Kuhlmey, D., Kuznetsov, I., Lan, M., Laukert, G. Lei, R., Li, T., Torres-Valdés, S., Lin, L., Lin, L., Liu, H., Liu, N., Loose, B., Ma, X., MacKay, R., Mallet, M., Mallett, R.D.C., Maslowski, W., Mertens, C., Mohrholz, V., Muilwijk, M., Nicolaus, M., O'Brien, J.K., Perovich, D., Ren, J., Rex, M., Ribeiro, N., Rinke, A., Schaffer, J., Schuffenhauer, I., Schulz, K., Shupe, M.D., Shaw, W., Sokolov, V., Sommerfeld, A., Spreen, G., Stanton, T., Stephens, M., Su, J., Sukhikh, N., Sundfjord, A., Thomisch, K., Tippenhauer, S., Toole, J.M., Vredenborg, M., Walter, M., Wang, H., Wang, L., Wang, Y., Wendisch, M., Zhao, J., Zhou, M., Zhu, J. (2022): Overview of the MOSAiC expedition: Physical oceanography. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 10(1), doi: 10.1525/elementa.2021.00062 . Ocean Shupe, M.D., M. Rex, B. Blomquist, P.O.G. Persson, J. Schmale, T. Uttal, D. Althausen, H. Angot, S. Archer, L. Bariteau, I. Beck, J. Bilberry, S. Bussi, C. Buck, M. Boyer, Z. Brasseur, I.M. Brooks, R. Calmer, J. Cassano, V. Castro, D. Chu, D. Costa, C.J. Cox, J. Creamean, S. Crewell, S. Dahlke, E. Damm, G. de Boer, H. Deckelmann, K. Dethloff, M. Dütsch, K. Ebell, A. Ehrlich, J. Ellis, R. Engelmann, A.A. Fong, M.M. Frey, M.R. Gallagher, L. Ganzeveld, R. Gradinger, J. Graeser, V. Greenamyer, H. Griesche, S. Griffiths, J. Hamilton, G. Heinemann, D. Helmig, A. Herber, C. Heuzé, J. Hofer, T. Houchens, D. Howard, J. Inoue, H.-W. Jacobi, R. Jaiser, T. Jokinen, O. Jourdan, G. Jozef, W. King, A. Kirchgaessner, M. Klingebiel, M. Krassovski, T. Krumpen, A. Lampert, W. Landing, T. Laurila, D. Lawrence, B. Loose, M. Lonardi, C. Lüpkes, M. Maahn, A. Macke, W. Maslowski, C. Marsay, M. Maturilli, M. Mech, S. Morris, M. Moser, M. Nicolaus, P. Ortega, J. Osborn, F. Pätzold, D.K. Perovich, T. Petäjä, C. Pilz, R. Pirazzini, K. Posman, H. Powers, K.A. Pratt, A. Preußer, L. Quéléver, M. Radenz, B. Rabe, A. Rinke, T. Sachs, A. Schulz, H. Siebert, T. Silva, A. Solomon, A. Sommerfeld, G. Spreen, M. Stephens, A. Stohl, G. Svensson, J. Uin, J. Viegas, C. Voigt, P. von der Gathen, B. Wehner, J.M. Welker, M. Wendisch, M. Werner, Z. Xie, F. Yue, (2022): Overview of the MOSAiC expedition: Atmosphere. Elementa, Science of the Anthropocene, 10 (1), doi: 10.1525/elementa.2021.00060 . Atmosphere Nicolaus, M., Perovich, D.K., Spreen, G., Granskog, M.A., Albedyll, L.V., Angelopoulos, M., Anhaus, P., Arndt, S., Belter, H.J., Bessonov, V., Birnbaum, G., Brauchle, J., Calmer, R., Cardellach, E., Cheng, B., Clemens-Sewall, D., Dadic, R., Damm, E., de Boer, G., Demir, O., Dethloff, K., Divine, D.V., Fong, A.A., Fons, S., Frey, M.M., Fuchs, N., Gabarro, C., Gerland, S., Goessling, H.F., Gradinger, R., Haapala, J., Haas, C., Hamilton, J., Hannula, H.-R., Hendricks, S., Herber, A., Heuzé, C., Hoppmann, M., Hyland, K.V., Huntemann, M., Hutchings, J.K., Hwang, B., Itkin, P., Jacobi, H.-W., Jaggi, M., Jutila, A., Kaleschke, L., Katlein, C., Kolabutin, N., Krampe, D., Kristensen, S.S., Krumpen, T., Kurtz, N., Lampert, A., Lange, B.A., Lei, R., Light, B., Linhardt, F., Liston, G.E., Loose, B., Macfarlane, A.R., Mahmud, M., Matero, I.O., Maus, S., Morgenstern, A., Naderpour, R., Nandan,V., Niubom, A., Oggier, M., Oppelt, N., Patzold, F., Perron, C., Petrovsky,T., Pirazzini, R., Polashenski, C., Rabe, B., Raphael, I.A., Regnery, J., Rex, M., Ricker, R., Riemann-Campe, K., Rinke, A., Rohde, J., Salganik, E., Scharien, R.K., Schiller, M., Schneebeli, M., Semmling, M., Shimanchuk, E., Shupe, M.D., Smith, M.M., Smolyanitsky,V., Sokolov,V., Stanton, T., Stroeve, J., Thielke, L., Timofeeva, A., Tonboe, R.T., Tavri, A., Tsamados, M., Wagner, D.N., Watkins, D., Webster, M., Wendisch, M. (2022): Overview of the MOSAiC expedition: Snow and sea ice. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 10(1), doi: 10.1525/elementa.2021.000046 . Sea Ice & Snow 2021 Ohneiser, K., Ansmann, A., Chudnovsky, A., Engelmann, R., Ritter, C., Veselovskii, I., Baars, H., Gebauer, H., Griesche, H., Radenz, M., Hofer, J., Althausen, D., Dahlke, S., and Maturilli, M. (2021): The unexpected smoke layer in the High Arctic winter stratosphere during MOSAiC 2019-2020. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(20), 15783-15808, doi: 10.5194/acp-21-15783-2021 . Atmosphere Wohltmann, I., von der Gathen, P., Lehmann, R., Deckelmann, H., Manney, G.L., Davies, J., Tarasick, D., Jepsen, N., Kivi, R., Lyall, N., and Rex, M. (2021): Chemical Evolution of the Exceptional Arctic Stratospheric Winter 2019/2020 Compared to Previous Arctic and Antarctic Winters. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(18), doi: 10.1029/2020JD034356 . Atmosphere Koo, YH., Lei, R., Cheng, Y., Cheng, B., Xie, H., Hoppmann, M., Kurtz, N.T., Ackley, S.F., and Mestas-Nuñez, A.M. (2021): Estimation of thermodynamic and dynamic contributions to sea ice growth in the Central Arctic using ICESat-2 and MOSAiC SIMBA buoy data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 267, 112730, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2021.112730 . Remote SensingSea Ice & Snow Engelmann, R., Ansmann, A., Ohneiser, K., Griesche, H., Radenz, M., Hofer, J., Althausen, D., Dahlke, S., Maturilli, M., Veselovskii, I., Jimenez, C., Wiesen, R., Baars, H., Bühl, J., Gebauer, H., Haarig, M., Seifert, P., Wandinger, U., and Macke, A. (2021): Wildfire smoke, Arctic haze, and aerosol effects on mixed-phase and cirrus clouds over the North Pole region during MOSAiC: an introduction. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(17), 13397-13423, doi: 10.5194/acp-21-13397-2021 . Atmosphere Rinke, A., Cassano, J.J., Cassano, E.N., Jaiser, R., and Handorf, D. (2021): Meteorological conditions during the MOSAiC expedition: Normal or anomalous?. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 9(1), doi: 10.1525/elementa.2021.00023 . AtmosphereModelling Krumpen, T., von Albedyll, L., Goessling, H.F., Hendricks, S., Juhls, B., Spreen, G., Willmes, S., Belter, H.J., Dethloff, K., Haas, C., Kaleschke, L., Katlein, K., Tian-Kunze, X., Ricker, R., Rostosky, P., Rückert, J., Singha, S., and Sokolova, J. (2021): MOSAiC drift expedition from October 2019 to July 2020: sea ice conditions from space and comparison with previous years. The Cryosphere, 15 (8), pp 3897-3920, doi: 10.5194/tc-15-3897-2021 . Remote SensingSea Ice & Snow von der Gathen, P., Kivi, R., Wohltmann, I., Salawitch, R.J., and Rex, M. (2021): Climate change favours large seasonal loss of Arctic ozone. Nature Communications, 12, 3886 , doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-24089-6 . Atmosphere Belter, H.J., Krumpen, T., von Albedyll, L., Alekseeva, T.A., Birnbaum, G., Frolov, S.V., Hendricks, S., Herber, A., Polyakov, I., Raphael, I., Ricker, R., Serovetnikov, S.S., Webster, M., and Haas, C. (2021): Interannual variability in Transpolar Drift summer sea ice thickness and potential impact of Atlantification. The Cryosphere, 15 (6), pp 2575-2591, doi: 10.5194/tc-15-2575-2021 . AirborneSea Ice & Snow 2020 Muñoz-Martín, J.R., Perez, A. , Camps, A. , Ribó, S. , Cardellach, E. , Stroeve, J. , Nandan, V. , Itkin, P. , Tonboe, R. , Hendricks, S. , Huntemann, M. , Spreen, G. and Pastena, M. (2020): Snow and Ice Thickness Retrievals Using GNSS-R: Preliminary Results of the MOSAiC Experiment. Remote Sensing, 12 (24), p. 4038, doi: 10.3390/rs12244038 . Remote SensingSea Ice & Snow Stroeve, J. , Nandan, V. , Willatt, R. , Tonboe, R. , Hendricks, S. , Ricker, R. , Mead, J. , Mallett, R. , Huntemann, M. , Itkin, P. , Schneebeli, M. , Krampe, D. , Spreen, G. , Wilkinson, J. , Matero, I. , Hoppmann, M. and Tsamados, M. (2020): Surface-based Ku- and Ka-band polarimetric radar for sea ice studies. The Cryosphere, 14 (12), pp. 4405-4426, doi: 10.5194/tc-14-4405-2020 . Remote SensingSea Ice & Snow Wohltmann, I., von der Gathen, P., Lehmann, R., Maturilli, M., Deckelmann, H., Manney, G.L. , Davies, J. , Tarasick, D. , Jepsen, N. , Kivin, R. , Lyall, N. and Rex, M. (2020): Near-Complete Local Reduction of Arctic Stratospheric Ozone by Severe Chemical Loss in Spring 2020. Geophysical Research Letters, 47(20), doi: 10.1029/2020GL089547 . Atmosphere Katlein, C. , Mohrholz, V. , Sheikin, I. , Itkin, P. , Divine, D. V. , Stroeve, J. , Jutila, A. , Krampe, D. , Shimanchuk, E. , Raphael, I. , Rabe, B. , Kuznetsov, I. , Mallet, M. , Liu, H. , Hoppmann, M. , Fang, Y.-C., Dumitrascu, A. , Arndt, S. , Anhaus, P. , Nicolaus, M. , Matero, I. , Oggier, M. , Eicken, H. and Haas, C. (2020): Platelet Ice Under Arctic Pack Ice in Winter. Geophysical Research Letters, 47 (16), doi: 10.1029/2020GL088898 . AircraftBio-GeochemistrySea Ice & Snow Krumpen, T. , Birrien, F. , Kauker, F. , Rackow, T. , von Albedyll, L. , Angelopoulos, M. , Belter, J. , Bessonov, V. , Damm, E. , Dethloff, K. , Haapala, J. , Haas, C. , Harris, C. , Hendricks, S. , Hoelemann, J. , Hoppmann, M. , Kaleschke, L. , Karcher, M. , Kolabutin, N. , Lei, R. , Lenz, J. , Morgenstern, A. , Nicolaus, M. , Nixdorf, U. , Petrovsky, T. , Rabe, B. , Rabenstein, L. , Rex, M. , Ricker, R. , Rohde, J. , Shimanchuk, E. , Singha, S. , Smolyanitsky, V. , Sokolov, V. , Stanton, T. , Timofeeva, A. , Tsamados, M. and Watkins, D. (2020): The MOSAiC ice floe: sediment-laden survivor from the Siberian shelf. The Cryosphere, 14 (7), pp. 2173-2187, doi: 10.5194/tc-14-2173-2020 .
Start Year 2019
 
Description Scattering characteristics and snow depth determination from KuKa Ku- and Ka- band polarimetric, dual frequency, ground-based radar deployed in altimeter mode during MOSAiC 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation to the European Space Agency on the first dual frequency Ka/Ku band data collected over sea ice
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020