Illuminating strongly interacting matter

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Sch of Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

The work will give new information addressing fundamental gaps in our understanding of the structure of the nucleon (proton and neutron) and strongly interacting matter using the world's most intense energy tagged photon beams of appropriate wavelength (delivering ~1 billion polarised photons per second). The photon probe is an ideal way to investigate the structure of matter as its interaction is well understood and it probes the whole volume of the object under study. Nucleons are composite structures made of 3 much lighter particles called quarks, which exist in a sea of virtual gluons and quark-antiquark pairs. This system can be excited into a number of very short lived excited states which can be detected from their subsequent decay back to a nucleon via the emission of mesons. The spectrum of these excited states and their properties are fundamental observables reflecting the dynamics of the nucleon's internal constituents. Despite being studied for decades in various experiments information on the mass, lifetime and photon coupling of the known excited states have been obtained only with large uncertainties for many parts of the spectrum. For example the lifetime of the second excited state of the proton is only known to 50% accuracy. Some excited states only show up inconsistently in different theoretical analyses of the same experimental data and many 'missing' excited states predicted by quark models are not yet observed.This situation is particularly disappointing given the recent advances in theoretical descriptions of the spectra, such as first predictions from Lattice QCD. We will obtain unique new data to constrain the structure of the nucleon utilising polarised photon beams with (i) polarised neutron targets in which the spin of the target nucleons an be oriented in a chosen direction with respect to the beam (ii) measurement of the transfer of polarisation from the photon to the recoiling nucleon(s) in photoreactions. The first aspect utilises new HD target technology while the latter uses the Edinburgh nucleon polarimeter which employs a novel and highly cost-effective design to measure the polarisation of nucleons with a large angular acceptance. The polarimeter will enable the long sought 'complete measurement' of experimental observables in meson photoproduction from the nucleon. This will be a real milestone in the field, providing sufficient experimental constraints to allow a model independent analysis for the first time in the extraction of the fundamental excitation spectrum. We will also carry out world's first measurements of polarisation transfer in deuterium photodisintegration using the Edinburgh nucleon polarimeter. Polarisation transfer provides the most sensitive information on whether the appropriate degrees of freedom in the reaction process are the nucleon or the underlying quark structure of the deuteron. This will be the benchmark measurement to address intriguing indications of this transition at unexpectedly low photon energies. Finally, we will obtain important new information on how nucleons combine to make nuclei by accurately measuring the size of neutron skins. Neutron skins with thicknesses of up to ~1/3 of a neutron diameter are predicted to exist for heavy nuclei, and accurate measurement would give long sought constraints on the poorly established density dependence of the asymmetry parameter for neutron rich matter. This asymmetry parameter fixes the scale of the binding energy penalty for moving away from symmetric matter (equal numbers of protons and neutrons) and has fundamental consequences for neutron star physics including establishing the feasibility of cooling mechanisms and constraining mass-radius relationships. The size of the skin is also a crucial constraint on modern theoretical descriptions of the nucleus, which we will challenge by determining the change in skin thickness when the neutron number increases for a fixed proton number.

Organisations

Publications

10 25 50

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Adlarson P (2015) Measurement of p 0 photoproduction on the proton at MAMI C in Physical Review C

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Annand J (2016) T and F asymmetries in p 0 photoproduction on the proton in Physical Review C

 
Description Our group carried out an extensive research programme at the world's leading electron and photon beam facilities at MAMI, Germany and the Thomas Jefferson National Lab (JLAB), USA. The programme tackles fundamental questions in nuclear physics and hadron physics (the physics of particles interacting via the strong interaction). The Edinburgh particle identification detector, supported by this grant, was key to the majority of measurements at MAMI during this period. We also developed further new equipment, the Edinburgh Recoil Polarimeter, which allowed the first large acceptance measurement of the spin direction of nucleons. Some physics highlights from our programme are described below.

Nuclear Physics:

We obtained the first accurate measurement of a neutron skin for a nucleus using an electromagnetic probe. Neutron skins are predicted to form on heavy nuclei which have an excess of neutrons over protons. The properties of the skin, how large it is and how diffuse its surface, provide powerful constraint on theories of the nucleus and also on the basic properties of neutron matter. The new results have direct implications for neutron stars with the size of the neutron skin giving new constraints on the radii of neutron stars and their possible cooling mechanisms. The result was selected for a physics synopsis in Physical Review Letters

Our group coauthored work at JLAB showing how the transparency of the nuclear medium to protons is lower than expected from traditional mean-field theoretical calculations and consistent with the renormalisation expected from the effects of short range correlations between the nucleons. Further work showed the first evidence for scale invariance in a typical nucleus. This is important information to map the transition from nucleon degrees of freedom to partonic (quarks and gluons) in the nucleus. We also coauthored work which gave some of the first indications for a long sought effect, colour transparency, This transparency is predicted from the theory of the strong interaction (QCD), where hadrons produced with sufficiently high 4-momentum transfer (corresponding to the quarks being close together) can pass through nuclear matter with dramatically reduced interactions. This work produced the first measurement of the expansion time for a hadron - of the order of 10^-24 seconds, which is a fundamental measurement for QCD.

Hadron Physics:

The grant supported a significant expansion of the experimental database available to establish the excitation spectrum of the nucleon. In recent years using advanced computer arrays it has become possible for the first time to calculate the excitation spectrum directly from the theory describing the force between the quark components of the nucleon (QCD). Therefore the spectrum of nucleon excited states is a fingerprint to test the validity of the theory in describing the matter making up the visible universe. We developed a new detector concept which provided the first large acceptance measurement of the spin direction of nucleons produced in photo reactions, an crucial development in the world programme. The first results from the Edinburgh Nucleon Polarimeter were published in Physical Review Letters. We published a further letter exploiting our new technique for identifying Kaon mesons. Excited states of the nucleon which decay via Kaons provide powerful information for the theoretical analyses. Our precision results allowed models in which the quarks inside the nucleon pair off (di-quark models) to be disfavoured. We coauthored further publications at MAMI and JLAB where decay channels of nucleon excited states to double-meson decays, three-meson decays and decays involving strange quarks were obtained. In 2012 the world data were used in a global theoretical analysis which resulted in 6 new excited states being listed in the particle data group listings. This process will be repeated in the future using the latest data. We also developed a new proposal to establish the excitation spectrum of nucleons containing strange quarks (cascades) which was approved to run at the upgraded JLAB in the future.

Further work gave the most accurate determination to date of the form factor of the eta meson, giving new constraints on its structure. Measurements of the photo production of pion mesons near to the energy threshold for the reaction provided unique data to challenge Chiral Perturbation Theories, which link directly to QCD.
Exploitation Route The neutron skin work provides constraint on the nuclear equation of state which will be used not only by nuclear theorists but also theorists developing models of neutron star structure, cooling and gravitational wave emission. Our published work on lead already gives important new constraints on the size and shape of the neutron skin. This has already been used by nuclear theorists to constrain the models of the nucleus. The data under analysis on the evolution of the skin across an isotopic chain will enable further selectivity in nuclear models and in determining the equation of state.

Ongoing and future space based X-ray measurements of neutron stars will provide complimentary information on the equation of state, at higher densities than our nuclear measurements. Our data will be used in future combined neutron star and nuclear determinations. The neutron skin measurements and their constraint on the equation of state have direct impact on gravitational wave emission in neutron star mergers. The constraints on the equation of state for neutron matter give access to key parameters such as the tidal polarisability of stars which influences the gravitational wave emission.

Our development of the Edinburgh Nucleon Polarimeter have attracted significant interest from other facilities and we are discussing future possibility and collaboration to transfer our method there. We have already carried out a proof of principle analysis to apply the method at Jefferson Laboratory which we aim to publish in 2018/2019.

Our method for Kaon identification has been adopted by the BGO-OD collaboration at Bonn and significantly enhanced the achievable physics programme. We are also working with researchers in laser-plasma based particle acceleration, where the method may provide a novel way to overcome the difficulties of measuring the production of high energy photons (100's MeV). As the intensity of laser-plasma sources increases non-linear QED effects are expected to produce significant quantities of these high energy photons. A new idea based on our Kaon detection method may provide a way to measure these, even in the intense environment created by the ultra-short beam pulse. We are developing this work in collaboration with colleagues at the plasma research institute at the University of York. We recently won STFC impact acceleration funding to develop this idea, as the short duration beams from laser-plasma accelerators may have benefits in delivering next generation flash radiotherapy and open up the possibility for achievable treatments at higher photon/electron energies.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Healthcare,Other

URL http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.242502
 
Description The particle detector simulations and analysis techniques developed for the Edinburgh nucleon polarimeter formed the basis of a new idea for improving the quality of PET medical imaging. This received STFC Follow on funding (ST/K002937/1) and a patent application is currently being filed. The new technique has the potential to improve PET image quality by giving a new way to characterise and remove the effects of photon scatter in the patient and the PET apparatus. The idea stated above led to an InnovateUK award and industrial collaboration with Kromek Ltd. This aims to prototype a commercial device using the methodology developed during this grant (and the following group consolidated grant)
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Education,Healthcare
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description EPSRC impact acceleration fund
Amount £12,498 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/D001633/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2012 
End 06/2012
 
Description EU framework 7
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2012 
End 10/2014
 
Description Innovate UK
Amount £832,655 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P034276/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Description Proof of principle fund.
Amount £20,410 (GBP)
Funding ID MKT14/1523/TEC1102685 
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2014 
End 02/2015
 
Title Kaon identification technique 
Description Developed a new analysis technique which allows the identification of Kaon mesons (mesons containing a strange quark). The technique allows identification to be obtained without expensive, large tracking systems and magnetic fields. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The method was used to provide data which did not support a strong role for di-quark synamics in the excitation spectrum of the nucleon (CrystalBall@MAMI). The method was since transferred to the BGO-OD@ELSA experiment where it has significantly expanded the scope of the physics programme. It is also being applied to develop detector systems for use with laser-plasma based accelerators. 
 
Title Large acceptance nucleon spin polarimetry 
Description Developed a new method for the measurement of the spin polarisation of nucleons with large acceptance. This is a cost effective solution and the method primarily exploits new software analysis techniques. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact New experimental programme made possible at MAMI. Provides crucial data to determine properties of the nucleon. Will also provide key data to constrain the existence of 6-quark states. In discussions regarding implementation at other nuclear and hadron physics facilities. 
 
Title SAID partial wave analysis model 
Description The model is used to analyse photo meson production from the nucleon. The data produced using the Edinburgh polarimeter led to a revision in the optimum parameterisation of the photo coupling used in these studies. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The world programme of measurements to establish the excitation spectrum of the nucleon will be analysed using the more favoured photo coupling parameterisation 
URL http://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.022501
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation George Washington University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation Hampton University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Torino
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Laboratories of the South
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation Ohio University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation Old Dominion University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Country Canada 
Sector Multiple 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation Sapienza University of Rome
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation University of Bari
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation University of Catania
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation University of Ferrara
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation University of Genoa
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation University of New Hampshire
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation University of Padova
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation University of Rome Tor Vergata
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BDX Dark Matter Collaboration 
Organisation University of Sassari
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the development and writing of the proposal. Research and development for detector arrays and systems to be used in the experiment
Collaborator Contribution Experimental proposal development
Impact Proposal developed and submitted to Programme Advisory Committee at Jefferson Lab. Cited in Science news as important next generation experiment for dark matter searches. http://news.sciencemag.org/physics/2014/10/decades-old-scientific-paper-may-hold-clues-dark-matter The project has attracted dark matter researchers from the UK and USA to the experiment at Jefferson Lab so in some sense is multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2013
 
Description BGO-OD collaboration 
Organisation Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Watts is an invited member of the steering committee for the BGO-OD collaboration. Contributed to the development of the scientific programme. New particle detection methods pioneered by our group (described in http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269314004109) were adopted and enhanced the achievable programme.
Collaborator Contribution Partners will provide the experimental equipment and beam line.
Impact Programme will start in 2015
Start Year 2007
 
Description BGO-OD collaboration 
Organisation Moscow Institute for Nuclear Research
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Watts is an invited member of the steering committee for the BGO-OD collaboration. Contributed to the development of the scientific programme. New particle detection methods pioneered by our group (described in http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269314004109) were adopted and enhanced the achievable programme.
Collaborator Contribution Partners will provide the experimental equipment and beam line.
Impact Programme will start in 2015
Start Year 2007
 
Description BGO-OD collaboration 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Torino
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Watts is an invited member of the steering committee for the BGO-OD collaboration. Contributed to the development of the scientific programme. New particle detection methods pioneered by our group (described in http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269314004109) were adopted and enhanced the achievable programme.
Collaborator Contribution Partners will provide the experimental equipment and beam line.
Impact Programme will start in 2015
Start Year 2007
 
Description BGO-OD collaboration 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Laboratories of the South
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Watts is an invited member of the steering committee for the BGO-OD collaboration. Contributed to the development of the scientific programme. New particle detection methods pioneered by our group (described in http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269314004109) were adopted and enhanced the achievable programme.
Collaborator Contribution Partners will provide the experimental equipment and beam line.
Impact Programme will start in 2015
Start Year 2007
 
Description BGO-OD collaboration 
Organisation Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI)
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Watts is an invited member of the steering committee for the BGO-OD collaboration. Contributed to the development of the scientific programme. New particle detection methods pioneered by our group (described in http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269314004109) were adopted and enhanced the achievable programme.
Collaborator Contribution Partners will provide the experimental equipment and beam line.
Impact Programme will start in 2015
Start Year 2007
 
Description BGO-OD collaboration 
Organisation University of Basel
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Watts is an invited member of the steering committee for the BGO-OD collaboration. Contributed to the development of the scientific programme. New particle detection methods pioneered by our group (described in http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269314004109) were adopted and enhanced the achievable programme.
Collaborator Contribution Partners will provide the experimental equipment and beam line.
Impact Programme will start in 2015
Start Year 2007
 
Description BGO-OD collaboration 
Organisation University of Bonn
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Watts is an invited member of the steering committee for the BGO-OD collaboration. Contributed to the development of the scientific programme. New particle detection methods pioneered by our group (described in http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269314004109) were adopted and enhanced the achievable programme.
Collaborator Contribution Partners will provide the experimental equipment and beam line.
Impact Programme will start in 2015
Start Year 2007
 
Description BGO-OD collaboration 
Organisation University of Messina
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Watts is an invited member of the steering committee for the BGO-OD collaboration. Contributed to the development of the scientific programme. New particle detection methods pioneered by our group (described in http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269314004109) were adopted and enhanced the achievable programme.
Collaborator Contribution Partners will provide the experimental equipment and beam line.
Impact Programme will start in 2015
Start Year 2007
 
Description BGO-OD collaboration 
Organisation University of Pavia
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Watts is an invited member of the steering committee for the BGO-OD collaboration. Contributed to the development of the scientific programme. New particle detection methods pioneered by our group (described in http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269314004109) were adopted and enhanced the achievable programme.
Collaborator Contribution Partners will provide the experimental equipment and beam line.
Impact Programme will start in 2015
Start Year 2007
 
Description BGO-OD collaboration 
Organisation University of Rome Tor Vergata
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Watts is an invited member of the steering committee for the BGO-OD collaboration. Contributed to the development of the scientific programme. New particle detection methods pioneered by our group (described in http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269314004109) were adopted and enhanced the achievable programme.
Collaborator Contribution Partners will provide the experimental equipment and beam line.
Impact Programme will start in 2015
Start Year 2007
 
Description Forward Tagger Collaboration at CLAS12, Jefferson Lab 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Genova
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead the development and construction of the fast timing hodoscope, a new particle ID system to operate close to the electron beamline at the Thomas Jefferson National Lab in the USA (JLAB). We carried out the detailed simulations necessary to establish the design and carried out the prototype testing to detail its performance. The UK contribution to the hodoscope construction funding is the only outstanding component, and is a central part of the JLab PPRP application currently under consideration. We are spokespersons for the flagship experiment using the device (MesonEx) with the CLAS12 detector at Jefferson Lab. This will be the first experiment following the JLAB upgrade (2016) with 120 days of beamtime. The experiment has the potential to be a discovery experiment for the long sought hybrid mesons. We contributed significantly to the writing of the proposal and carried out many of the computer simulations which established the suitability of CLAS12 for meson spectroscopy. We have developed new electronic readout boards which provide amplified analogue outputs from state of the art Silicon Photomultipliers (Hamamatsu S10362-33-100C). We have designed optical fibre coupling systems to connect the particle detectors to the SiPM. Use latest technology Flash-Analogue to Digtal Convertors (ADC) negating the requirement of traditional Time to digital convertor (TDC) systems.
Collaborator Contribution JMU have collaborated on the hodoscope design - specifically the design of the optical fibre routing and supports. INFN (Genoa) played important role in the development and testing of the readout electronics (amplifier boards for SiPM light sensors). NSU and JMU succesfully won funding from the NSF to contribute to the hodoscope construction costs. University of Glasgow will develop slow control infrastructure and contribute to the gain monitoring systems for the hodoscope. Edinburgh PI, PDRA's and students have been funded by overseas visitor funds from INFN.
Impact MesonEx proposal: JLAB Exp-11-005. Approved for 120 days beamtime. Scheduled for start of operation with CLAS12. Forward Tagger Technical Design Report: http://www.jlab.org/Hall-B/clas12-web/docs/ft-tdr.2.0.pdf PPRP application for UK contribution to Forward Tagger: STFC grant No. ST/M001571/1. All collaborators applications succesful (INFN, Italy and NSF, USA) Publicity http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/new-school-alumni-magazine-01-10-14
Start Year 2009
 
Description Forward Tagger Collaboration at CLAS12, Jefferson Lab 
Organisation Norfolk State University
Department Physics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead the development and construction of the fast timing hodoscope, a new particle ID system to operate close to the electron beamline at the Thomas Jefferson National Lab in the USA (JLAB). We carried out the detailed simulations necessary to establish the design and carried out the prototype testing to detail its performance. The UK contribution to the hodoscope construction funding is the only outstanding component, and is a central part of the JLab PPRP application currently under consideration. We are spokespersons for the flagship experiment using the device (MesonEx) with the CLAS12 detector at Jefferson Lab. This will be the first experiment following the JLAB upgrade (2016) with 120 days of beamtime. The experiment has the potential to be a discovery experiment for the long sought hybrid mesons. We contributed significantly to the writing of the proposal and carried out many of the computer simulations which established the suitability of CLAS12 for meson spectroscopy. We have developed new electronic readout boards which provide amplified analogue outputs from state of the art Silicon Photomultipliers (Hamamatsu S10362-33-100C). We have designed optical fibre coupling systems to connect the particle detectors to the SiPM. Use latest technology Flash-Analogue to Digtal Convertors (ADC) negating the requirement of traditional Time to digital convertor (TDC) systems.
Collaborator Contribution JMU have collaborated on the hodoscope design - specifically the design of the optical fibre routing and supports. INFN (Genoa) played important role in the development and testing of the readout electronics (amplifier boards for SiPM light sensors). NSU and JMU succesfully won funding from the NSF to contribute to the hodoscope construction costs. University of Glasgow will develop slow control infrastructure and contribute to the gain monitoring systems for the hodoscope. Edinburgh PI, PDRA's and students have been funded by overseas visitor funds from INFN.
Impact MesonEx proposal: JLAB Exp-11-005. Approved for 120 days beamtime. Scheduled for start of operation with CLAS12. Forward Tagger Technical Design Report: http://www.jlab.org/Hall-B/clas12-web/docs/ft-tdr.2.0.pdf PPRP application for UK contribution to Forward Tagger: STFC grant No. ST/M001571/1. All collaborators applications succesful (INFN, Italy and NSF, USA) Publicity http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/new-school-alumni-magazine-01-10-14
Start Year 2009
 
Description Forward Tagger Collaboration at CLAS12, Jefferson Lab 
Organisation Thomas Jefferson University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead the development and construction of the fast timing hodoscope, a new particle ID system to operate close to the electron beamline at the Thomas Jefferson National Lab in the USA (JLAB). We carried out the detailed simulations necessary to establish the design and carried out the prototype testing to detail its performance. The UK contribution to the hodoscope construction funding is the only outstanding component, and is a central part of the JLab PPRP application currently under consideration. We are spokespersons for the flagship experiment using the device (MesonEx) with the CLAS12 detector at Jefferson Lab. This will be the first experiment following the JLAB upgrade (2016) with 120 days of beamtime. The experiment has the potential to be a discovery experiment for the long sought hybrid mesons. We contributed significantly to the writing of the proposal and carried out many of the computer simulations which established the suitability of CLAS12 for meson spectroscopy. We have developed new electronic readout boards which provide amplified analogue outputs from state of the art Silicon Photomultipliers (Hamamatsu S10362-33-100C). We have designed optical fibre coupling systems to connect the particle detectors to the SiPM. Use latest technology Flash-Analogue to Digtal Convertors (ADC) negating the requirement of traditional Time to digital convertor (TDC) systems.
Collaborator Contribution JMU have collaborated on the hodoscope design - specifically the design of the optical fibre routing and supports. INFN (Genoa) played important role in the development and testing of the readout electronics (amplifier boards for SiPM light sensors). NSU and JMU succesfully won funding from the NSF to contribute to the hodoscope construction costs. University of Glasgow will develop slow control infrastructure and contribute to the gain monitoring systems for the hodoscope. Edinburgh PI, PDRA's and students have been funded by overseas visitor funds from INFN.
Impact MesonEx proposal: JLAB Exp-11-005. Approved for 120 days beamtime. Scheduled for start of operation with CLAS12. Forward Tagger Technical Design Report: http://www.jlab.org/Hall-B/clas12-web/docs/ft-tdr.2.0.pdf PPRP application for UK contribution to Forward Tagger: STFC grant No. ST/M001571/1. All collaborators applications succesful (INFN, Italy and NSF, USA) Publicity http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/new-school-alumni-magazine-01-10-14
Start Year 2009
 
Description Forward Tagger Collaboration at CLAS12, Jefferson Lab 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead the development and construction of the fast timing hodoscope, a new particle ID system to operate close to the electron beamline at the Thomas Jefferson National Lab in the USA (JLAB). We carried out the detailed simulations necessary to establish the design and carried out the prototype testing to detail its performance. The UK contribution to the hodoscope construction funding is the only outstanding component, and is a central part of the JLab PPRP application currently under consideration. We are spokespersons for the flagship experiment using the device (MesonEx) with the CLAS12 detector at Jefferson Lab. This will be the first experiment following the JLAB upgrade (2016) with 120 days of beamtime. The experiment has the potential to be a discovery experiment for the long sought hybrid mesons. We contributed significantly to the writing of the proposal and carried out many of the computer simulations which established the suitability of CLAS12 for meson spectroscopy. We have developed new electronic readout boards which provide amplified analogue outputs from state of the art Silicon Photomultipliers (Hamamatsu S10362-33-100C). We have designed optical fibre coupling systems to connect the particle detectors to the SiPM. Use latest technology Flash-Analogue to Digtal Convertors (ADC) negating the requirement of traditional Time to digital convertor (TDC) systems.
Collaborator Contribution JMU have collaborated on the hodoscope design - specifically the design of the optical fibre routing and supports. INFN (Genoa) played important role in the development and testing of the readout electronics (amplifier boards for SiPM light sensors). NSU and JMU succesfully won funding from the NSF to contribute to the hodoscope construction costs. University of Glasgow will develop slow control infrastructure and contribute to the gain monitoring systems for the hodoscope. Edinburgh PI, PDRA's and students have been funded by overseas visitor funds from INFN.
Impact MesonEx proposal: JLAB Exp-11-005. Approved for 120 days beamtime. Scheduled for start of operation with CLAS12. Forward Tagger Technical Design Report: http://www.jlab.org/Hall-B/clas12-web/docs/ft-tdr.2.0.pdf PPRP application for UK contribution to Forward Tagger: STFC grant No. ST/M001571/1. All collaborators applications succesful (INFN, Italy and NSF, USA) Publicity http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/new-school-alumni-magazine-01-10-14
Start Year 2009
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Department GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Department GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation Julich Research Centre
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation Julich Research Centre
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department Frascati Laboratory (LNF)
Country Italy 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Torino
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Trento
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Trento
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Neutron skin collaboration (Crystal Ball at MAMI0 
Organisation Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Department Racah Institute of Physics
Country Israel 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The neutron skin measurement programme with the Crystal Ball at MAMI was initiated and is led by the Edinburgh group. Neutron skins are thought to form on heavy stable nuclei. Their properties give new information on the fundamental properties of strongly interacting matter. Some of the costs for isotopically pure target materials used funds requested from STFC. We lead the development of the theoretical framework to extract the neutron skin properties.
Collaborator Contribution Other groups joined our project and contributed funds to purchase new targets to expand the neutron skin measurement programme (additional tin isotope targets, contribution to calcium targets). There is a current funding request to the German-Israeli foundation to provide a frozen gas target system (Xenon) under review (Mainz-Racah). As well as constraining neutron skin properties this data would reduce systematic errors in dark matter detection limits.
Impact MAMI Proposal Nr A2-**/06. Approved for 600 hours beamtime. MAMI Proposal Nr A2-15/09. Approved for 900 hours beamtime. Watts invited as overseas Co-PI on new application of SFB application of MAMI facility to German funding agency Publicity http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/neutron-skin-18-06-14 http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.242502 http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/new-school-alumni-magazine-01-10-14 First measurement of a neutron skin using an electromagnetic probe. Provides direct evidence that the neutrons in heavy nuclei have a more diffuse spatial distribution than that of protons.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Neutron skin collaboration (Crystal Ball at MAMI0 
Organisation Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
Department Institute for Nuclear Physics
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The neutron skin measurement programme with the Crystal Ball at MAMI was initiated and is led by the Edinburgh group. Neutron skins are thought to form on heavy stable nuclei. Their properties give new information on the fundamental properties of strongly interacting matter. Some of the costs for isotopically pure target materials used funds requested from STFC. We lead the development of the theoretical framework to extract the neutron skin properties.
Collaborator Contribution Other groups joined our project and contributed funds to purchase new targets to expand the neutron skin measurement programme (additional tin isotope targets, contribution to calcium targets). There is a current funding request to the German-Israeli foundation to provide a frozen gas target system (Xenon) under review (Mainz-Racah). As well as constraining neutron skin properties this data would reduce systematic errors in dark matter detection limits.
Impact MAMI Proposal Nr A2-**/06. Approved for 600 hours beamtime. MAMI Proposal Nr A2-15/09. Approved for 900 hours beamtime. Watts invited as overseas Co-PI on new application of SFB application of MAMI facility to German funding agency Publicity http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/neutron-skin-18-06-14 http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.242502 http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/new-school-alumni-magazine-01-10-14 First measurement of a neutron skin using an electromagnetic probe. Provides direct evidence that the neutrons in heavy nuclei have a more diffuse spatial distribution than that of protons.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Neutron skin collaboration (Crystal Ball at MAMI0 
Organisation University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
Department Division of Astronomy & Astrophysics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The neutron skin measurement programme with the Crystal Ball at MAMI was initiated and is led by the Edinburgh group. Neutron skins are thought to form on heavy stable nuclei. Their properties give new information on the fundamental properties of strongly interacting matter. Some of the costs for isotopically pure target materials used funds requested from STFC. We lead the development of the theoretical framework to extract the neutron skin properties.
Collaborator Contribution Other groups joined our project and contributed funds to purchase new targets to expand the neutron skin measurement programme (additional tin isotope targets, contribution to calcium targets). There is a current funding request to the German-Israeli foundation to provide a frozen gas target system (Xenon) under review (Mainz-Racah). As well as constraining neutron skin properties this data would reduce systematic errors in dark matter detection limits.
Impact MAMI Proposal Nr A2-**/06. Approved for 600 hours beamtime. MAMI Proposal Nr A2-15/09. Approved for 900 hours beamtime. Watts invited as overseas Co-PI on new application of SFB application of MAMI facility to German funding agency Publicity http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/neutron-skin-18-06-14 http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.242502 http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/new-school-alumni-magazine-01-10-14 First measurement of a neutron skin using an electromagnetic probe. Provides direct evidence that the neutrons in heavy nuclei have a more diffuse spatial distribution than that of protons.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Neutron skin collaboration (Crystal Ball at MAMI0 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department Physics and Astronomy Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The neutron skin measurement programme with the Crystal Ball at MAMI was initiated and is led by the Edinburgh group. Neutron skins are thought to form on heavy stable nuclei. Their properties give new information on the fundamental properties of strongly interacting matter. Some of the costs for isotopically pure target materials used funds requested from STFC. We lead the development of the theoretical framework to extract the neutron skin properties.
Collaborator Contribution Other groups joined our project and contributed funds to purchase new targets to expand the neutron skin measurement programme (additional tin isotope targets, contribution to calcium targets). There is a current funding request to the German-Israeli foundation to provide a frozen gas target system (Xenon) under review (Mainz-Racah). As well as constraining neutron skin properties this data would reduce systematic errors in dark matter detection limits.
Impact MAMI Proposal Nr A2-**/06. Approved for 600 hours beamtime. MAMI Proposal Nr A2-15/09. Approved for 900 hours beamtime. Watts invited as overseas Co-PI on new application of SFB application of MAMI facility to German funding agency Publicity http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/neutron-skin-18-06-14 http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.242502 http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/new-school-alumni-magazine-01-10-14 First measurement of a neutron skin using an electromagnetic probe. Provides direct evidence that the neutrons in heavy nuclei have a more diffuse spatial distribution than that of protons.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Nuclear Data Mining Initiative for Jefferson Lab 
Organisation Florida International University (FIU)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed to the successful grant application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) which underpins the data mining initiative. This had 20 named applicants. We used the data mining framework to access archived data from the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. We found a new way to access previously unobserved nuclei on the r-process path. This programme will be developed in the future. Contributed to the writeup and analysis for the recent publication in Science (described below). We also have other active analyses.
Collaborator Contribution The partners setup the data analysis centres and framework to access archived data from Jefferson Lab.
Impact Analyses from the programme have been reported in the press and published in one of the leading scientific journals - Science http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-protons-neutrons-research-20141023-story.html http://www.sciencemag.org/content/346/6209/614.abstract?sid=8a24f19f-6ab9-406a-a97c-dce8fb08d61d
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nuclear Data Mining Initiative for Jefferson Lab 
Organisation Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed to the successful grant application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) which underpins the data mining initiative. This had 20 named applicants. We used the data mining framework to access archived data from the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. We found a new way to access previously unobserved nuclei on the r-process path. This programme will be developed in the future. Contributed to the writeup and analysis for the recent publication in Science (described below). We also have other active analyses.
Collaborator Contribution The partners setup the data analysis centres and framework to access archived data from Jefferson Lab.
Impact Analyses from the programme have been reported in the press and published in one of the leading scientific journals - Science http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-protons-neutrons-research-20141023-story.html http://www.sciencemag.org/content/346/6209/614.abstract?sid=8a24f19f-6ab9-406a-a97c-dce8fb08d61d
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nuclear Data Mining Initiative for Jefferson Lab 
Organisation Ohio State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed to the successful grant application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) which underpins the data mining initiative. This had 20 named applicants. We used the data mining framework to access archived data from the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. We found a new way to access previously unobserved nuclei on the r-process path. This programme will be developed in the future. Contributed to the writeup and analysis for the recent publication in Science (described below). We also have other active analyses.
Collaborator Contribution The partners setup the data analysis centres and framework to access archived data from Jefferson Lab.
Impact Analyses from the programme have been reported in the press and published in one of the leading scientific journals - Science http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-protons-neutrons-research-20141023-story.html http://www.sciencemag.org/content/346/6209/614.abstract?sid=8a24f19f-6ab9-406a-a97c-dce8fb08d61d
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nuclear Data Mining Initiative for Jefferson Lab 
Organisation Tel Aviv University
Country Israel 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed to the successful grant application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) which underpins the data mining initiative. This had 20 named applicants. We used the data mining framework to access archived data from the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. We found a new way to access previously unobserved nuclei on the r-process path. This programme will be developed in the future. Contributed to the writeup and analysis for the recent publication in Science (described below). We also have other active analyses.
Collaborator Contribution The partners setup the data analysis centres and framework to access archived data from Jefferson Lab.
Impact Analyses from the programme have been reported in the press and published in one of the leading scientific journals - Science http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-protons-neutrons-research-20141023-story.html http://www.sciencemag.org/content/346/6209/614.abstract?sid=8a24f19f-6ab9-406a-a97c-dce8fb08d61d
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nuclear Data Mining Initiative for Jefferson Lab 
Organisation Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed to the successful grant application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) which underpins the data mining initiative. This had 20 named applicants. We used the data mining framework to access archived data from the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. We found a new way to access previously unobserved nuclei on the r-process path. This programme will be developed in the future. Contributed to the writeup and analysis for the recent publication in Science (described below). We also have other active analyses.
Collaborator Contribution The partners setup the data analysis centres and framework to access archived data from Jefferson Lab.
Impact Analyses from the programme have been reported in the press and published in one of the leading scientific journals - Science http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-protons-neutrons-research-20141023-story.html http://www.sciencemag.org/content/346/6209/614.abstract?sid=8a24f19f-6ab9-406a-a97c-dce8fb08d61d
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nuclear Data Mining Initiative for Jefferson Lab 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed to the successful grant application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) which underpins the data mining initiative. This had 20 named applicants. We used the data mining framework to access archived data from the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. We found a new way to access previously unobserved nuclei on the r-process path. This programme will be developed in the future. Contributed to the writeup and analysis for the recent publication in Science (described below). We also have other active analyses.
Collaborator Contribution The partners setup the data analysis centres and framework to access archived data from Jefferson Lab.
Impact Analyses from the programme have been reported in the press and published in one of the leading scientific journals - Science http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-protons-neutrons-research-20141023-story.html http://www.sciencemag.org/content/346/6209/614.abstract?sid=8a24f19f-6ab9-406a-a97c-dce8fb08d61d
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nuclear Data Mining Initiative for Jefferson Lab 
Organisation University of New Hampshire
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed to the successful grant application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) which underpins the data mining initiative. This had 20 named applicants. We used the data mining framework to access archived data from the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. We found a new way to access previously unobserved nuclei on the r-process path. This programme will be developed in the future. Contributed to the writeup and analysis for the recent publication in Science (described below). We also have other active analyses.
Collaborator Contribution The partners setup the data analysis centres and framework to access archived data from Jefferson Lab.
Impact Analyses from the programme have been reported in the press and published in one of the leading scientific journals - Science http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-protons-neutrons-research-20141023-story.html http://www.sciencemag.org/content/346/6209/614.abstract?sid=8a24f19f-6ab9-406a-a97c-dce8fb08d61d
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nuclear Data Mining Initiative for Jefferson Lab 
Organisation University of Pennsylvania
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed to the successful grant application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) which underpins the data mining initiative. This had 20 named applicants. We used the data mining framework to access archived data from the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. We found a new way to access previously unobserved nuclei on the r-process path. This programme will be developed in the future. Contributed to the writeup and analysis for the recent publication in Science (described below). We also have other active analyses.
Collaborator Contribution The partners setup the data analysis centres and framework to access archived data from Jefferson Lab.
Impact Analyses from the programme have been reported in the press and published in one of the leading scientific journals - Science http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-protons-neutrons-research-20141023-story.html http://www.sciencemag.org/content/346/6209/614.abstract?sid=8a24f19f-6ab9-406a-a97c-dce8fb08d61d
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nuclear Data Mining Initiative for Jefferson Lab 
Organisation University of Richmond
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed to the successful grant application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) which underpins the data mining initiative. This had 20 named applicants. We used the data mining framework to access archived data from the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. We found a new way to access previously unobserved nuclei on the r-process path. This programme will be developed in the future. Contributed to the writeup and analysis for the recent publication in Science (described below). We also have other active analyses.
Collaborator Contribution The partners setup the data analysis centres and framework to access archived data from Jefferson Lab.
Impact Analyses from the programme have been reported in the press and published in one of the leading scientific journals - Science http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-protons-neutrons-research-20141023-story.html http://www.sciencemag.org/content/346/6209/614.abstract?sid=8a24f19f-6ab9-406a-a97c-dce8fb08d61d
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nuclear Data Mining Initiative for Jefferson Lab 
Organisation University of Virginia (UVa)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed to the successful grant application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) which underpins the data mining initiative. This had 20 named applicants. We used the data mining framework to access archived data from the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. We found a new way to access previously unobserved nuclei on the r-process path. This programme will be developed in the future. Contributed to the writeup and analysis for the recent publication in Science (described below). We also have other active analyses.
Collaborator Contribution The partners setup the data analysis centres and framework to access archived data from Jefferson Lab.
Impact Analyses from the programme have been reported in the press and published in one of the leading scientific journals - Science http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-protons-neutrons-research-20141023-story.html http://www.sciencemag.org/content/346/6209/614.abstract?sid=8a24f19f-6ab9-406a-a97c-dce8fb08d61d
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nucleon Polarimeter Collaboration 
Organisation Eberhard Karls University of Tubingen
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Setup the first large acceptance nucleon spin polarimeter. First used with the Crystal Ball at MAMI to provide experimental observables which are crucial to establishing the excitation spectrum of the nucleon. Proposed (as PI) the commissioning experiments and both experimental beam times. Awarded a total of 1500 hours beamtime by the Programme Advisory Committee. Our team analysed the data to establish the operation of the large acceptance polarimeter. Wrote the first paper.
Collaborator Contribution Glasgow provided a PhD student who contributed to the analysis of the first experimental data and maintained the photon tagger. Pavia contributes tracking detectors (Multi Wire Proportional Chambers - MWPC), used in the polarimeter. UCLA provided the Crystal Ball Detector. MAMI provided the photon beam and infrastructure. Tuebingen will provide simulations and person power for new experiment ('15) which will use the polarimeter equipment to constrain the existence of exotic multiquark particles.
Impact Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 022501 (2014) MAMI proposal Nr A2-03-09. Approved for 1000 hours beam time. MAMI proposal Nr A2-01-06. Approved for 600 hours beam time Plus numerous published conference proceedings
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nucleon Polarimeter Collaboration 
Organisation Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
Department Mainz Microtron MAMI
Country South Africa 
PI Contribution Setup the first large acceptance nucleon spin polarimeter. First used with the Crystal Ball at MAMI to provide experimental observables which are crucial to establishing the excitation spectrum of the nucleon. Proposed (as PI) the commissioning experiments and both experimental beam times. Awarded a total of 1500 hours beamtime by the Programme Advisory Committee. Our team analysed the data to establish the operation of the large acceptance polarimeter. Wrote the first paper.
Collaborator Contribution Glasgow provided a PhD student who contributed to the analysis of the first experimental data and maintained the photon tagger. Pavia contributes tracking detectors (Multi Wire Proportional Chambers - MWPC), used in the polarimeter. UCLA provided the Crystal Ball Detector. MAMI provided the photon beam and infrastructure. Tuebingen will provide simulations and person power for new experiment ('15) which will use the polarimeter equipment to constrain the existence of exotic multiquark particles.
Impact Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 022501 (2014) MAMI proposal Nr A2-03-09. Approved for 1000 hours beam time. MAMI proposal Nr A2-01-06. Approved for 600 hours beam time Plus numerous published conference proceedings
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nucleon Polarimeter Collaboration 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Pavia
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Setup the first large acceptance nucleon spin polarimeter. First used with the Crystal Ball at MAMI to provide experimental observables which are crucial to establishing the excitation spectrum of the nucleon. Proposed (as PI) the commissioning experiments and both experimental beam times. Awarded a total of 1500 hours beamtime by the Programme Advisory Committee. Our team analysed the data to establish the operation of the large acceptance polarimeter. Wrote the first paper.
Collaborator Contribution Glasgow provided a PhD student who contributed to the analysis of the first experimental data and maintained the photon tagger. Pavia contributes tracking detectors (Multi Wire Proportional Chambers - MWPC), used in the polarimeter. UCLA provided the Crystal Ball Detector. MAMI provided the photon beam and infrastructure. Tuebingen will provide simulations and person power for new experiment ('15) which will use the polarimeter equipment to constrain the existence of exotic multiquark particles.
Impact Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 022501 (2014) MAMI proposal Nr A2-03-09. Approved for 1000 hours beam time. MAMI proposal Nr A2-01-06. Approved for 600 hours beam time Plus numerous published conference proceedings
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nucleon Polarimeter Collaboration 
Organisation University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Setup the first large acceptance nucleon spin polarimeter. First used with the Crystal Ball at MAMI to provide experimental observables which are crucial to establishing the excitation spectrum of the nucleon. Proposed (as PI) the commissioning experiments and both experimental beam times. Awarded a total of 1500 hours beamtime by the Programme Advisory Committee. Our team analysed the data to establish the operation of the large acceptance polarimeter. Wrote the first paper.
Collaborator Contribution Glasgow provided a PhD student who contributed to the analysis of the first experimental data and maintained the photon tagger. Pavia contributes tracking detectors (Multi Wire Proportional Chambers - MWPC), used in the polarimeter. UCLA provided the Crystal Ball Detector. MAMI provided the photon beam and infrastructure. Tuebingen will provide simulations and person power for new experiment ('15) which will use the polarimeter equipment to constrain the existence of exotic multiquark particles.
Impact Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 022501 (2014) MAMI proposal Nr A2-03-09. Approved for 1000 hours beam time. MAMI proposal Nr A2-01-06. Approved for 600 hours beam time Plus numerous published conference proceedings
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nucleon Polarimeter Collaboration 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department Physics and Astronomy Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Setup the first large acceptance nucleon spin polarimeter. First used with the Crystal Ball at MAMI to provide experimental observables which are crucial to establishing the excitation spectrum of the nucleon. Proposed (as PI) the commissioning experiments and both experimental beam times. Awarded a total of 1500 hours beamtime by the Programme Advisory Committee. Our team analysed the data to establish the operation of the large acceptance polarimeter. Wrote the first paper.
Collaborator Contribution Glasgow provided a PhD student who contributed to the analysis of the first experimental data and maintained the photon tagger. Pavia contributes tracking detectors (Multi Wire Proportional Chambers - MWPC), used in the polarimeter. UCLA provided the Crystal Ball Detector. MAMI provided the photon beam and infrastructure. Tuebingen will provide simulations and person power for new experiment ('15) which will use the polarimeter equipment to constrain the existence of exotic multiquark particles.
Impact Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 022501 (2014) MAMI proposal Nr A2-03-09. Approved for 1000 hours beam time. MAMI proposal Nr A2-01-06. Approved for 600 hours beam time Plus numerous published conference proceedings
Start Year 2008
 
Title Quantum entanglement in GEANT4 particle simulation package 
Description We developed in collaboration with University of Manchester the first implementation of quantum entanglement into the GEANT4 software. This is currently in use in our InnovateUK programme, but as it is developed as part of the GEANT4 package it will eventually be open source and available to all GEANT4 users. The package was improved and finalised in late 2017 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The software allows the effects and benefits of quantum entanglement to be explored in PET imaging. Th initial studies were done using an earlier STFC follow on fund award. This has now been developed to a better standard using the innovateUK support. 
 
Description Dissecting the proton; Invited talk at Edinburgh Radiological society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Public lecture attended by around 60 consultant and trainee radiologists working in East of Scotland

Setup collaborations with Scottish imaging community. Working on some new ideas for imaging forming basis of MPhys student projects at Edinburgh University
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description The quantum world; talk at Edinburgh secondary school 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Around 60 pupils aged 16-18 attended talk introducing quantum physics. Discussion session following the talk and email discussions with students for some time afterwards.

Initiated discussion leading to high school students coming and performing physics experiments at the University laboratories. Exchange of ideas about exciting lab experiments to enthuse students in this area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010