# Theoretical Particle Physics Research

Lead Research Organisation:
University of Oxford

Department Name: Oxford Physics

### Abstract

Our overall aim is to elucidate the nature of matter and its fundamental interactions via a variety of phenomenological and theoretical studies. Of crucial importance will be the new results coming from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The proposed research will improve our ability to predict the effects of the strong interactions (QCD) on the processes that will be studied at the LHC and develop efficient methods to determine the properties of any new states of matter discovered there. Both analytical and numerical methods will be used to study the properties of hadrons, strongly interacting bound states of quarks. Our research will seek to determine what lies beyond the Standard Model of the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions, with the ultimate goal of providing a fully unified theory, including gravity. The most promising candidate theories will be studied, including Grand and superstring unification and theories with additional space dimensions. Laboratory, astrophysical and cosmological implications will be analysed to determine the most sensitive experimental tests of these theories. We hope these studies will lead to a complete understanding of the origin of mass, including an understanding of the quark, charged lepton and neutrino masses, mixing angles and CP violation, as well as of the nature of dark matter. In addition to having direct relevance to the LHC program, our research will have relevance to present and future neutrino and astroparticle experiments and to astrophysical and cosmological studies. In particular a concerted effort will be made to understand the nature of the dark matter and optimise strategies for detecting both direct and indirect signals. The implications of particle physics models for early universe processes such as inflation will also be studied, with reference to forthcoming data from Planck concerning possible non-gaussianity in the CMB anisotropy and spectral features which provide new probes of the dynamics. The physics potential of the IceCube detector (in particular the PINGU sub-array) for studying oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos will be investigated.

### Planned Impact

Particle physics underlies the workings of the material world, being concerned with the architecture of the fundamental physical interactions at the highest energies i.e. on the smallest distance scales. This naturally provides a link to the birth and evolution of the universe as a whole since the laws that governed the dynamics of space-time and matter at very early epochs close to the Big Bang are precisely those that we seek to unravel today through studies of elementary particles in both terrestrial accelerators, as well as through studies of high energy cosmic radiation. This research is truly fundamental in nature, seeking to obtain a mathematically rigorous and physically meaningful description of the laws that govern the universe - from gravity and electromagnetism on the largest scales to the weak and strong forces on the smallest. The Particle Theory Group at Oxford is active in most of the frontier areas of the subject - from particle phenomenology relevant to understanding the data pouring out of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as well as astroparticle experiments like IceCube and Auger, to mathematical studies aimed at constructing a consistent quantum description of gravity, e.g. superstring theory, which can resolve the mystery of the initial singularity at the Big Bang where all physical laws that we know today become inapplicable. We use analytic techniques as well as innovative numerical approaches using fast computers to study a wide range of problems which bear on the key science questions in the STFC roadmap.

To ensure that our results reach their target audiences, they are published in leading high impact journals. We also serve as editors and referees of many such journals and through rigorous peer review contribute towards maintaining the very high standards of our field. Since 2010 we have published 224 papers in refereed journals and served as editors and referees of 27 such journals. We have also undertaken to review applications made to 23 grant giving bodies in 15 countries (including the UK research councils STFC and EPSRC, as well as the Royal Society and the Leverhulme Foundation). We, as well as our postdocs, receive many invitations to speak at national and conferences which give us an opportunity to publicise our work and influence the direction of thinking in the field. Our post-docs and graduate students also attend such meetings in order to present and discuss their results. We are active in organising both specialist workshops and conferences, as well as in organising and teaching in specialist schools aimed at graduate students and young researchers. Since 2010 we been involved directly in organising 3 schools and 3 workshops and served on the international advisory committees of many more. In addition to generating, disseminating and applying scientific knowledge, we perform a very important additional function through our research, namely training graduate students and postdoctoral workers. 23 of our students have been awarded DPhil degrees since 2010 and most have gone on to postdoctoral positions, and some to industry. The international profile of Oxford University and our Group ensures that we receive applications from prospective students and young researchers of the highest calibre. We undertake to train these young minds how to think independently and critically and how to use advanced reasoning and both analytic and computational skills to undertake problem solving of a very high order.

We participate in a wide range of outreach activities ranging from talks to local schools and the public, consultation by national media, and extensive interactions with undergraduate audiences both in the UK and elsewhere. We participate in our University's programme to promote science by contributing to Open Days, Masterclasses and Access schemes. An innovative website http://whystringtheory.com/ set up with the help of summer students has received over 34,000 visits since Sep 2012.

To ensure that our results reach their target audiences, they are published in leading high impact journals. We also serve as editors and referees of many such journals and through rigorous peer review contribute towards maintaining the very high standards of our field. Since 2010 we have published 224 papers in refereed journals and served as editors and referees of 27 such journals. We have also undertaken to review applications made to 23 grant giving bodies in 15 countries (including the UK research councils STFC and EPSRC, as well as the Royal Society and the Leverhulme Foundation). We, as well as our postdocs, receive many invitations to speak at national and conferences which give us an opportunity to publicise our work and influence the direction of thinking in the field. Our post-docs and graduate students also attend such meetings in order to present and discuss their results. We are active in organising both specialist workshops and conferences, as well as in organising and teaching in specialist schools aimed at graduate students and young researchers. Since 2010 we been involved directly in organising 3 schools and 3 workshops and served on the international advisory committees of many more. In addition to generating, disseminating and applying scientific knowledge, we perform a very important additional function through our research, namely training graduate students and postdoctoral workers. 23 of our students have been awarded DPhil degrees since 2010 and most have gone on to postdoctoral positions, and some to industry. The international profile of Oxford University and our Group ensures that we receive applications from prospective students and young researchers of the highest calibre. We undertake to train these young minds how to think independently and critically and how to use advanced reasoning and both analytic and computational skills to undertake problem solving of a very high order.

We participate in a wide range of outreach activities ranging from talks to local schools and the public, consultation by national media, and extensive interactions with undergraduate audiences both in the UK and elsewhere. We participate in our University's programme to promote science by contributing to Open Days, Masterclasses and Access schemes. An innovative website http://whystringtheory.com/ set up with the help of summer students has received over 34,000 visits since Sep 2012.

### Publications

Aartsen M. G.
(2016)

*THE SEARCH FOR TRANSIENT ASTROPHYSICAL NEUTRINO EMISSION WITH ICECUBE-DEEPCORE*in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL
Aartsen M. G.
(2016)

*AN ALL-SKY SEARCH FOR THREE FLAVORS OF NEUTRINOS FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH THE ICECUBE NEUTRINO OBSERVATORY*in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL
Aartsen M. G.
(2016)

*SEARCH FOR SOURCES OF HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRONS WITH FOUR YEARS OF DATA FROM THE ICETOP DETECTOR*in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL
Aartsen MG
(2015)

*Development of a general analysis and unfolding scheme and its application to measure the energy spectrum of atmospheric neutrinos with IceCube: IceCube Collaboration.*in The European physical journal. C, Particles and fields
Aartsen MG
(2014)

*Observation of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos in three years of IceCube data.*in Physical review letters
Aartsen MG
(2016)

*Searches for Sterile Neutrinos with the IceCube Detector.*in Physical review letters
Aartsen MG
(2015)

*Flavor Ratio of Astrophysical Neutrinos above 35 TeV in IceCube.*in Physical review letters
Aartsen MG
(2017)

*Measurement of the energy spectrum with IceCube-79: IceCube Collaboration.*in The European physical journal. C, Particles and fields
Aartsen MG
(2015)

*Evidence for Astrophysical Muon Neutrinos from the Northern Sky with IceCube.*in Physical review letters
Aartsen MG
(2016)

*Constraints on Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube.*in Physical review letters
Abbott B
(2017)

*Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger*in The Astrophysical Journal
Abdallah J
(2015)

*Simplified models for dark matter searches at the LHC*in Physics of the Dark Universe
Acero F
(2017)

*Prospects for Cherenkov Telescope Array Observations of the Young Supernova Remnant RX J1713.7-3946*in The Astrophysical Journal
Adrian-Martinez S.
(2016)

*THE FIRST COMBINED SEARCH FOR NEUTRINO POINT-SOURCES IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE WITH THE ANTARES AND ICECUBE NEUTRINO TELESCOPES*in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL
Adrian-Martinez S.
(2016)

*High-energy neutrino follow-up search of gravitational wave event GW150914 with ANTARES and IceCube*in PHYSICAL REVIEW D
Albert A
(2017)

*Search for High-energy Neutrinos from Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 with ANTARES, IceCube, and the Pierre Auger Observatory*in The Astrophysical Journal
Albert A.
(2017)

*Search for high-energy neutrinos from gravitational wave event GW151226 and candidate LVT151012 with ANTARES and IceCube*in PHYSICAL REVIEW D
Alioli S
(2014)

*Update of the Binoth Les Houches Accord for a standard interface between Monte Carlo tools and one-loop programs*in Computer Physics Communications
Alvarez P
(2015)

*Observational consistency and future predictions for a 3.5 keV ALP to photon line*in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Ambjørn J
(2014)

*A restricted dimer model on a two-dimensional random causal triangulation*in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical
Anderson L
(2014)

*A Comprehensive Scan for Heterotic SU(5) GUT models*in Journal of High Energy Physics
Anderson L
(2015)

*Hypercharge flux in heterotic compactifications*in Physical Review D
Andrade Tomas
(2017)

*Holographic isotropisation in Gauss-Bonnet gravity*in JOURNAL OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS
Athenodorou A
(2015)

*On the weak N -dependence of SO ( N ) and SU ( N ) gauge theories in 2 + 1 dimensions*in Physics Letters B
Atkin M
(2016)

*Sums of random matrices and the Potts model on random planar maps*in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical
Attems Maximilian
(2017)

*Holographic collisions in non-conformal theories*in JOURNAL OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS
Attems Maximilian
(2016)

*Thermodynamics, transport and relaxation in non-conformal theories*in JOURNAL OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS
Ball R
(2016)

*Intrinsic charm in a matched general-mass scheme*in Physics Letters B
Ball R
(2016)

*The asymptotic behaviour of parton distributions at small and large x*in The European Physical Journal C
Ball RD
(2017)

*Parton distributions from high-precision collider data: NNPDF Collaboration.*in The European physical journal. C, Particles and fields
Ball RD
(2016)

*A determination of the charm content of the proton: The NNPDF Collaboration.*in The European physical journal. C, Particles and fields
Banfi A
(2014)

*Quark masses in Higgs production with a jet veto*in Journal of High Energy Physics
Banfi A
(2015)

*A general method for the resummation of event-shape distributions in e + e - annihilation*in Journal of High Energy Physics
Behr JK
(2016)

*Boosting Higgs pair production in the [Formula: see text] final state with multivariate techniques.*in The European physical journal. C, Particles and fields
Berg M
(2017)

*Constraints on Axion-like Particles from X-Ray Observations of NGC1275*in The Astrophysical Journal
Bertone V
(2017)

*A determination of the fragmentation functions of pions, kaons, and protons with faithful uncertainties: The NNPDF Collaboration.*in The European physical journal. C, Particles and fields
Bertone V
(2016)

*A determination of m c (m c ) from HERA data using a matched heavy-flavor scheme*in Journal of High Energy Physics
Blesneag S
(2016)

*Holomorphic Yukawa couplings in heterotic string theory*in Journal of High Energy Physics
Blesneag Stefan
(2017)

*Holomorphic Yukawa couplings for complete intersection Calabi-Yau manifolds*in JOURNAL OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS
Bobeth C
(2014)

*On new physics in ?G d*in Journal of High Energy Physics
Bobeth C
(2015)

*Anomalous triple gauge couplings from B-meson and kaon observables*in Journal of High Energy Physics
Bonnivard V
(2015)

*Dark matter annihilation and decay in dwarf spheroidal galaxies: the classical and ultrafaint dSphs*in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Braun A
(2016)

*Box graphs and resolutions II: From Coulomb phases to fiber faces*in Nuclear Physics B
Braun A
(2017)

*Discrete Symmetries of Calabi-Yau Hypersurfaces in Toric Four-Folds*in Communications in Mathematical Physics
Braun Andreas P.
(2018)

*NS5-Branes and Line Bundles in Heterotic/F-Theory Duality*in Phys.Rev.
Braun Andreas P.
(2017)

*Tops as building blocks for G(2) manifolds*in JOURNAL OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS
Buchbinder E
(2014)

*A heterotic standard model with B - L symmetry and a stable proton*in Journal of High Energy Physics
Buchbinder E
(2015)

*Non-generic couplings in supersymmetric standard models*in Physics Letters B
Buchbinder E
(2015)

*Heterotic QCD axion*in Physical Review D
Buchbinder E
(2016)

*Yukawa unification in heterotic string theory*in Physical Review DDescription | Our understanding of the fundamental nature of matter and forces in the universe has been extended. |

Exploitation Route | As is evident from the citation record, the publications in peer-reviewed international journals resulting from this work have been widely used by other researchers and influenced research directions in the field. |

Sectors | Education |

Description | AMVA4NewPhysics Marie Curie Initial Training Network of the European Comission |

Organisation | European Commission |

Country | European Union (EU) |

Sector | Public |

PI Contribution | Exploitation of advanced multivariate techniques for the search for New Physics at the Large Hadron Collider |

Collaborator Contribution | General organisation of the network and research activities. |

Impact | . |

Start Year | 2015 |