Nuclear Physics Consolidated Grant 2013

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

Nuclear Physics aims to understand the structure and dynamics of nuclear systems. It is key to understanding the Universe from the first microseconds of its inception when the quark-gluon plasma prevailed, through its history of star and galaxy formation where nuclear reactions play an essential role both in the generation of energy and the creation of elements. The field also has applications that benefit society in diverse areas, from medicine and security to power production, and a strong impact on other fields of science.

Our research interests are focused on fundamental aspects of nuclear physics ranging from hadrons to exotic nuclear systems. We use complementary methods to address key issues concerning: the structure and interactions of nucleons and light nuclei; new forms of collective motion; evolution of nuclear structure; and loosely bound systems.

The Manchester group is part of the UK nuclear community that has devised a mode of operation which enables it to make leading edge contributions at an international level in both experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Experimental work is performed at specific overseas facilities with focussed investment in the necessary instrumentation to carry out this work.

Atomic nuclei provide a unique quantal laboratory in which microscopic as well as mesoscopic features, driven by effective two-body and three-body forces, can be studied. They are complex many-body systems, but often display unexpected regularities and simple excitation patterns that arise from underlying shell structure, pairing and collective modes of excitation. Such properties are also exhibited by simpler mesoscopic systems (for example, metallic clusters, quantum dots, and atomic condensates) the understanding of which draws heavily on techniques developed and honed in nuclear physics. A fundamental challenge is to understand nuclear properties ab-initio from the interplay of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces between individual nucleons. In recent years, enormous progress has been made with such programmes for light nuclei. For heavier nuclei, shell, cluster and other beyond mean field many-body techniques, based on effective interactions, provide essential frameworks for correlating experimental data, yet still lack the refinement to reliably predict nuclear properties as one moves more than a few nucleons from nuclei close to stability.

We also aim to make connections between the interactions of nucleons and the underlying theory that describes the strong force, Quantum Chromodynamics. Key quantities are the polarisabilities that describe how the structures of nucleons respond to external electric and magnetic fields. We are developing theoretical tools to determine these from experiments on the scattering of photons from hydrogen and other light nuclei. The latter are needed to learn about the the properties of the neutron since it is an unstable particle.

Planned Impact

Trained manpower at postgraduate and postdoctoral levels is in great demand in nuclear, software and instrumentation industries. Young scientists trained within academic nuclear physics are the only source of independent expertise in areas concerning radioactivity and radiation detection. The importance of this expertise can only increase in the future as the UK moves into its new nuclear build programme, starting at Hinkley Point. The new Nuclear Industrial Strategy recognises the key enablers will be an increase in nuclear R&D and development of nuclear skills. Handling and disposal of nuclear wastes, reactor decommissioning and advanced reactor designs will become even more important issues in society. The research undertaken will also directly inform the teaching of undergraduates at Manchester who will benefit from advanced courses involving examples from topical, current research issues.

Since nuclear physics is the fundamental science underpinning the nuclear sector, our expertise developed in research projects such as these allows us to host for two major postgraduate training programmes: the Coordinating Centre for NTEC (Nuclear Technology Education Consortium involving 12 UK universities providing Masters-level courses to the nuclear industry) and the EPSRC Industrial Doctorate Centre for Nuclear Engineering (a consortium of 8 universities, see above). We deliver core and options modules for NTEC, and we are quickly expanding other KT activities (eg IAEA MSc course in nuclear security; leading involvement in a European project to design nuclear safety culture courses across the European nuclear sector; and nuclear codes training courses).

All members of the group, including academics, research fellows, PDRAs and PhD students, undertake public engagement activities. The members of the academic staff have a strong track record in outreach and have built up experience and a good reputation that can be used to good effect. They are regularly featured on local, national and foreign radio stations to address general issues, as well as for the direct promotion of their research to the general public. Research staff and students are less experienced, yet highly committed and training is encouraged. Through our participation in the Dalton Nuclear Institute, we collaborate with a number of local and national institutions as well. Dr John Roberts, a Nuclear Fellow within Dalton, is a member of the Nuclear Physics Group and coordinates our activities in this area. For example, we are running an annual course on nuclear energy for KS4 pupils. In collaboration with other UK nuclear physics groups, we organise an annual Teach the Teachers workshop that covers nuclear energy, nuclear medicine and nuclear physics. Members of the group are also active in various CERN-based public engagement activities.

Group members have also been able to influence UK and International Policy on nuclear related issues via participation in select committee activities and by representing the UK at a variety of international meetings related to the nuclear industry and skills.

Nuclear data and technological expertise in the group will be used to make measurements relevant to the nuclear industry (included in theme 6 of the proposal) by improving a variety of important nuclear cross sections. This will feed into the Joint European Fission-Fusion database, used throughout the nuclear industry to improve safety and economics of current and future operations, and of the design of advanced reactors and geological disposal facilities.

Group members are involved in an IPS project to improve SPECT imaging at the Christie hospital, with potential to commission commercial software. The group has supported medical research using short-lived positron emitters at the Wolfson Medical Imaging Centre, by joint supervision of MPhys and MSc students to help WMIC's research project work.

For more detailed information, see accompanying paperwork.

Publications

10 25 50
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Yordanov DT (2016) Simple Nuclear Structure in (111-129)Cd from Atomic Isomer Shifts. in Physical review letters

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Žugec P (2016) Integral measurement of the 12C(n, p)12B reaction up to 10 GeV in The European Physical Journal A

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Žugec P (2016) Pulse processing routines for neutron time-of-flight data in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

 
Description Fundamental information about the structure of and reactions between atomic nuclei.
Exploitation Route Stimulated and fed information into other academic research.
Stimulated outreach activities to the public.
Sectors Energy,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Security and Diplomacy,Other

 
Description Fed into several outreach activities.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description Aizu 
Organisation University of Aizu
Department Mathematical Science
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative work, intellectual input, access to experimental results
Collaborator Contribution Theoretical calculations and support
Impact Research papers
 
Description Argonne 
Organisation Argonne National Laboratory
Department Physics Division
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Intellectual input; performing experiments; analysing data.
Collaborator Contribution Facility and equipment provision; intellectual input.
Impact Forthcoming publications.
 
Description CERN-ISOLDE 
Organisation European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
Department ISOLDE Radioactive Ion Beam Facility
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Research collaborations, equipment provision
Collaborator Contribution Research collaborations, equipment and facility provision
Impact Research outputs, collaborative equipment construction.
 
Description CRIS Collaboration 
Organisation University of Leuven
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Manchester-led, Leuven is main partner
Collaborator Contribution Provides manpower and grant money for equipment
Impact See publication list
Start Year 2010
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (optical detection) 
Organisation European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
Department ISOLDE Radioactive Ion Beam Facility
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Leadership of some experimental proposals, new methodologies, data analysis, publication and dissemination.
Collaborator Contribution Personnel for experiments.
Impact Publications, conference talks and fellowships.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (optical detection) 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Department GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Leadership of some experimental proposals, new methodologies, data analysis, publication and dissemination.
Collaborator Contribution Personnel for experiments.
Impact Publications, conference talks and fellowships.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (optical detection) 
Organisation Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
Department Institute for Nuclear Chemistry
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leadership of some experimental proposals, new methodologies, data analysis, publication and dissemination.
Collaborator Contribution Personnel for experiments.
Impact Publications, conference talks and fellowships.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (optical detection) 
Organisation Max Planck Society
Department Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Leadership of some experimental proposals, new methodologies, data analysis, publication and dissemination.
Collaborator Contribution Personnel for experiments.
Impact Publications, conference talks and fellowships.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (optical detection) 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Department School of Physics and Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leadership of some experimental proposals, new methodologies, data analysis, publication and dissemination.
Collaborator Contribution Personnel for experiments.
Impact Publications, conference talks and fellowships.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (optical detection) 
Organisation University of Jyvaskyla
Department Department of Physics
Country Finland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leadership of some experimental proposals, new methodologies, data analysis, publication and dissemination.
Collaborator Contribution Personnel for experiments.
Impact Publications, conference talks and fellowships.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (optical detection) 
Organisation University of Leuven
Department Institute for Nuclear and Radiation Physics
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leadership of some experimental proposals, new methodologies, data analysis, publication and dissemination.
Collaborator Contribution Personnel for experiments.
Impact Publications, conference talks and fellowships.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (particle detection) 
Organisation European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
Department ISOLDE Radioactive Ion Beam Facility
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Design and construction of a new beam line for collinear resonance ionisation spectroscopy of radioactive beams. Equipment, students and staff time contributed.
Collaborator Contribution Laboratory space, radioactive ion beams.
Impact Conference contributions, fellowship.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (particle detection) 
Organisation IPN Orsay - Nuclear structure
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Design and construction of a new beam line for collinear resonance ionisation spectroscopy of radioactive beams. Equipment, students and staff time contributed.
Collaborator Contribution Laboratory space, radioactive ion beams.
Impact Conference contributions, fellowship.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (particle detection) 
Organisation Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
Department Institute for Nuclear Physics
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Design and construction of a new beam line for collinear resonance ionisation spectroscopy of radioactive beams. Equipment, students and staff time contributed.
Collaborator Contribution Laboratory space, radioactive ion beams.
Impact Conference contributions, fellowship.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (particle detection) 
Organisation Max Planck Society
Department Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Design and construction of a new beam line for collinear resonance ionisation spectroscopy of radioactive beams. Equipment, students and staff time contributed.
Collaborator Contribution Laboratory space, radioactive ion beams.
Impact Conference contributions, fellowship.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (particle detection) 
Organisation New York University
Department Department of Physics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Design and construction of a new beam line for collinear resonance ionisation spectroscopy of radioactive beams. Equipment, students and staff time contributed.
Collaborator Contribution Laboratory space, radioactive ion beams.
Impact Conference contributions, fellowship.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (particle detection) 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Department School of Physics and Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Design and construction of a new beam line for collinear resonance ionisation spectroscopy of radioactive beams. Equipment, students and staff time contributed.
Collaborator Contribution Laboratory space, radioactive ion beams.
Impact Conference contributions, fellowship.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (particle detection) 
Organisation University of Leuven
Department Institute for Nuclear and Radiation Physics
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Design and construction of a new beam line for collinear resonance ionisation spectroscopy of radioactive beams. Equipment, students and staff time contributed.
Collaborator Contribution Laboratory space, radioactive ion beams.
Impact Conference contributions, fellowship.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN (particle detection) 
Organisation University of Tokyo
Department Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Design and construction of a new beam line for collinear resonance ionisation spectroscopy of radioactive beams. Equipment, students and staff time contributed.
Collaborator Contribution Laboratory space, radioactive ion beams.
Impact Conference contributions, fellowship.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at JYFL 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Department School of Physics and Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leadership of the programme, experiment proposal creation, devising new experimental techniques, setting up and execution of experiments, data analysis, publication and dissemination of results.
Collaborator Contribution Shared responsibility for purchasing new equipment and renewal of old equipment. Provision of man power for running experiments.
Impact Peer reviewed publications, conference talks and fellowship awards.
 
Description Laser spectroscopy at JYFL 
Organisation University of Jyvaskyla
Department Department of Physics
Country Finland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leadership of the programme, experiment proposal creation, devising new experimental techniques, setting up and execution of experiments, data analysis, publication and dissemination of results.
Collaborator Contribution Shared responsibility for purchasing new equipment and renewal of old equipment. Provision of man power for running experiments.
Impact Peer reviewed publications, conference talks and fellowship awards.
 
Description University of Tokyo 
Organisation University of Tokyo
Department Centre for Nuclear Study
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative work, intellectual input, access to experimental results
Collaborator Contribution Theoretical calculations and support
Impact Research papers
 
Company Name ARTEMIS ANALYTICAL LTD 
Description This is a company setup with UMIP to begin the process of taking our research at CERN to market. The company's focus is providing an analysis service for carbon dating of modern and ancient samples. The key methodology is based on techniques developed during the fellowship that have been subsequently further enhanced at the University of Manchester to make them competitive within this sector. 
Year Established 2016 
Impact The company has yet to start trading. At the moment we have filed two patents to protect inventions that built on research at CERN during the fellowship. The company is in the process of securing its IP position, conducting market research and structural planning and seeking equity investment. It is hoped to start trading in 2018.