BRIdging Disciplines of Galactic Chemical Evolution (BRIDGCE): The Rise of the Chemical Elements

Lead Research Organisation: University of Hertfordshire
Department Name: School of Physics, Astronomy and Maths

Abstract

The main scientific goal of this consortium is to study the chemical evolution of the universe from the Big Bang up to now by using chemical elements as fingerprints of the processes that took place in stars and galaxies. Although light can travel for billions of years and we can nowadays observe the cosmic microwave background emitted at the epoch of recombination, most of the stars that formed in the early universe are long dead, and larger structures like the first halos have merged or been disrupted. It is therefore not possible to observe them directly. Fortunately, stars and galactic structures leave chemical fingerprints in the stars that formed out of their ashes. Thus, in extremely-metal-poor (EMP) stars that have a low enough mass to live longer than the current age of the universe, we can observe the chemical fingerprints of the processes that took place in the early universe. Moreover, we can constrain their properties by comparing theoretical models of stars with observations of EMP stars in the halo of our galaxy, and by generating models of the chemical evolution of galaxies in cosmologically-valid simulations. Furthermore, by simulating stellar and galactic chemical evolution from the early universe until the present day, we can reproduce the entire chemical history of galaxies and the Milky Way in particular. Our research also addresses other key scientific questions: ``How can we explore and understand the extremes of the universe?'' by studying and constraining the properties of supernova explosions and ``What is the nature of nuclear and hadronic matter? '' by improving our knowledge of nuclear reaction rates. These studies linked to the rise of the chemical elements constitute the main scientific goals of the proposed research.


To answer questions like: "What are the properties of the early universe?, Where were the elements we are made of created?", knowledge in various disciplines of astrophysics and nuclear physics is necessary. Indeed, nuclear data (nuclear reaction rates in particular) are a key input for stellar evolution models since nuclear reactions provide the energy that powers stars. This information determines stellar lifetimes, and the composition of their final ejecta. Stars, in turn, provide important feedback into the galaxies they belong to through the light they radiate, their powerful supernova explosions and all the chemical elements they produce. The outputs of stellar evolution models are therefore key ingredients for galactic chemical evolution models. These models follow successive episodes of star formation and trace the history of the enrichment of the elements in various galaxies. The model predictions can then be compared to observations of EMP stars that carry the chemical fingerprints of the cumulative chemical enrichment that preceded their birth. Comparison to observations can thus constrain both the galactic and stellar properties. Stellar evolution models can also be used as virtual nuclear physics laboratories, in which we can test the impact of uncertainties in certain nuclear reaction rates.


To answer these questions, this consortium will adopt a multidisciplinary approach, gathering expertise from world-leading scientists at five UK universities, and will also further its existing intersectoral links with companies developing and producing particle detectors and high-tech shared-memory computer hardware.


Our research will apply innovative techniques across different disciplines and attack this scientific challenge through 4 projects corresponding to 3 different physical scales:

- Galactic and extra-Galactic scales (Project A)

- Stars and their nucleosynthesis (Project B)

- Micro-physics: sensitivity to nuclear and stellar modelling uncertainties (Project C) and the impact of stellar environments on nuclear reaction rates and stellar evolution (Project D)

Planned Impact

The Consortium is cognisant of its role in inspiring and training the next generation of scientists responsible for ensuring the UK's international competitiveness in both the academic and industrial sectors, so our outreach and public engagement activities are a key aspect of our mission. Our investigators and their institutes undertake a spectrum of activities. BRIDGCE will bring a greater breadth and depth to these activities through its interdisciplinary composition.

Application and Exploitation:

Hirschi as part of his ERC project has established a working relation with the Norwegian company Numascale, which develops hardware for shared memory computer clusters. This collaboration opens the door to R&D investments from the private sector and to further European funding. Murphy and the Edinburgh group maintain strong industrial links with partners including the UK company Micron Semiconductor Ltd, in order to develop, for example, silicon strip detectors for advanced implantation detector arrays and for recycling exotic radio-nuclides. Murphy's group is a member of the Nuclear and Plasma Physics theme within SUPA, collaborating towards the creation of the Scottish Centre for the Application of Plasma-Based Accelerators which will develop new scientific and technological advances in accelerator science.

The multi-disciplinary nature of BRIDGCE affords our students and PDRAs broadened training opportunities. They will benefit from our industrial links, particularly in software optimisation alongside experts at Numascale. Designing and optimising advanced simulation codes, and "Big Data" mining as required by our massive datasets, are aligned with UK economic needs, so this training ensures the marketability of our students in diverse career paths. In addition to our postgraduate students and PDRAs staying in academia, others have progressed to highly-skilled jobs in the industrial, financial and public sectors. Our students and PDRAs receive training in data protection and exploitation of intellectual property, in order to maximise and protect current and future exploitation of STFC funded science.

Communications and Public Engagement:

Astrophysicists have unique influence in enthusing the next generation of scientists and building public support for science, and we participate enthusiastically in education and public outreach (EPO). With BRIDGCE science spanning scales from the very small (nuclei) to the very large (stellar and galactic scale), and utilising large scale high-performance computing facilities to generate evolving simulations of astronomical objects like stars (Project B) and galaxies (Project A), our consortium has a unique opportunity to capture the imagination of non-scientists.

All of our institutions have dedicated links with local schools (e.g. Preston Science Partnership, through the Ogden Trust; Bayfordbury Observatory Group Visits at Herts.). One particularly effective dissemination route is via specialised teacher training days which are organised regularly at York, Keele and Herts. in conjunction with their respective science learning centres (SLC), and in Preston at UCLan's Alston Observatory.

Capacity and Involvement:

Alison Laird appeared on BBC Radio 4 to discuss nuclear astrophysics and regularly gives public talks. Gibson employs the outcomes of his STFC-supported research in a wide range of activities. He gives several public lectures per year, most recently as one of the Keynote Speakers at the 2013 European Astrofest, where he shared the stage with Brian Cox and Lucy Hawking.

Keele Observatory and Alston Observatory (Preston) both host weekly events, in addition to special events during Stargazing Live, Transit of Venus, etc. Each observatory accommodates ~1000 people per year, spanning the full spectrum in ages. Herts. runs an open night programme attracting around 2000 public visitors a year at its extensive Bayfordbury Observatory.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We have identified the origin of all stable elements in the Universe (journal paper published). Kobayashi has also been pusing forward to the galactic archaeology approach to the studies of external galaxies (extra-galactic archaeology, published in Nature 2016).
Exploitation Route This work will be taken forward by the on-going and future observational surveys of elemental abundances using high-resolution multi-object spectrographs, e.g., HERMES-GALAH, WEAVE, 4-MOST which our research team is participating.
Sectors Chemicals

URL https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Natur.540..205K/abstract
 
Description Our impact is achieved in public engagement, teacher training, interactions with the media and promoting equality and diversity.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Education
Impact Types Societal

 
Description 2021-2022 Calendar: Women Scientists Who Made Nuclear Astrophysics
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Contribution to new or Improved professional practice
Impact This calendar is distributed to not only young female scholars but also general public, and will have a great impact on EDI in research and education.
URL https://cloud.konkoly.hu/s/pBLJtG2CFyF66Df
 
Description Springboard to action: Recommendations for improving equity, inclusion and diversity in Astronomy
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact This document provided recommendations for improving equity, inclusion and diversity in Astronomy.
URL https://www.iau.org/static/publications/springboard-booklet-150dpi-2page-view.pdf
 
Description ?ARC Discovery Projects
Amount $399,231 (AUD)
Organisation Australian Research Council 
Sector Public
Country Australia
Start 09/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Description ARC Discovery Projects
Amount $339,500 (AUD)
Funding ID DP170100521 
Organisation Australian Research Council 
Sector Public
Country Australia
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description COST
Amount € 600,000 (EUR)
Funding ID CA16117 
Organisation International Commission of the Palaeozoic Microflora 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 03/2017 
End 04/2021
 
Description KICC Medium-term Visitor Grant
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2019 
End 09/2022
 
Description Leverhulme Trust Research Fellowship "Birth of Elements"
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2021 
End 09/2023
 
Description Monash Distinguished Fellow Program
Amount $4,000 (AUD)
Organisation Monash University 
Sector Academic/University
Country Australia
Start 11/2019 
End 02/2020
 
Description RSAA Distinguished Fellow Program
Amount $12,000 (AUD)
Organisation Australian National University (ANU) 
Sector Academic/University
Country Australia
Start 09/2014 
End 03/2015
 
Description RSAA Distinguished Fellow Program
Amount $3,000 (AUD)
Organisation Australian National University (ANU) 
Sector Academic/University
Country Australia
Start 11/2019 
End 02/2020
 
Description 4MOST - 4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope 
Organisation Leibniz Association
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Gabriele Cescutti is a scientific member of 4MOST, a fibre-fed spectroscopic survey facility on the VISTA telescope, in particular a member of: "Milky Way Halo High Resolution Survey" that aims to acquire spectra of at least 100,000 such stars and determine their chemical abundance patterns, using stellar atmosphere models and "Milky Way Bulge and Disk High Resolution Survey", the largest high-resolution spectroscopic survey of stars in the Milky Way disk and bulge with high-precision chemical abundances for 2 million stars. In this large collaboration, he does not only contribute to the management of these two surveys, but also be part of the infrastructure working group "Science Simulations" and of the work package Halo HR "Scientific preparation and science analysis".
Collaborator Contribution The 4MOST consortium has been selected by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) to provide the ESO community with a fibre-fed spectroscopic survey facility on the VISTA telescope with a large enough field-of-view to survey a large frac­tion of the southern sky in a few years. The facility will be able to simultaneously obtain spectra of ~2400 objects distributed over an hexagonal field-of-view of 4 square degrees. This high multiplex of 4MOST, combined with its high spectral resolution, will enable detection of chemical and kinematic substructure in the stellar halo, bulge and thin and thick discs of the Milky Way, thus help unravel the origin of our home galaxy. The instrument will also have enough wavelength coverage to secure velocities of extra-galactic objects over a large range in red­shift, thus enabling measurements of the evolution of galaxies and the structure of the cosmos.
Impact You can find on this link the publication of 4MOST: https://www.4most.eu/cms/publications/
Start Year 2013
 
Description Astro3D - The ARC Centre of Excellence in All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions 
Organisation Australian National University (ANU)
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is invited to become an affiliate member of the ARC Centre of Excellent Astro3D in 2020, to provide my experties of chemical evolution of galaxies, and have contrbuted >10 journal papers as a co-author.
Collaborator Contribution (1) Philip Taylor (ANU) is Kobayashi's former PhD student in 2011-2015, has been runnig cosmological simulations, and led several papers. (2) Lisa Kewley is a supervisor of Taylor, and contributed for scientific discussion in Taylor's papers. (3) David Yong and Gary Da Costa (ANU) provide observational data, which led a Nature paper in 2021. (4) Amanda Karakas (Monash) has been a close collaborator since 2008 and is a co-author of recent paper in 2020. (5) Ilya Mandel provides binary population synthesis models for a paper in prepration.
Impact >10 journal papers are publishd and submitted (see publications) including Yong et al. 2021, Nature.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Astro3D - The ARC Centre of Excellence in All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions 
Organisation Australian Research Council
Country Australia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is invited to become an affiliate member of the ARC Centre of Excellent Astro3D in 2020, to provide my experties of chemical evolution of galaxies, and have contrbuted >10 journal papers as a co-author.
Collaborator Contribution (1) Philip Taylor (ANU) is Kobayashi's former PhD student in 2011-2015, has been runnig cosmological simulations, and led several papers. (2) Lisa Kewley is a supervisor of Taylor, and contributed for scientific discussion in Taylor's papers. (3) David Yong and Gary Da Costa (ANU) provide observational data, which led a Nature paper in 2021. (4) Amanda Karakas (Monash) has been a close collaborator since 2008 and is a co-author of recent paper in 2020. (5) Ilya Mandel provides binary population synthesis models for a paper in prepration.
Impact >10 journal papers are publishd and submitted (see publications) including Yong et al. 2021, Nature.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Astro3D - The ARC Centre of Excellence in All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions 
Organisation Monash University
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is invited to become an affiliate member of the ARC Centre of Excellent Astro3D in 2020, to provide my experties of chemical evolution of galaxies, and have contrbuted >10 journal papers as a co-author.
Collaborator Contribution (1) Philip Taylor (ANU) is Kobayashi's former PhD student in 2011-2015, has been runnig cosmological simulations, and led several papers. (2) Lisa Kewley is a supervisor of Taylor, and contributed for scientific discussion in Taylor's papers. (3) David Yong and Gary Da Costa (ANU) provide observational data, which led a Nature paper in 2021. (4) Amanda Karakas (Monash) has been a close collaborator since 2008 and is a co-author of recent paper in 2020. (5) Ilya Mandel provides binary population synthesis models for a paper in prepration.
Impact >10 journal papers are publishd and submitted (see publications) including Yong et al. 2021, Nature.
Start Year 2019
 
Description BRIDGCE consortium: BRIdge the Disciplines related to the Galactic Chemical Evolution 
Organisation Armagh Observatory and Planetarium
Department Armagh Observatory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi became the chair of this STFC-funded consortium in 2019, and is organizing annual meetings and initiating consortium grand application for STFC. Gabriele Cescutti was the STFC-funded PDRA in 2015/16, and Fiorenzo Vincenzo was in 2017/2019, both were working with Kobayashi at Univ. of Hertfordshire.
Collaborator Contribution The BRIDGCE consortium is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the UK and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. As the chair Kobayashi has been co-organizing a parallel session at NAM and an online annual meeting every year, which also provided an opportunity for ECRs/students to participate management and develop leadership. Kobayashi has also been monitoring gender statistics and EDI at the research network.
Impact The main outcomes of BRIDGCE are the following: Facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. Liaise with other national and international networks (e.g. JINA) who share the same goals. Develop synergy between the various expertise available in the UK. Enhance PhD students training in this multi-disciplinary research area. In 2022, BRIDGCE was invited to join a larger international research network IReNA https://www.irenaweb.org
Start Year 2015
 
Description BRIDGCE consortium: BRIdge the Disciplines related to the Galactic Chemical Evolution 
Organisation Keele University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi became the chair of this STFC-funded consortium in 2019, and is organizing annual meetings and initiating consortium grand application for STFC. Gabriele Cescutti was the STFC-funded PDRA in 2015/16, and Fiorenzo Vincenzo was in 2017/2019, both were working with Kobayashi at Univ. of Hertfordshire.
Collaborator Contribution The BRIDGCE consortium is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the UK and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. As the chair Kobayashi has been co-organizing a parallel session at NAM and an online annual meeting every year, which also provided an opportunity for ECRs/students to participate management and develop leadership. Kobayashi has also been monitoring gender statistics and EDI at the research network.
Impact The main outcomes of BRIDGCE are the following: Facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. Liaise with other national and international networks (e.g. JINA) who share the same goals. Develop synergy between the various expertise available in the UK. Enhance PhD students training in this multi-disciplinary research area. In 2022, BRIDGCE was invited to join a larger international research network IReNA https://www.irenaweb.org
Start Year 2015
 
Description BRIDGCE consortium: BRIdge the Disciplines related to the Galactic Chemical Evolution 
Organisation Liverpool John Moores University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi became the chair of this STFC-funded consortium in 2019, and is organizing annual meetings and initiating consortium grand application for STFC. Gabriele Cescutti was the STFC-funded PDRA in 2015/16, and Fiorenzo Vincenzo was in 2017/2019, both were working with Kobayashi at Univ. of Hertfordshire.
Collaborator Contribution The BRIDGCE consortium is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the UK and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. As the chair Kobayashi has been co-organizing a parallel session at NAM and an online annual meeting every year, which also provided an opportunity for ECRs/students to participate management and develop leadership. Kobayashi has also been monitoring gender statistics and EDI at the research network.
Impact The main outcomes of BRIDGCE are the following: Facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. Liaise with other national and international networks (e.g. JINA) who share the same goals. Develop synergy between the various expertise available in the UK. Enhance PhD students training in this multi-disciplinary research area. In 2022, BRIDGCE was invited to join a larger international research network IReNA https://www.irenaweb.org
Start Year 2015
 
Description BRIDGCE consortium: BRIdge the Disciplines related to the Galactic Chemical Evolution 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi became the chair of this STFC-funded consortium in 2019, and is organizing annual meetings and initiating consortium grand application for STFC. Gabriele Cescutti was the STFC-funded PDRA in 2015/16, and Fiorenzo Vincenzo was in 2017/2019, both were working with Kobayashi at Univ. of Hertfordshire.
Collaborator Contribution The BRIDGCE consortium is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the UK and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. As the chair Kobayashi has been co-organizing a parallel session at NAM and an online annual meeting every year, which also provided an opportunity for ECRs/students to participate management and develop leadership. Kobayashi has also been monitoring gender statistics and EDI at the research network.
Impact The main outcomes of BRIDGCE are the following: Facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. Liaise with other national and international networks (e.g. JINA) who share the same goals. Develop synergy between the various expertise available in the UK. Enhance PhD students training in this multi-disciplinary research area. In 2022, BRIDGCE was invited to join a larger international research network IReNA https://www.irenaweb.org
Start Year 2015
 
Description BRIDGCE consortium: BRIdge the Disciplines related to the Galactic Chemical Evolution 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi became the chair of this STFC-funded consortium in 2019, and is organizing annual meetings and initiating consortium grand application for STFC. Gabriele Cescutti was the STFC-funded PDRA in 2015/16, and Fiorenzo Vincenzo was in 2017/2019, both were working with Kobayashi at Univ. of Hertfordshire.
Collaborator Contribution The BRIDGCE consortium is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the UK and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. As the chair Kobayashi has been co-organizing a parallel session at NAM and an online annual meeting every year, which also provided an opportunity for ECRs/students to participate management and develop leadership. Kobayashi has also been monitoring gender statistics and EDI at the research network.
Impact The main outcomes of BRIDGCE are the following: Facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. Liaise with other national and international networks (e.g. JINA) who share the same goals. Develop synergy between the various expertise available in the UK. Enhance PhD students training in this multi-disciplinary research area. In 2022, BRIDGCE was invited to join a larger international research network IReNA https://www.irenaweb.org
Start Year 2015
 
Description BRIDGCE consortium: BRIdge the Disciplines related to the Galactic Chemical Evolution 
Organisation University of Hull
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi became the chair of this STFC-funded consortium in 2019, and is organizing annual meetings and initiating consortium grand application for STFC. Gabriele Cescutti was the STFC-funded PDRA in 2015/16, and Fiorenzo Vincenzo was in 2017/2019, both were working with Kobayashi at Univ. of Hertfordshire.
Collaborator Contribution The BRIDGCE consortium is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the UK and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. As the chair Kobayashi has been co-organizing a parallel session at NAM and an online annual meeting every year, which also provided an opportunity for ECRs/students to participate management and develop leadership. Kobayashi has also been monitoring gender statistics and EDI at the research network.
Impact The main outcomes of BRIDGCE are the following: Facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. Liaise with other national and international networks (e.g. JINA) who share the same goals. Develop synergy between the various expertise available in the UK. Enhance PhD students training in this multi-disciplinary research area. In 2022, BRIDGCE was invited to join a larger international research network IReNA https://www.irenaweb.org
Start Year 2015
 
Description BRIDGCE consortium: BRIdge the Disciplines related to the Galactic Chemical Evolution 
Organisation University of Portsmouth
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi became the chair of this STFC-funded consortium in 2019, and is organizing annual meetings and initiating consortium grand application for STFC. Gabriele Cescutti was the STFC-funded PDRA in 2015/16, and Fiorenzo Vincenzo was in 2017/2019, both were working with Kobayashi at Univ. of Hertfordshire.
Collaborator Contribution The BRIDGCE consortium is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the UK and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. As the chair Kobayashi has been co-organizing a parallel session at NAM and an online annual meeting every year, which also provided an opportunity for ECRs/students to participate management and develop leadership. Kobayashi has also been monitoring gender statistics and EDI at the research network.
Impact The main outcomes of BRIDGCE are the following: Facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. Liaise with other national and international networks (e.g. JINA) who share the same goals. Develop synergy between the various expertise available in the UK. Enhance PhD students training in this multi-disciplinary research area. In 2022, BRIDGCE was invited to join a larger international research network IReNA https://www.irenaweb.org
Start Year 2015
 
Description BRIDGCE consortium: BRIdge the Disciplines related to the Galactic Chemical Evolution 
Organisation University of Surrey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi became the chair of this STFC-funded consortium in 2019, and is organizing annual meetings and initiating consortium grand application for STFC. Gabriele Cescutti was the STFC-funded PDRA in 2015/16, and Fiorenzo Vincenzo was in 2017/2019, both were working with Kobayashi at Univ. of Hertfordshire.
Collaborator Contribution The BRIDGCE consortium is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the UK and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. As the chair Kobayashi has been co-organizing a parallel session at NAM and an online annual meeting every year, which also provided an opportunity for ECRs/students to participate management and develop leadership. Kobayashi has also been monitoring gender statistics and EDI at the research network.
Impact The main outcomes of BRIDGCE are the following: Facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. Liaise with other national and international networks (e.g. JINA) who share the same goals. Develop synergy between the various expertise available in the UK. Enhance PhD students training in this multi-disciplinary research area. In 2022, BRIDGCE was invited to join a larger international research network IReNA https://www.irenaweb.org
Start Year 2015
 
Description BRIDGCE consortium: BRIdge the Disciplines related to the Galactic Chemical Evolution 
Organisation University of Warwick
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi became the chair of this STFC-funded consortium in 2019, and is organizing annual meetings and initiating consortium grand application for STFC. Gabriele Cescutti was the STFC-funded PDRA in 2015/16, and Fiorenzo Vincenzo was in 2017/2019, both were working with Kobayashi at Univ. of Hertfordshire.
Collaborator Contribution The BRIDGCE consortium is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the UK and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. As the chair Kobayashi has been co-organizing a parallel session at NAM and an online annual meeting every year, which also provided an opportunity for ECRs/students to participate management and develop leadership. Kobayashi has also been monitoring gender statistics and EDI at the research network.
Impact The main outcomes of BRIDGCE are the following: Facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. Liaise with other national and international networks (e.g. JINA) who share the same goals. Develop synergy between the various expertise available in the UK. Enhance PhD students training in this multi-disciplinary research area. In 2022, BRIDGCE was invited to join a larger international research network IReNA https://www.irenaweb.org
Start Year 2015
 
Description BRIDGCE consortium: BRIdge the Disciplines related to the Galactic Chemical Evolution 
Organisation University of York
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi became the chair of this STFC-funded consortium in 2019, and is organizing annual meetings and initiating consortium grand application for STFC. Gabriele Cescutti was the STFC-funded PDRA in 2015/16, and Fiorenzo Vincenzo was in 2017/2019, both were working with Kobayashi at Univ. of Hertfordshire.
Collaborator Contribution The BRIDGCE consortium is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the UK and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. As the chair Kobayashi has been co-organizing a parallel session at NAM and an online annual meeting every year, which also provided an opportunity for ECRs/students to participate management and develop leadership. Kobayashi has also been monitoring gender statistics and EDI at the research network.
Impact The main outcomes of BRIDGCE are the following: Facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the UK. Liaise with other national and international networks (e.g. JINA) who share the same goals. Develop synergy between the various expertise available in the UK. Enhance PhD students training in this multi-disciplinary research area. In 2022, BRIDGCE was invited to join a larger international research network IReNA https://www.irenaweb.org
Start Year 2015
 
Description EU COST Action ChETEC: Chemical Element as Tracers of the Evolution of the Cosmos 
Organisation European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)
Department COST Action
Country Belgium 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is the Management Committee member of EU COST Action "ChETEC: Chemical Element as Tracers of the Evolution of the Cosmos". I also made a major contribtion to the successful proposal "C, N, O, Zn, & Eu: Discriminators of nucleosynthetic yields from the first supernovae or neutron star mergers" for 40 nights on the VLT.
Collaborator Contribution The ChETEC action is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the EU and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the EU. In particular Maria Lugaro and Benjamin Wehmeyer (Konkoly Observatory) are close collaborators of Kobayashi and are on seveal papers as co-authors.
Impact Kobayashi, Karakas, Lugaro (Konkoly Observatory) ApJ paper is published in 2020. Kobayashi is an expert of galactic chemical evoluiton, Karakas is for stellar evolution, adn Lugaro for nulcear astrophsyics, so this project is multi-disciplinary.
Start Year 2017
 
Description EU COST Action ChETEC: Chemical Element as Tracers of the Evolution of the Cosmos 
Organisation Konkoly Observatory
Country Hungary 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is the Management Committee member of EU COST Action "ChETEC: Chemical Element as Tracers of the Evolution of the Cosmos". I also made a major contribtion to the successful proposal "C, N, O, Zn, & Eu: Discriminators of nucleosynthetic yields from the first supernovae or neutron star mergers" for 40 nights on the VLT.
Collaborator Contribution The ChETEC action is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the EU and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the EU. In particular Maria Lugaro and Benjamin Wehmeyer (Konkoly Observatory) are close collaborators of Kobayashi and are on seveal papers as co-authors.
Impact Kobayashi, Karakas, Lugaro (Konkoly Observatory) ApJ paper is published in 2020. Kobayashi is an expert of galactic chemical evoluiton, Karakas is for stellar evolution, adn Lugaro for nulcear astrophsyics, so this project is multi-disciplinary.
Start Year 2017
 
Description EU COST Action ChETEC: Chemical Element as Tracers of the Evolution of the Cosmos 
Organisation Max Planck Society
Department Max Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is the Management Committee member of EU COST Action "ChETEC: Chemical Element as Tracers of the Evolution of the Cosmos". I also made a major contribtion to the successful proposal "C, N, O, Zn, & Eu: Discriminators of nucleosynthetic yields from the first supernovae or neutron star mergers" for 40 nights on the VLT.
Collaborator Contribution The ChETEC action is important for us and for all its partners in order to develope synergy between the various expertise available in the EU and facilitate transfer of knowledge and collaborations related to the origin of the elements across the various disciplines and institutions in the EU. In particular Maria Lugaro and Benjamin Wehmeyer (Konkoly Observatory) are close collaborators of Kobayashi and are on seveal papers as co-authors.
Impact Kobayashi, Karakas, Lugaro (Konkoly Observatory) ApJ paper is published in 2020. Kobayashi is an expert of galactic chemical evoluiton, Karakas is for stellar evolution, adn Lugaro for nulcear astrophsyics, so this project is multi-disciplinary.
Start Year 2017
 
Description GCE collaboration with Trieste 
Organisation University of Trieste
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The former PDRA, Gabriele Cescutti, obtained Marie Curie Fellowship at Department of Physics of the Trieste University, and we continue the collaboration. Gabriele has close collaborator Prof. Francesca Matteucci and her team there.
Collaborator Contribution The scientific experience of Prof. Francesca Matteucci, one of the best chemical evolution modellers worldwide, has helped in prepare scientific material and publish high level papers, frequently in collaboration with her team. At the moment we are dealing with a implement a analytic receipt for spiral arms in a 2d chemical evolution model.
Impact The project is still on going, but the first results have been presented at the conference in Sexten January 2016: http://www.sexten-cfa.eu/images/stories/conferenze2014/bulge/talks/Formevogalaclu-program.pdf
Start Year 2016
 
Description HERMES-GALAH 
Organisation Anglo Australian Observatory
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is on the Science Team for high-resolution multi-element spectrograph (HERMES) for the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), and have been on >10 journal papers that uses the observational data.
Collaborator Contribution The high-resolution spectrograph was built by the AAO, the survey wass desinged and has been run by the team members based in Australia.
Impact The spectrograph has been successfully developed and installed on the AAT in 2013. The Galactic Archaeology survey (GALAH) is on-going. Data Release 3 paper is published in 2021, with Kobayashi as a co-author.
Start Year 2008
 
Description HERMES-GALAH 
Organisation Australian National University (ANU)
Department Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is on the Science Team for high-resolution multi-element spectrograph (HERMES) for the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), and have been on >10 journal papers that uses the observational data.
Collaborator Contribution The high-resolution spectrograph was built by the AAO, the survey wass desinged and has been run by the team members based in Australia.
Impact The spectrograph has been successfully developed and installed on the AAT in 2013. The Galactic Archaeology survey (GALAH) is on-going. Data Release 3 paper is published in 2021, with Kobayashi as a co-author.
Start Year 2008
 
Description KICC - Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is funded as a visiting scientist in 2019-2022 to provide theoretical predictions of cosmic chemical enrichment.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Roberto Maiolino's group is the host and will provide observational data of galaxies. Clare Worley, David Aguado, Vasily Belokurov are also providing observational data of stars.
Impact Two journal papers are published; (1) Hayden-Pawson ell al 2022 showed observations of elemental abundances of distant galaxies, comparing to my theoretical prediction of cosmological simulations. (2) Aguado et al 2021 showed observations of elemental abundances of nearby stars and compared with my theoretical models of Galactic chemical evolution. Another paper is in preparation by Clare Worley using Gaia-ESO survey where I provided theoretical insights. Several observational proposal are submitted for JWST following my theoretical predictions.
Start Year 2019
 
Description MSE - the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer 
Organisation Canada France Hawaii Telescope
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is invited to join the science team in 2016 as an expert of galactic archaeology, and attending monthly meetings.
Collaborator Contribution The 11.25m telescope in Hawaii and high-resolution multi-object spectrograph are designed and constructed by the partners. The observational survey will be designed by the team.
Impact No output yet since the survey has not started yet. I highlighted the MSE project in my review paper in 2022.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Metallicity gradients through cosmic epochs with Cambridge KICC 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Department of Pharmacology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The recent advancements in observational instruments in astronomy are triggering theorists to develop new physical models to interpret and understand them. Our contribution in the collaboration is to develop new theoretical methods and models to understand how the metallicity gradients within galaxies have formed and evolved through cosmic epochs and which physical processes have determined their formation and evolution. The tools that we are using and developing are up-to-date cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, including a detailed chemical feedback from Supernovae and stellar winds. Furthermore, we have developed a novel spectrophotometric model, which we use to reproduce the color gradients and the integrated spectra of the observed galaxies.
Collaborator Contribution The Astrophysics Group at the Cavendish Laboratory contribute to our collaboration from an observational point view, by providing their high expertise in the data processing and analysis.
Impact We are going to publish a first theoretical paper attached with the first release of the data for the metallicity gradients within the MaNGa survey galaxies. In the last year, we have published two papers on peer-reviewed international Journals.
Start Year 2016
 
Description NSF-funded project: Solving the Type Ia Progenitor Puzzle: Building Bridges between Theory and Observation 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences
Country China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is in charge of galactic chemical evolution component in this research group on Type Ia supernovae with 5 experts from US, Germany, and China.
Collaborator Contribution The other group members provides new theory of binary star evolutions for Kobayashi's galaxy models. The PI Prof. Rosanne Di Stefano was funded by NSF, 500 USD for 3 years for this project in 2020.
Impact One journal paper, Kruckow et al. 2012, is published, and a few more papers are in preparation. Each member has a dffernnt experties and this project is multi-disciplinary.
Start Year 2019
 
Description NSF-funded project: Solving the Type Ia Progenitor Puzzle: Building Bridges between Theory and Observation 
Organisation Harvard University
Department Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is in charge of galactic chemical evolution component in this research group on Type Ia supernovae with 5 experts from US, Germany, and China.
Collaborator Contribution The other group members provides new theory of binary star evolutions for Kobayashi's galaxy models. The PI Prof. Rosanne Di Stefano was funded by NSF, 500 USD for 3 years for this project in 2020.
Impact One journal paper, Kruckow et al. 2012, is published, and a few more papers are in preparation. Each member has a dffernnt experties and this project is multi-disciplinary.
Start Year 2019
 
Description NSF-funded project: Solving the Type Ia Progenitor Puzzle: Building Bridges between Theory and Observation 
Organisation Max Planck Society
Department Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is in charge of galactic chemical evolution component in this research group on Type Ia supernovae with 5 experts from US, Germany, and China.
Collaborator Contribution The other group members provides new theory of binary star evolutions for Kobayashi's galaxy models. The PI Prof. Rosanne Di Stefano was funded by NSF, 500 USD for 3 years for this project in 2020.
Impact One journal paper, Kruckow et al. 2012, is published, and a few more papers are in preparation. Each member has a dffernnt experties and this project is multi-disciplinary.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Prime Focus Spectrograph PFS on Subaru Telescope 
Organisation Johns Hopkins University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a Japanese national, Kobayashi is entitled and join the team in 2021, and contributed in the survey proposals for Galactic Archaeology (led by Rosie Wyse) and galaxy evolution (led by Jenny Greene).
Collaborator Contribution The multi-object spectrograph for 8.2m Subaru telescope in Hawaii is designed and constructed by the partners. The observational surveys will be commenced by the team in 2023.
Impact No output yet since the survey has not started yet. I highlighted the PFS project in my review paper in 2022.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Prime Focus Spectrograph PFS on Subaru Telescope 
Organisation Max Planck Society
Department Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a Japanese national, Kobayashi is entitled and join the team in 2021, and contributed in the survey proposals for Galactic Archaeology (led by Rosie Wyse) and galaxy evolution (led by Jenny Greene).
Collaborator Contribution The multi-object spectrograph for 8.2m Subaru telescope in Hawaii is designed and constructed by the partners. The observational surveys will be commenced by the team in 2023.
Impact No output yet since the survey has not started yet. I highlighted the PFS project in my review paper in 2022.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Prime Focus Spectrograph PFS on Subaru Telescope 
Organisation Princeton University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a Japanese national, Kobayashi is entitled and join the team in 2021, and contributed in the survey proposals for Galactic Archaeology (led by Rosie Wyse) and galaxy evolution (led by Jenny Greene).
Collaborator Contribution The multi-object spectrograph for 8.2m Subaru telescope in Hawaii is designed and constructed by the partners. The observational surveys will be commenced by the team in 2023.
Impact No output yet since the survey has not started yet. I highlighted the PFS project in my review paper in 2022.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Prime Focus Spectrograph PFS on Subaru Telescope 
Organisation Subaru Telescope
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution As a Japanese national, Kobayashi is entitled and join the team in 2021, and contributed in the survey proposals for Galactic Archaeology (led by Rosie Wyse) and galaxy evolution (led by Jenny Greene).
Collaborator Contribution The multi-object spectrograph for 8.2m Subaru telescope in Hawaii is designed and constructed by the partners. The observational surveys will be commenced by the team in 2023.
Impact No output yet since the survey has not started yet. I highlighted the PFS project in my review paper in 2022.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Prime Focus Spectrograph PFS on Subaru Telescope 
Organisation University of Tokyo
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a Japanese national, Kobayashi is entitled and join the team in 2021, and contributed in the survey proposals for Galactic Archaeology (led by Rosie Wyse) and galaxy evolution (led by Jenny Greene).
Collaborator Contribution The multi-object spectrograph for 8.2m Subaru telescope in Hawaii is designed and constructed by the partners. The observational surveys will be commenced by the team in 2023.
Impact No output yet since the survey has not started yet. I highlighted the PFS project in my review paper in 2022.
Start Year 2021
 
Description SHYNE (Stellar HYdrodynamics Nucleosynthesis and Evolution) 
Organisation Keele University
Department School of Physical and Geographical Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Study of the most important reaction rates and what precision in nuclear physics experiments is desirable for astrophysics applications by means of a stochastic model, in particular s-process in low-mass stars. A few journal papers published by the group.
Collaborator Contribution Study of the most important reaction rates and what precision in nuclear physics experiments is desirable for astrophysics applications by means of a stochastic model, in particular s-process in massive stars and r-process.
Impact It is possible to find on the website the outcomes resulted from this project among which the purchase of a new cluster, comprising 1000+ cores and part of it uses the high-tech shared-memory hardware from numascale, see http://www.astro.keele.ac.uk/shyne/numascale for more details.
Start Year 2015
 
Description SHYNE (Stellar HYdrodynamics Nucleosynthesis and Evolution) 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department School of Physics and Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Study of the most important reaction rates and what precision in nuclear physics experiments is desirable for astrophysics applications by means of a stochastic model, in particular s-process in low-mass stars. A few journal papers published by the group.
Collaborator Contribution Study of the most important reaction rates and what precision in nuclear physics experiments is desirable for astrophysics applications by means of a stochastic model, in particular s-process in massive stars and r-process.
Impact It is possible to find on the website the outcomes resulted from this project among which the purchase of a new cluster, comprising 1000+ cores and part of it uses the high-tech shared-memory hardware from numascale, see http://www.astro.keele.ac.uk/shyne/numascale for more details.
Start Year 2015
 
Description WEAVE 
Organisation Paris Institute of Astrophysics
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is a member of Galactic Archaeology Science Team, and gave a talk at the Team Meeting in Paris 2016 and in Barcelona 2019 to identify scientific problems.
Collaborator Contribution The high-resolution multi-object spectrograph is being built, will be installed on the WHT, and the survey will be started in 2022.
Impact No output yet since the survey has not started yet. I highlighted the WEAVE project in my review paper in 2022.
Start Year 2016
 
Description WEAVE 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kobayashi is a member of Galactic Archaeology Science Team, and gave a talk at the Team Meeting in Paris 2016 and in Barcelona 2019 to identify scientific problems.
Collaborator Contribution The high-resolution multi-object spectrograph is being built, will be installed on the WHT, and the survey will be started in 2022.
Impact No output yet since the survey has not started yet. I highlighted the WEAVE project in my review paper in 2022.
Start Year 2016