ISOL-SRS: ISOL Beam Storage Ring Spectrometer

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

The elements we see around us, and that constituent our bodies, are predominantly stable, yet we know these were forged in violent astrophysical scenarios. The traces from this violent history can be found in sensational new detailed astronomical observations of element abundances from exploding stars, meteoritic inclusions attributed to condensation of material following single explosive events, and observations of gamma-ray emission indicating these process are still ongoing in our universe. The synthesis of the elements in these explosive scenarios involves nuclear reactions involving unstable nuclei. The unknown structure and reactions of these unstable nuclei critically affects our understanding of the origin of elements we now see in a relatively quiescent state around us, and the nature and dynamics of the stellar environments in which they formed. As we have begun to explore the properties of these nuclei, surprising results have been found on the evolution of shell structure, indicating what we find to be the case in stable nuclei, cannot be simply extrapolated to unstable systems. Nature is far more rich and diverse then we anticipated, leading to new shell structures driven by the underlying nature of the nuclear interaction. The locations of these shell structures are subtley and intimately associated with the shapes of nuclei. One such example are Pear-shaped nuclei exhibiting permanent static octupole deformations.These provide a very promising laboratory to search for finite atomic electric dipole moments, indicative of CP violation beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Precision measurements of the evolution of atomic levels of unstable nuclei using lasers, can in turn provide measurements of the underlying charge radius of the nucleus. This is particularly important for the study of halo nuclei, which exhibit an almost pure mantle of neutron matter.

The science described above requires precision measurements of the structure and reactions of unstable nuclei. Furthermore, the studies need to be performed in the appropriate energy regime where these properties can be best probed. The new TSR heavy ion storage ring will be located at the ISOLDE facility CERN. This will be a unique facility worldwide. ISOLDE is the world's leading facility for the production of radioactive beams. Following new upgrades, these radioactive beams will be accelerated to the energy range perfect for precision reaction studies. These beams will be injected into the storage ring where they can be rapidly cooled to give very high quality radioactive beams enabling ultra high resolution measurements of nuclear reactions to be performed using very thin, pure gas targets or measurements of the ground-state properties using lasers. In each case the storage ring allows a repeated probing of the radioactive beam as it circulates with a frequency ~1 MHz in the ring, ensuring high luminosity is combined with high precision. For heavier radioactive species, the lifetime of the beam in the ring is significantly reduced by atomic collisions with the gas target. In this case, the high quality beam can be extracted from the ring and injected into a novel solenoidal magnet and detector system. The overall ISOL-SRS spectrometer systems proposed by the UK community for use in conjunction with the TSR storage ring will therefore enable a major breakthrough in precision studies of the reactions and properties of unstable nuclei across the vast range of masses and isotopes produced by the ISOLDE radioactive beams facility, CERN.

Planned Impact

Knowledge transfer: We foresee a number of areas where knowledge transfer could occur. All detectors used with the external solenoid must operate successfully in high magnetic field. In particular, we have highly pixellated silicon detectors. The challenges making these highly-integrated detectors function in this environment are extremely close to the demands of combined PET/MRI or SPECT/MRI, seen as a high priority for medical imaging in the future. Highly integrated electronics and ASICs may also be transferred over to the medical or other relevant sectors. The detectors to be used inside the storage ring must survive baking out to high temperatures and be compatible with very high vacuum. This may have applications to other areas of science. In the exploitation phase, the ISOL-SRS system could be used to gather
nuclear data relevant to fission reactors, decommissioning or future fusion reactors. A specific example is the ability to measure beta-delayed neutron branches of ions stored in the ring. All the groups have a strong background in knowledge transfer. The Liverpool and Daresbury groups have experience in transferring nuclear physics detector technology towards the medical sector in areas such as SPECT imaging. York established an industry-facing detector development laboratory working on coupling scintillators to novel photosensors. Manchester has the Dalton Institute in-house who provide a natural linkage to the nuclear energy sector, while Surrey have a diverse group working in applications. Manchester, York and Surrey working on nuclear data relevant to present and future fission reactors, supported by an EPSRC grant. Knowledge transfer may be facilitated between groups and companies concerned with applications in nuclear measurement techniques and instrumentation, including GE Healthcare, BAE Systems, AWE, Canberra, Centronic, Kromek, Canberra Harwell UK, Ametek (Ortec), John Caunt Scientific, National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) and Rapiscan. Liverpool has a 4 year STFC IPS Fellowship to maximize the impact of the STFC science portfolio. The Fellow will work closely with Liverpool, STFC Daresbury Laboratory and the Cockcroft Institute for Accelerator Science. The role will deliver increased numbers of industrial studentships, enable "pump priming" of collaborative ideas through appropriate routes such as mini-IPS or mini-KTP projects and will facilitate potential staff exchanges with industrial collaborators. The Edinburgh Nuclear Physics Group has been at the forefront of nuclear physics applications of silicon strip detectors since this technology became commercially available. They have a long-standing relationship with the UK company Micron Semiconductor Ltd (MSL). With MSL, they have developed silicon strip detector designs with very thin (~20 micron) and thick wafers (~mm) for our research applications. MSL now has a range and depth of technical capability unmatched by any commercial company worldwide and this technology is now applied to X-ray and space-based applications. Public engagement: There is considerable scope to engage with a variety of general audiences from schoolchildren to the wider public. Big science like nuclear/particle physics and astronomy is acknowledged as one of the key motivators for young people to decide to study Physics at university level and for a career. This project has an inspirational story attached relating to our fundamental understanding of nuclear structure and our understanding of the origin of the chemical elements. We are developing new instrumentation for the world's most famous scientific laboratory. The test bed solenoid magnet has featured in an article in New Scientist. Ongoing educational initiatives include Nuclear Physics Masterclasses for schoolchildren held at Surrey, Liverpool and York, supported by outreach officers co-funded by the Ogden Institute. Public engagement work will be facilitated by the STFC outreach officer, Elizabeth Cunningham.

Publications

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Butler P (2016) TSR: A storage and cooling ring for HIE-ISOLDE in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms

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Butler P (2016) TSR: A Storage Ring for HIE-ISOLDE in Acta Physica Polonica B

 
Description This award was to design and realise two state of the art detector systems for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics studies. These spectrometers will investigate nuclei at the extremes of stability created following stellar events such as super novae. A key unknown for understanding the origin of the elements are the reactions and properties of unstable nuclei. Such nuclei are present in hot, dense explosive stellar environments and strongly influence the path of nucleosynthesis, and energy generation. It is becoming clear that the properties of these unstable nuclei cannot be easily extrapolated from our knowledge of stable nuclei, in particular the development of surprising new shell structures driven by the nature of the underlying nuclear interaction. In order to address such science in the laboratory, measurements of nuclear reactions and properties of unstable nuclei must be studied with a precision sensitive to their underlying quantum structure. Additionally, access to a wide range of radioactive beam species is critical for the scientific reach of the programme. This project involves the use of the established ISOLDE facility at CERN, with the widest range of intense radioactive beams (>700 isotopes). Two spectrometers have been developed, one for use within a heavy ion storage ring and the other an external spectrometer coupled to a superconducting solenoid. During the course of the grant, the storage ring planned for ISOLDE CERN from TSR Heidelberg was cancelled and it was decided to locate the second spectrometer in the CRYRING storage ring at the new radioactive beam facility, FAIR in Germany.
The two spectrometer systems, combined with the vast range of isotopes produced at ISOLDE and the cooled beams at CRYRING, will address a wide range of topics in nuclear astrophysics and structure involving unstable isotopes. The in-ring spectrometer will perform high resolution, high luminosity, in-ring direct and indirect reaction measurements with light and medium mass nuclei relevant for understanding explosive nuclear astrophysical processes and perform radiative capture reaction measurements also relevant for these processes. The external spectrometer (ISS) is located in a solenoidal system that will be used for precision studies of inelastic scattering and transfer reactions. This spectrometer has an advanced design that employs the proven HELIOS concept from Argonne National Laboratory. It will exploit beams directly from HIE-ISOLDE and will benefit from special beam manipulations. Both detector systems comprise Si detectors in a compact design, digital electronics, software for data acquisition and control, and mechanical chambers and supports.
The project is well embedded in both CERN-ISOLDE and FAIR-CRYRING with strengthened relationships in both places. At FAIR the in-ring spectrometer has full acceptance into facility and its value will contribute to the UK's in-kind contribution to FAIR. At CERN the ISS spectrometer is regarded as a high profile addition to the HIE-ISOLDE facility.
Apprentices, students and post-doctoral research assistants as well as the academic staff and experience engineers have benefited from this project in working and developing advanced instrumentation.
Exploitation Route The spectrometers are part of the research infrastructure at both CERN-ISOLDE and CRYRING FAIR. They are primarily for academic scientific investigation of exotic nuclei key to our understanding of the creation of the elements. As leaders of the two spectrometer projects the UK scientists will perform key experiments to address outstanding questions in this field. However, the instruments will be used and the data from them, by the international community of nuclear physicists, both experimental and theoretical, who will benefit directly from this new knowledge and understanding.
The technical developments needed to make these projects a success include advances in radiation detectors, simulations, digital electronics high vacuum systems, cryogenics and data acquisition systems that are of benefit to all areas that require efficient and spectroscopic detector systems. These areas include medical imaging, homeland security, nuclear decommissioning and environmental monitoring.
The collaboration has sought to publicise progress during the project. This has resulted in articles for the general public appearing on the web sites of STFC and CERN, as well as in the publications Fascination and CERN Courier. The results of an early implementation experiment were published in Physical Review Letters(https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.062502).

Other coverage:
https://stfc.ukri.org/news-events-and-publications/publications/uk-news-from-cern/uknfc78/#two
https://stfc.ukri.org/news/uk-apprentices-assist-in-recycling-a-hospital-mri-scanner-to-study-the-stuff-of-stars-at-cern/
https://home.cern/news/news/physics/isolde-steps-unexplored-region-nuclear-chart
https://stfc.ukri.org/news-events-and-publications/whats-happening/daresbury-technology-helps-beam-physicists-into-unexplored-territory-at-cern/
https://acceleratingnews.web.cern.ch/article/isoldes-new-solenoid-spectrometer
https://www.anl.gov/article/argonne-and-cern-weigh-in-on-the-origin-of-heavy-elements
https://phys.org/news/2020-02-isolde-unexplored-region-nuclear-exotic.html
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-03/dnl-aac033020.php
https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/physics/research/nuclear-physics/projects/isol/
https://stfc.ukri.org/research/nuclear-physics/isol-srs/
http://npg.dl.ac.uk/isol-srs/index.html
https://isolde.cern/experiments/isolde-solenoidal-spectrometer-iss
https://stfc.ukri.org/news-events-and-publications/whats-happening/carme-sets-off-from-daresbury-to-germany/
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Electronics,Energy,Security and Diplomacy

URL http://npg.dl.ac.uk/isol-srs/index.html