UK E-ELT Programme 2015: HARMONI and Project Science Interim Funding

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Oxford Physics

Abstract

We propose a programme to enable the UK to take a leading role in the construction of the first generation of instruments for the world's largest optical and infrared telescope - the European Extremely Large Telescope. Previously funded STFC programmes have been used to develop technology and instrument concepts to put the UK in a position to take the lead role in one of the two 'first light' instruments for the E-ELT (namely the E-ELT spectrograph HARMONI) and to take significant roles in three of the instruments expected to follow. Strong involvement in a programme of instruments will give the UK considerable science return through direct influence on the scientific priorities of these instruments and early science through guaranteed time return to the UK. There will also be important industrial return to the UK in terms of direct contracts and technology transfer.

The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) project aims to provide European astronomers with the largest optical-infrared telescope in the world. With a diameter of 39m and being fully adaptive from the start by incorporating a large deformable mirror, the E-ELT will be more than one hundred times more sensitive than the present-day largest optical telescopes. The E-ELT will vastly advance astrophysical knowledge by enabling detailed studies of planets around other stars, the first galaxies in the Universe, black holes, and the nature of the Universe's dark matter and dark energy.

The E-ELT has now entered the construction phase, and a groundbreaking ceremony on Cerro Armazones was carried out in June 2014.The project is led by ESO with strong involvement of European Industry. A series of instrument concepts have gone through detailed Phase A studies with strong UK involvement. Out of this process, ESO has developed an instrument plan which has two instruments selected for 'first light' (of which one, the HARMONI integral field spectrograph, will be UK led) and a pool of six other instruments in competition to form a sequence in the first generation.

The outcome of the ESO process places the UK in the unique position of being one of only two European countries leading the development of an E-ELT first light instrument. Given the enormous discovery potential of the E-ELT, this provides UK astrophysicists with an unprecedented opportunity to exploit the power of the world's largest ground based optical/near-IR telescope.

Planned Impact

The two key beneficiaries of this research will be (a) the general public in the UK -- Astronomy has always been extremely
effective at enthusing students to study math and science up to a high level of proficiency. The E-ELT will be the world's
largest ground based telescope for optical/near-infrared astronomy when it is built. By having a UK led team building the
first light spectrograph for such an eye-catching facility will contribute enormously to the UK's reputation in high-tech
science and engineering, and provide renewed enthusiasm to the population at large. The E-ELT, by making a huge
technological leap forward, opens up "phase space" that will permit new discoveries, most of which we cannot foresee
today, but it is highly likely that several of them are the eye-catching headlines of tomorrow.
(b) students who are at an advanced stage of their career: coupled with this program, we will be offering up to six D.Phil
studentships at Oxford. These will provide unique doctoral training opportunities for the next generation of professional
instrumentalists to hone their research skills in the field of astronomical instrumentation. This will help ensure continued
leadership by the UK in this area of expertise.

In addition, we can foresee the following benefits:
UK Industry: Part of Project Office role is to continue to publicise the E-ELT programme and advise on areas in which UK
Industry may bid for contracts for the E-ELT telescope and instrumentation build phases. In addition, a small amount of the
funds in the overall R&D programme for instrumentation will be used for work with UK Industry and a substantial amount of
the equipment being bought is likely to be from the UK.
UK Industry / UK PLC: there may be spin-offs from some of the astronomy-directed R&D (e.g. pick-off mirror micro-robots)
UK PLC via trained scientists (e.g. from PhD studentships)
Promotion of science within the UK:
UK School students, as part of the Public engagement element (e.g. Big Telescopes for Big Science programme) partly
funded within this proposal.
UK General Public, via the Outreach programme events and announcements.

The goals of the Outreach Programme (see Public Engagement section of the detailed proposal) are:
Ensure such milestones receive appropriate national media coverage
Further establish and exploit the 'Big Telescopes for Big Questions' and the 'Dark Sky UK' initiatives, providing and using
material in conjunction with JWST/MIRI and other major facilities
Organise more educational activities across a broader UK base for professionals and volunteers, refining and utilising
powerful concepts and resources already piloted, for example under the auspices of the RSSE, also continuing to work with
ESO and other E-ELT partners
Generate new sponsorships, with a goal to include industry as build opportunities are realised.

See also Economic Impact and Knowledge Exchange section of the detailed proposal.

Publications

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Allen Jamie R. (2016) Characterizing the performance of cryogenic lens mounts for the HARMONI spectograph in Advances in Optical and Mechanical Technologies for Telescopes and Instrumentation II

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Arnal Rodrigues M (2018) The HARMONI/ELT spectrographs

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Augustin R (2019) Emission from the circumgalactic medium: from cosmological zoom-in simulations to multiwavelength observables in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Barnsley Robert M. (2016) Can the European ELT detect super-Earths? Measuring the contrast limit of an image slicer spectrograph in a laboratory experiment in Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VI

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Barnsley Robert M. (2018) Can the European ELT detect super-Earths? Measuring the contrast limit of an image-slicer spectrograph in a laboratory experiment: an update on progress in Advances in Optical and Mechanical Technologies for Telescopes and Instrumentation III

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Barnsley Robert M. (2016) Can the European ELT detect super-Earths? Measuring the contrast limit of an image slicer spectrograph in a laboratory experiment in Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VI

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Bounissou S (2018) Simulating the detection and classification of high-redshift supernovae with HARMONI on the ELT in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Bounissou S. (2018) Simulating the detection and classification of high-redshift supernovae with HARMONI on the ELT in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

 
Description This grant funded work on HARMONI, the first light spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope. We further developed the conceptual design of the instrument, taking into account changes to the telescope & interface design. This grant supported the Interim Study (and Interim Study extension) co-sponsored by the European Southern Observatory. During this grant, we developed (jointly with ESO) the technical specifications of the instrument. We also carried out detailed simulations of several observing programmes we hope to carry out with the instrument.
Exploitation Route We have developed conceptual design for a near-infrared and visible wavelength integral field spectrograph. The optical design, mechanical cryogenic lens mounting techniques etc. could be of use to others.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

URL http://harmoni-web.physics.ox.ac.uk/index.asp
 
Description ESO Hardware Grant for HARMONI Design and Build
Amount € 18,200,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Southern Observatory (ESO) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Germany
Start 10/2015 
End 11/2024
 
Description HARMONI LTAO funding
Amount € 4,000,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Southern Observatory (ESO) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Germany
Start 04/2019 
End 11/2025
 
Description Urgency grant
Amount £3,498,611 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/N002717/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 03/2019
 
Description HARMONI Consortium (Agreement) 
Organisation Astrobiology Center (CAB)
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Oxford are the leaders in this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution UKATC are responsible for the integration and testing of the cryostat (Integral field spectrograph). They are also responsible for the Focal Plane Relay System, the rotator and the cable wrap. IAC are responsible for the pre-optics and the control electronics. Lyon are responsible for the Image Slicer (IFU) and the data analysis pipeline. Madrid provide the calibration unit and the pick off arm for the NGS. Durham provide the real-time computing software and the low order wavefront sensors. Marseille are responsible for all the adaptive optics sensing, including the Laser Guide Star system and the Single Conjugate adaptive optics system. They will be in charge of the integration of the top end including the Cal Unit, LGS system, NGS system and the FPRS. Michigan are making a cash contribution towards the cost of the instrument.
Impact Contract with ESO for the Design and Build of the HARMONI spectrograph.
Start Year 2015
 
Description HARMONI Consortium (Agreement) 
Organisation Durham University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Oxford are the leaders in this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution UKATC are responsible for the integration and testing of the cryostat (Integral field spectrograph). They are also responsible for the Focal Plane Relay System, the rotator and the cable wrap. IAC are responsible for the pre-optics and the control electronics. Lyon are responsible for the Image Slicer (IFU) and the data analysis pipeline. Madrid provide the calibration unit and the pick off arm for the NGS. Durham provide the real-time computing software and the low order wavefront sensors. Marseille are responsible for all the adaptive optics sensing, including the Laser Guide Star system and the Single Conjugate adaptive optics system. They will be in charge of the integration of the top end including the Cal Unit, LGS system, NGS system and the FPRS. Michigan are making a cash contribution towards the cost of the instrument.
Impact Contract with ESO for the Design and Build of the HARMONI spectrograph.
Start Year 2015
 
Description HARMONI Consortium (Agreement) 
Organisation Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Oxford are the leaders in this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution UKATC are responsible for the integration and testing of the cryostat (Integral field spectrograph). They are also responsible for the Focal Plane Relay System, the rotator and the cable wrap. IAC are responsible for the pre-optics and the control electronics. Lyon are responsible for the Image Slicer (IFU) and the data analysis pipeline. Madrid provide the calibration unit and the pick off arm for the NGS. Durham provide the real-time computing software and the low order wavefront sensors. Marseille are responsible for all the adaptive optics sensing, including the Laser Guide Star system and the Single Conjugate adaptive optics system. They will be in charge of the integration of the top end including the Cal Unit, LGS system, NGS system and the FPRS. Michigan are making a cash contribution towards the cost of the instrument.
Impact Contract with ESO for the Design and Build of the HARMONI spectrograph.
Start Year 2015
 
Description HARMONI Consortium (Agreement) 
Organisation Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseile
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Oxford are the leaders in this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution UKATC are responsible for the integration and testing of the cryostat (Integral field spectrograph). They are also responsible for the Focal Plane Relay System, the rotator and the cable wrap. IAC are responsible for the pre-optics and the control electronics. Lyon are responsible for the Image Slicer (IFU) and the data analysis pipeline. Madrid provide the calibration unit and the pick off arm for the NGS. Durham provide the real-time computing software and the low order wavefront sensors. Marseille are responsible for all the adaptive optics sensing, including the Laser Guide Star system and the Single Conjugate adaptive optics system. They will be in charge of the integration of the top end including the Cal Unit, LGS system, NGS system and the FPRS. Michigan are making a cash contribution towards the cost of the instrument.
Impact Contract with ESO for the Design and Build of the HARMONI spectrograph.
Start Year 2015
 
Description HARMONI Consortium (Agreement) 
Organisation Lyon Observatory
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Oxford are the leaders in this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution UKATC are responsible for the integration and testing of the cryostat (Integral field spectrograph). They are also responsible for the Focal Plane Relay System, the rotator and the cable wrap. IAC are responsible for the pre-optics and the control electronics. Lyon are responsible for the Image Slicer (IFU) and the data analysis pipeline. Madrid provide the calibration unit and the pick off arm for the NGS. Durham provide the real-time computing software and the low order wavefront sensors. Marseille are responsible for all the adaptive optics sensing, including the Laser Guide Star system and the Single Conjugate adaptive optics system. They will be in charge of the integration of the top end including the Cal Unit, LGS system, NGS system and the FPRS. Michigan are making a cash contribution towards the cost of the instrument.
Impact Contract with ESO for the Design and Build of the HARMONI spectrograph.
Start Year 2015
 
Description HARMONI Consortium (Agreement) 
Organisation UK Astronomy Technology Centre (ATC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Oxford are the leaders in this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution UKATC are responsible for the integration and testing of the cryostat (Integral field spectrograph). They are also responsible for the Focal Plane Relay System, the rotator and the cable wrap. IAC are responsible for the pre-optics and the control electronics. Lyon are responsible for the Image Slicer (IFU) and the data analysis pipeline. Madrid provide the calibration unit and the pick off arm for the NGS. Durham provide the real-time computing software and the low order wavefront sensors. Marseille are responsible for all the adaptive optics sensing, including the Laser Guide Star system and the Single Conjugate adaptive optics system. They will be in charge of the integration of the top end including the Cal Unit, LGS system, NGS system and the FPRS. Michigan are making a cash contribution towards the cost of the instrument.
Impact Contract with ESO for the Design and Build of the HARMONI spectrograph.
Start Year 2015
 
Description HARMONI Consortium (Agreement) 
Organisation University of Michigan
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Oxford are the leaders in this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution UKATC are responsible for the integration and testing of the cryostat (Integral field spectrograph). They are also responsible for the Focal Plane Relay System, the rotator and the cable wrap. IAC are responsible for the pre-optics and the control electronics. Lyon are responsible for the Image Slicer (IFU) and the data analysis pipeline. Madrid provide the calibration unit and the pick off arm for the NGS. Durham provide the real-time computing software and the low order wavefront sensors. Marseille are responsible for all the adaptive optics sensing, including the Laser Guide Star system and the Single Conjugate adaptive optics system. They will be in charge of the integration of the top end including the Cal Unit, LGS system, NGS system and the FPRS. Michigan are making a cash contribution towards the cost of the instrument.
Impact Contract with ESO for the Design and Build of the HARMONI spectrograph.
Start Year 2015
 
Description HARMONI Science Team (post Agreement) 
Organisation Astrobiology Center (CAB)
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Project Scientist at Oxford coordinates the efforts of the HARMONI science team. We hold in person meetings once a year, and teleconferences 3 times a year
Collaborator Contribution The science team members carry out simulations of HARMONI science programmes, and the results are used to drive the instrument design and configuration, so as to maximise the science return.
Impact papers are currently being written, so no outputs yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description HARMONI Science Team (post Agreement) 
Organisation Claude Bernard University Lyon 1 (UCBL)
Department Astrophysics Research Centre of Lyon (CRAL)
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Project Scientist at Oxford coordinates the efforts of the HARMONI science team. We hold in person meetings once a year, and teleconferences 3 times a year
Collaborator Contribution The science team members carry out simulations of HARMONI science programmes, and the results are used to drive the instrument design and configuration, so as to maximise the science return.
Impact papers are currently being written, so no outputs yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description HARMONI Science Team (post Agreement) 
Organisation Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseile
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Project Scientist at Oxford coordinates the efforts of the HARMONI science team. We hold in person meetings once a year, and teleconferences 3 times a year
Collaborator Contribution The science team members carry out simulations of HARMONI science programmes, and the results are used to drive the instrument design and configuration, so as to maximise the science return.
Impact papers are currently being written, so no outputs yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description E-ELT Talk at Stanford, California 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of information regarding the European Extremely Large Telescope, also highlighting the capabilities in comparison to the US led extremely large telescopes - the Giant Magellan Telescope and the Thirty Meter Telescope that this US audience is more familiar with.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description HARMONI Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A successful workshop entitled "Early E-ELT science: Spectroscopy with HARMONI" was organised and held at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History over 29th June - 3rd July. The goal was to showcase the scientific capabilities of HARMONI and had a broad participation from UK and international astronomers including representatives from GMT, TMT & JWST. Ninety participants attended delivering talks and posters over a wide range of science cases from the Solar System to the first galaxies. Professors Joe Silk & Antonella Nota delivered excellent conference summaries from a theorist's and observer's perspective, respectively. All the talks are available on line at the conference website: http://harmoni2015.physics.ox.ac.uk. A successful hands-on workshop was also run for the last three sessions of the workshop with 32 attendees who were lead through the software to generate simulated datacubes. Early career researchers were encouraged to attend through bursaries and their input acknowledged through student prizes awarded.

The location in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History meant we were able to also engage with a large number of visitors of the Museum (who may not have necessarily engaged with astronomy or STFC related research). We had a stand displaying the E-ELT and provided take home material from ESO. Over the week we estimate there were over 500 visitors to the stand.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://harmoni2015.physics.ox.ac.uk/
 
Description IET Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Outreach presentation and discussion on technology developments in WEAVE and Gaia.

Request for more talks to this and other organisations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description School Visit (Christ Church) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Introduction to the Milky Way talk for 60 pupils in years 5-8 followed by lengthy discussion and multiple follow up correspondences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description School Visit (OHS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 60 pupils in year 5. Talk to the whole year on how we explore the Universe with some insights into upcoming facilities and possibilities.. Coordinated with the school as an input to a wider science topic on 'space'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description School visit (Abingdon) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk on Dark Matter and Cosmology to 45 sixth form students at the Abingdon School. Warmly received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk for Continuing Education department 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A presentation on developments of the use of Light in Astronomy as part of the International Year of Light to interested members of the general public attending a saturday workshop at the department of continuing education (Rewley House) in Oxford.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/F900-34