Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Oct 2018 - Sept 2020

Lead Research Organisation: Durham University
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

Particle physics research informs us about the nature of matter on
very small scales. As we step down the length scales below the length
scale of the atom, 10^(-10) meters, and past the length scale of the
atomic nucleus, 10^(-15) meters, we enter the realm of particle
physics. In this realm there are three well identified interactions.
First, the strong interactions, which are responsible for the binding
of quarks and gluons to produce protons, neutrons and other particles
collectively called hadrons. Second, the electroweak interactions,
responsible both for the radiation of photons (light) from matter and
the radiation of the carriers of the weak force, the W and Z bosons,
discovered at CERN in the 1983. Third, the interactions of the Higgs
bosons. The Higgs boson was discovered at CERN in 2012.

The interactions of all of these ingredients are controlled by a
mathematical structure, known as the Standard Model (SM) gauge theory
of electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions. This theory has so
far withstood all the challenges posed by various accelerators, of
which the latest and most energetic is the LHC. The SM is confirmed
--- with the unification of electromagnetism and weak interactions
proved and tested to one part per mille. Strong interaction effects
have been tested to the per cent level.

The quarks, the ingredients of the hadrons, come in six different types
which are referred to as flavours. Flavour phenomena have contributed
as much as the gauge principle in shaping the overall structure of the
SM and it is the existence of flavours that gives the SM its family
and generation structure. In the quark sector the SM description of
flavour phenomena and the CKM picture of mixing and CP violation is
now verified at the few per cent level. In the lepton sector, the
flavours of leptons are the electron, the muon and the tau and their
associated neutrinos. The observation of neutrino oscillations, and
the consequence that neutrinos have mass, calls for an extension of
the SM. Detailed examination of the charged and neutral leptons is
of increasing importance.

In 2015, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started to accelerate and
collide protons at much higher energies than ever before, 13 TeV. The
high energy reach of the LHC will allow the detailed study of the
Higgs boson and exploration of TeV scale physics. However, the LHC
experiments are significantly more complex than any previous particle
physics experiment. Identifying the nature of physics at the TeV scale
will require intense collaborative efforts between experimentalists
and theorists. On the theoretical side, high-precision calculations of
SM processes are needed to distinguish possible signals of new physics
from SM backgrounds. Possible hints of new physics need to be compared
with different models of physics beyond the SM in order to disentangle
the underlying structure of TeV-scale physics. The IPPP has already
established close connections with the UK and international
experimental groups and is perfectly placed to help maximise the UK
contribution to understanding the LHC data.

Once the energy scale of new physics is identified, there will be a
strong effort in planning and designing the next generation of
particle physics experiments. The IPPP will continue its role in
assessing the physics potential and the design of future accelerators.
The next decade promises to be pivotal in our understanding of the
microscopic world. The IPPP will address fundamental questions about
electroweak symmetry breaking, the structure of space-time, flavour
physics and CP violation, neutrinos and lepton-flavour violation, and
how particle physics connects with astrophysics and cosmology.

Planned Impact

The excitement of basic science can have impact beyond the limits of
Academia. In order to fulfil that promise the IPPP attaches great
importance to publicizing its activities to the wider public, and in
particular to raising the awareness of particle physics in
schools. IPPP is also committed to equipping our PhD graduates and RAs
with the necessary skills and experience for a rewarding career in
academic or industrial research.

Outreach
--IPPP benefits from a full-time outreach officer, funded by the University

--Our innovative outreach project Higgs to Hubble (https://www.dur.ac.uk/physics.outreach/)
continues to have a positive impact by using our research to engage and enthuse school
children, their teachers and the wider community and stimulate their interest.

--Since 2012 IPPP has acted as host for a bi-annual residential Ogden Trust A2 Physics
Symposium.

--Our programme for the general public has provided a broad spectrum of talks through
a variety of learned organisations, including the British Association, the Royal Insti-
tution and the Institute of Physics, and through the many regional and nationally co-
ordinated science festivals.

--We also create original and relevant teaching resources based upon our research and
use this material in workshops as part of Continuing Professional Development courses
and training support sessions for teachers.

--We also host an annual one day event for local teachers. A Day for Everyone Teaching
Physics is designed to extend both specialist and non specialist teachers knowledge and
understanding of physics and provide ideas for practical activities for the classroom.

--In Autumn 2015, we initiated "Saturday Morning Physics", an annual series of 6 public
lectures primarily aimed at high-school students, with an audience of up to 50.

--For the past two years, we have organised a weekly one-hour Code Club at a local primary
school based around python programming with a raspbery pi.

Education & Training

--We train our PhD graduates and RAs with the necessary skills and
experience to allow them how to think independently and critically,
and use analytic and computational skills to solve complex problems.

--Together with our colleagues in the Department of Mathematical
Sciences, we run a formal training programme in theoretical particle
physics for PhD students (and also MSc students, via the MSc in
Particle, Fields and Cosmology).

--The main areas IPPP can contribute to training are in the close
supervision in research projects that aid the development of a wide
range of skills including advanced software development, abstract
thought, high performance computing, as well as the capability of
collaborative research both locally and internationally.

Publications

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Abada A (2019) FCC-hh: The Hadron Collider Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 3 in The European Physical Journal Special Topics

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Abada A (2019) FCC-ee: The Lepton Collider Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 2 in The European Physical Journal Special Topics

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Abada A (2019) FCC-ee: The Lepton Collider Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 2 in The European Physical Journal Special Topics

publication icon
Abada A (2019) FCC-hh: The Hadron Collider Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 3 in The European Physical Journal Special Topics