DUNE: Pre-Construction Phase

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sheffield
Department Name: Physics and Astronomy


The LBNF/DUNE project is a global flagship initiative in high-energy particle physics that addresses key questions on the origin and structure of the universe. The long-baseline neutrino facility (LBNF) will be the world's most intense high-energy neutrino beam. It will fire neutrinos 1300 km from Fermilab in Illinois towards the 70,000 ton DUNE detector in South Dakota in order to study neutrino oscillations. DUNE will be the first large-scale US-hosted
experiment run as a truly international project.

DUNE has broad support from the global particle physics community in the US and Europe and with growing interest in developing countries; DUNE currently is a scientific collaboration of over 950 collaborators from 30 nations, with overall UK leadership.

LBNF/DUNE will undertake a game-changing programme of neutrino physics. Its highest-level scientific goals target big questions in physics:
1) Discovery and measurements of neutrino CP violation. This subtle difference between neutrinos and antineutrinos could be responsible for the remaining matter in the universe;
2) Precision neutrino physics, including the definitive determination of the mass hierarchy;
3) Search for new physics beyond the current understanding of neutrino oscillations;
4) Observation of the electron neutrino burst from a galactic core-collapse supernova, providing a real-time probe of neutron star and possibly black hole formation;
5) Search for proton decay, expected in most models of new physics, but not yet observed.

The UK plans to make a major contribution to the construction of the massive DUNE far detector, through a partnership between UK universities, UK national laboratories and UK industry. In this proposal UK scientists are requesting resources to prototype the production processes for the construction of detector elements for this global scientific project.

Planned Impact

see central je-S form submitted by the University of Cambridge


10 25 50
Description Design of the DUNE far detector module
Design and construction of the ProtoDUNE
Exploitation Route This paved the way for DUNE construction
Sectors Other

Description Teaching PhD students to operate the LAr experiment, carry out modelling and analyse data
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education
Impact Types Societal

Description Nucleon decay search and cosmic rays in the DUNE experiment
Amount £119,924 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/R006709/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 03/2022
Title Monte Carlo modelling of muon events (from 2008) 
Description This is the method of simulating and analysing muon events that produce background for rare event search experiments. This method was developed and improved over a number of years as part of various projects and affected the outcomes of these projects. R&D towards new facility at the Boulby Underground Laboratory to host large rare event search experiments DUNE and other neutrino related experiments (Monte Carlo generator for cosmic-ray muons) LZ experiment Muon tomography work 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2008 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Many scientific collaborations are using this method. 
Description DUNE Collaboration 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The DUNE project is a collaboration of more than 10 universities and national laboratories in the UK and more than 200 institutions across the world from more than 50 countries. The Collaboration continues to grow so number of members, institutes and countries is not fixed and changes every year. The DUNE project also includes the ProtoDUNE experiment and is linked to Short-Baseline Near Detector activities at Fermilab.
Collaborator Contribution The whole DUNE Collaboration contributes to DUNE Construction and future exploitation, including ProtoDUNE activities.
Impact The output is the operating ProtoDUNE experiment and associated publications. Another output is the publications by the DUNE Collaboration.
Start Year 2012
Title Modified SOURCES4 code (from 2014) 
Description The original code SOURCES4 developed at LANL (USA) has been modified to allow more accurate calculation of neutron yield in (alpha, n) reactions on a large number of isotopes relevant to material construction for rare event experiments. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The code is now widely used by physicists working with underground experiments for rare event searches. 
Title Muon simulation code (from 2013) 
Description A Monte Carlo code for modelling cosmic-ray muons at different underground sites, including SURF at South Dakota, USA (site for DUNE, LZ and LUX experiments), Modane, France (site for the EDELWEISS experiment) and Boulby in the UK (potential site for the next generation rare search experiment). 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2013 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The code allows calculation of the muon fluxes and energy spectra underground. Initial simulations have been done for underground laboratories in Italy, France and others. In 2015 the model and method have first been applied to the SURF underground laboratory in the USA. Recent improvements to the model have been made for the DUNE experiment at SURF and recently for the Boulby site. Also used for muon simulations in geological repositories.