Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions

Lead Research Organisation: NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology

Abstract

Over the next five years CEH will deliver its strategy, Meeting the Challenges of Environmental Change, by Science Areas underpinned by Monitoring & Observation Systems and Environmental Informatics, through business and policy innovation, and public engagement. Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions focuses on the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs), air pollutants, particulate matter, water and energy between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere. We quantify fluxes and transport of matter and energy, pollutant impacts on the above and below-ground biota, and how changes in ecological communities feed back on atmospheric composition. We study a wide range of habitats such as forest, grassland, wetlands, urban areas and cropland, including bioenergy crops. Our vision is to integrate long-term monitoring, field manipulations, gradient studies, laboratory experiments and Earth observation data to understand the underlying physical, chemical and biological controls on GHGs and other atmospheric pollutants. Quantifying these processes is essential for a wide range of environmental models including those concerning climate change, pollution impacts and land-surface interactions.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description 3.2 Radioisotope methods yield new information about carbon movement

New radiocarbon isotope methodologies were employed at CEH's Carbon Catchments to trace sources of carbon for the first time, through a continuum from peatland, to riparian zone, to stream, and to reexamine the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB) concept. CEH, along with colleagues at the Universities of Edinburgh and Stirling , investigated the potential connectivity between carbon pools and found there was considerable vertical transport of modern carbon to depth within the soil profile. The differences between riparian and stream isotopic signatures suggest that the peatland, rather than the riparian zone, is the most important source of carbon to stream water. Dual isotope data collected through CEH's Carbon Catchments' and linked projects, were utilised in a reexamination of the NECB concept. The study suggests that stream-evaded CO2 should only be included in the NECB when it originates from recently-fixed terrestrial sources. As aquatic CO2 is often partially sourced from geogenic components, its inclusion in the NECB may underestimate total catchment carbon uptake. This is an important new consideration of how the often-quoted NECB of a peatland is defined.

3.3 A novel method for analyzing environmental risk

CEH scientists, together with colleagues in Europe and the USA, recently published two papers introducing a new quantitative approach to risk analysis for environmental hazards. The method allows decomposing risk to ecosystems as the mathematical product of two factors: ecosystem vulnerability and hazard probability. To make this approach work, the authors had to introduce precise definitions of risk, vulnerability and hazard, based on probability theory. The method was published in Environmental Research Letters (2013) , and a first major application of the method, using six ecosystem models to analyse present and future drought risks in Europe, was published in Biogeosciences Discussions (2014) . The application showed that drought risk is likely to increase most for Mediterranean ecosystems, not due to any expected increase in ecosystem vulnerability, but because of increased probabilities of extreme droughts.

3.4 Using Earth observation of land surface temperature to understand surface warming

Soil water plays a central role in both physical and biogeochemical processes in the Earth System. As soils dry out, evapotranspiration (ET) becomes water-limited ("stressed"), and sensible heat flux rises, triggering multiple feedbacks e.g. heat wave, plant productivity and net carbon release. Providing realistic sub-continental scale seasonal- to decadal predictions of heat waves, droughts, and vegetation productivity (amongst others) relies on an accurate depiction of seasonal soil water evolution. CEH research in the SWELTER 21 project, under the NERC Changing Water Cycles Research Programme, examines this issue focusing on Europe. We employed high-quality earth observation datasets, in particular land surface temperature (LST), as an indicator of the land surface energy balance. We considered LST evolution during dry spells and, taking into account local meteorology, we produced a temperature-based diagnostic of surface warming. By aggregating over many thousands of dry-spell events, we can, for the first time observe a warming response at the regional scale of the land surface as it dries over days and weeks. We also highlight the influence of land cover and soil moisture on the observed response. This satellite-derived temperature diagnostic computed for each day of a dry spell is currently being employed to evaluate climate models including the Met. Office Unified Model.
Two papers describing this work are currently being prepared for submission; this research was presented at EGU, April 2014 and at GEWEX, in July 2014 in The Hague.

3.5 First results emerging from the FP7 ÉCLAIRE Project: The continuing importance of understanding nitrogen and ozone interactions under future climate conditions.

In September 2014 the FP7 ÉCLAIRE Project , co-ordinated by CEH with 39 partners, held its first open science conference, sharing emerging outcomes. Three years into the four-year project, the first results and messages were discussed. This included the ongoing challenge to account for the overall impact on ecosystems of both the fertilisation effects of nitrogen deposition and the damaging effects on biomass of ozone deposition, as both temperature and carbon dioxide levels increase under a future climate. Early results indicate that the effect of nitrogen and ozone act independently in many cases, one against the other. However, the area of ecosystems over Europe in which nitrogen no longer leads to increased productivity is increasing and, in the absence of substantial reductions in ozone exposure, the sequestration of carbon will decline. This work will lead to the development of novel thresholds, combining the effects of nitrogen and ozone on ecosystems.

3.6 New guidance on ammonia for the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).

Under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution of the UNECE, the Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen is led by CEH, who provide the co-chair and secretariat. A major outcome during 2014 has been the completion of new guidance for ammonia mitigation which has now been adopted by the Executive Body of the Convention. The Ammonia Guidance Document provides a comprehensive description of the latest methods to reduce ammonia emissions with a focus on agricultural sources. Leading options include the use of low emission manure and fertiliser spreading methods, covers on manure stores and development of farm nitrogen balances. The philosophy links closely to the application of precision farming, where more precise use of nutrient resources allows farmers to save money on fertiliser inputs while reducing environmental pollution at the same time. The Task Force is now in the process of finalising a Framework Code on Good Agricultural Practice to prevent ammonia emissions, which will form the basis for parties to the convention to establish their own national ammonia codes.

3.7 The role of wetlands in Arctic soil carbon budgets

New research led by CEH has highlighted the importance of wetlands to Arctic soil carbon budgets. By analysing spatial patterns of soil carbon against key drivers of soil carbon such as vegetation productivity, soil temperature and soil moisture, it was apparent that the biggest driver was the presence of wetlands. Simulations of soil carbon produced by the JULES model did not, however match the data. A simple adjustment to the JULES model's heterotrophic respiration of wetland areas improved the predicted spatial pattern of soil carbon and confirmed the correlation between soil carbon and wetlands. The results suggest that land surface models need stronger moderation of soil respiration in saturated conditions if they are to better represent changes in soil carbon and carbon emissions from the Arctic under future climate scenarios. This work has been submitted to Biogeoscience Discussions and an abstract to AGU.
Exploitation Route Environmental policy adoption
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

 
Description 3.1. Research on wind turbines and microclimate - remains confidential until publication. 3.2 Radioisotope methods yield new information about carbon movement New radiocarbon isotope methodologies were employed at CEH's Carbon Catchments to trace sources of carbon for the first time, through a continuum from peatland, to riparian zone, to stream, and to reexamine the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB) concept. CEH, along with colleagues at the Universities of Edinburgh and Stirling , investigated the potential connectivity between carbon pools and found there was considerable vertical transport of modern carbon to depth within the soil profile. The differences between riparian and stream isotopic signatures suggest that the peatland, rather than the riparian zone, is the most important source of carbon to stream water. Dual isotope data collected through CEH's Carbon Catchments' and linked projects, were utilised in a reexamination of the NECB concept. The study suggests that stream-evaded CO2 should only be included in the NECB when it originates from recently-fixed terrestrial sources. As aquatic CO2 is often partially sourced from geogenic components, its inclusion in the NECB may underestimate total catchment carbon uptake. This is an important new consideration of how the often-quoted NECB of a peatland is defined. 3.3 A novel method for analyzing environmental risk CEH scientists, together with colleagues in Europe and the USA, recently published two papers introducing a new quantitative approach to risk analysis for environmental hazards. The method allows decomposing risk to ecosystems as the mathematical product of two factors: ecosystem vulnerability and hazard probability. To make this approach work, the authors had to introduce precise definitions of risk, vulnerability and hazard, based on probability theory. The method was published in Environmental Research Letters (2013) , and a first major application of the method, using six ecosystem models to analyse present and future drought risks in Europe, was published in Biogeosciences Discussions (2014) . The application showed that drought risk is likely to increase most for Mediterranean ecosystems, not due to any expected increase in ecosystem vulnerability, but because of increased probabilities of extreme droughts. 3.4 Using Earth observation of land surface temperature to understand surface warming Soil water plays a central role in both physical and biogeochemical processes in the Earth System. As soils dry out, evapotranspiration (ET) becomes water-limited ("stressed"), and sensible heat flux rises, triggering multiple feedbacks e.g. heat wave, plant productivity and net carbon release. Providing realistic sub-continental scale seasonal- to decadal predictions of heat waves, droughts, and vegetation productivity (amongst others) relies on an accurate depiction of seasonal soil water evolution. CEH research in the SWELTER 21 project, under the NERC Changing Water Cycles Research Programme, examines this issue focusing on Europe. We employed high-quality earth observation datasets, in particular land surface temperature (LST), as an indicator of the land surface energy balance. We considered LST evolution during dry spells and, taking into account local meteorology, we produced a temperature-based diagnostic of surface warming. By aggregating over many thousands of dry-spell events, we can, for the first time observe a warming response at the regional scale of the land surface as it dries over days and weeks. We also highlight the influence of land cover and soil moisture on the observed response. This satellite-derived temperature diagnostic computed for each day of a dry spell is currently being employed to evaluate climate models including the Met. Office Unified Model. Two papers describing this work are currently being prepared for submission; this research was presented at EGU, April 2014 and at GEWEX, in July 2014 in The Hague. 3.5 First results emerging from the FP7 ÉCLAIRE Project: The continuing importance of understanding nitrogen and ozone interactions under future climate conditions. In September 2014 the FP7 ÉCLAIRE Project , co-ordinated by CEH with 39 partners, held its first open science conference, sharing emerging outcomes. Three years into the four-year project, the first results and messages were discussed. This included the ongoing challenge to account for the overall impact on ecosystems of both the fertilisation effects of nitrogen deposition and the damaging effects on biomass of ozone deposition, as both temperature and carbon dioxide levels increase under a future climate. Early results indicate that the effect of nitrogen and ozone act independently in many cases, one against the other. However, the area of ecosystems over Europe in which nitrogen no longer leads to increased productivity is increasing and, in the absence of substantial reductions in ozone exposure, the sequestration of carbon will decline. This work will lead to the development of novel thresholds, combining the effects of nitrogen and ozone on ecosystems. 3.6 New guidance on ammonia for the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). Under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution of the UNECE, the Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen is led by CEH, who provide the co-chair and secretariat. A major outcome during 2014 has been the completion of new guidance for ammonia mitigation which has now been adopted by the Executive Body of the Convention. The Ammonia Guidance Document provides a comprehensive description of the latest methods to reduce ammonia emissions with a focus on agricultural sources. Leading options include the use of low emission manure and fertiliser spreading methods, covers on manure stores and development of farm nitrogen balances. The philosophy links closely to the application of precision farming, where more precise use of nutrient resources allows farmers to save money on fertiliser inputs while reducing environmental pollution at the same time. The Task Force is now in the process of finalising a Framework Code on Good Agricultural Practice to prevent ammonia emissions, which will form the basis for parties to the convention to establish their own national ammonia codes. 3.7 The role of wetlands in Arctic soil carbon budgets New research led by CEH has highlighted the importance of wetlands to Arctic soil carbon budgets. By analysing spatial patterns of soil carbon against key drivers of soil carbon such as vegetation productivity, soil temperature and soil moisture, it was apparent that the biggest driver was the presence of wetlands. Simulations of soil carbon produced by the JULES model did not, however match the data. A simple adjustment to the JULES model's heterotrophic respiration of wetland areas improved the predicted spatial pattern of soil carbon and confirmed the correlation between soil carbon and wetlands. The results suggest that land surface models need stronger moderation of soil respiration in saturated conditions if they are to better represent changes in soil carbon and carbon emissions from the Arctic under future climate scenarios. This work has been submitted to Biogeoscience Discussions and an abstract to AGU. 3.8 Investigating the contribution of Saharan Dust to UK air pollution. Research outcomes using CEH-led research into the development and application of advanced atmospheric chemistry transport models such as EMEP4UK.highlighted how UK domestic fine particulate matter pollution is influenced by long-range transport of secondary aerosols originating from continental Europe. The research combined detailed observations obtained at two EMEP Supersites (Auchencorth Moss and Harwell) with high-resolution atmospheric chemistry transport model results, using the WRF-EMEP4UK modelling framework. The work highlighted that the episode of high concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 across the UK in spring 2014 was wrongly attributed to a Saharan dust cloud. the majority of particulate matter observed at ground level - and so relevant for estimating health risks of exposure to these particles - originated from aerosols formed over continental Europe from emissions of ammonia from agriculture, and nitrogen oxides from road transport and stationary combustion sources. 3.9 Quantification of the contribution of novel organic aerosol components to particulate matter across the UK Based on measurements made by CEH, NCAS and UK universities during 2012/13, we have investigated the importance of two contributors to organic aerosol that have emerged during the past few years, through a CEH PhD studentship with the University of Edinburgh. Since 2010 cooking aerosol has regularly been identified as a significant contributor to PM1 in urban areas. Whilst charbroiling has long been recognised as an aerosol source in North American cities, the cooking organic aerosol (COA) detected in the UK and in Asia by the application of positive matrix factorisation (PMF) to organic mass spectra obtained with aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) is thought to derive from cooking oils. CEH and the University of Manchester operated atmospheric monitoring systems at the roadside monitoring station at London's Marylebone Road and the urban background site at N. Kensington over a 13-month period. Our measurements showed that the roadside increment of COA was similar to that of tailpipe-derived organic aerosol fraction. model predictions demonstrate that COA makes a significant contribution to PM concentrations in UK urban centres and provide the opportunity to reduce primary aerosol emissions at moderate cost as this source is currently poorly regulated. 3.10 Soil moisture and Energy fluxes Soil moisture exerts an important influence on weather and climate through its control on evaporation. When soils dry out, more of the radiative energy received by the land surface is used for warming of the atmosphere, leading to rising temperatures and changes in cloud and precipitation. This process is important in models used for both weather prediction and projections of future climate, yet considerable uncertainties remain in the behaviour of the models. Through the CEH-led, NERC-funded e-stress project, we have developed a methodology to directly address this knowledge gap through novel use of earth observation data. Building on a pan-European analysis , we have now created a unique global dataset to diagnose the strength of the soil moisture effect on the surface energy balance. These data are of considerable value in the global modelling community as it allows us to test the ability of climate models to reproduce observations at the appropriate scale.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Environment
Impact Types Societal

 
Description CEH submitted written evidence to the Scottish Parliament's Environment, Climate Change and Land Reform Committee Inquiry into air quality in Scotland.
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Contributing to written evidence submitted by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology for the Environmental Audit Committee Nitrates Inquiry
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description ICP Vegetation influence on policy making under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact In the last year, led by Gina Mills, the ICP Vegetation has reviewed and revised the LRTAP Convention's critical levels of ozone for vegetation at a series of three workshops (with one more in autumn 2015). At the most recent Task Force meeting of the ICP Vegetation 9Poland, February, 2017), the number of critical levels was increased from 10 to 21. The relevant chapter of the Convention's Modelling and Mapping Manual is being fully revised by an editorial team led by Gina Mills and will be completed by the end of March, 2017. These critical levels will be fixed for 3-5 years and will be used by the 50 countries of the UNECE LRTAP Convention to map impacts of ozone on crops, trees and (semi-)natural vegetation. They are also to be used by EU Member States in the recently revised (December, 2016) National Emissions Ceilings Directive. Critical levels for application to grasslands in central and northern Europe were derived from ozone exposure experiments conducted in the CEH solardomes.
URL http://icpvegetation.ceh.ac.uk/
 
Description Membership in Air Quality Expert Group - Dr. Eiko Nemitz
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/library/aqeg/
 
Description Membership in Bioenergy RCUK Cross-Council Steering Group (Jeanette Whitaker)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact This steering group will influence strategic approaches to bio-energy research across UK Research Councils and define funding approaches.
URL http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/research/xrcprogrammes/energy/EnergyResearch/Bioenergy
 
Description Provided written evidence for the Environment Food and Rural Affairs, Environmental Audit, Health, and Transport Committees Joint Inquiry into Improving Air Quality
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Report for JNCC (dated Feb 2016, but finally released in June 2016): Jones et al. 2016. A decision framework to attribute atmospheric nitrogen deposition as a threat to or cause of unfavourable habitat condition on protected sites. JNCC Report No: 579
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact A decision framework to attribute atmospheric nitrogen deposition as a threat to or cause of unfavourable habitat condition on protected sites, improving decision making processes for the protection of vulnerable ecosystems.
 
Description Response to the Consultation on the Draft UK Clean Air Strategy
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/clean-air-strategy-2019
 
Description Generating Regional Emissions Estimates with a Novel Hierarchy of Observations and Upscaled Simulation Experiments (GREENHOUSE)
Amount £1,190,030 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/K002619/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2013 
End 09/2017
 
Description Measurement and Analysis of bioenergy greenhouse gases (MAGLUE)
Amount £1,200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/M013200/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description NERC Funded KE Fellow on Bioenergy
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2015 
End 03/2018
 
Description NERC International Opportunities Fund
Amount £254,063 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P008615/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 01/2020
 
Description Hosting the international project office for the the International Project Office for the integrated Land Atmosphere Ecosystem Processes Study (iLEAPS), a research project of Future Earth (www.futureearth.org) 
Organisation Stockholm University
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Hosting the IPO and organising the iLEAPS conference 2017, including the day-to-day running of the iLEAPS network, newsletters, website etc.
Collaborator Contribution Hans-Christen Hansson, Stockholm University, is iLEAPS Co-Chair.
Impact None yet, iLEAPS conference is taking place in September 2017.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Lead organisation, UNECE LRTAP Convention ICP Vegetation, involving over 200 scientists from over 50 countries 
Organisation Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration with other UNECE Convention on Long-range Transport of Air Pollution bodies, including Task Forces on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP), Modelling and Mapping, and with EMEP and Working group on Effects.
Collaborator Contribution The ICP Vegetation is an international body meeting regularly to advance our common understanding and develop guidelines for reporting and compliance monitoring for critical loads and levels of acidifying substances and nutrients, and more generally to address agricultural crop and vegetation effects of air pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone.
Impact See website and publications/outputs reported elsewhere.
 
Description Secondment of Gina Mills as Adlerbertska Guest Professor at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden 
Organisation University of Gothenburg
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Secondment of Gina Mills as Adlerbertska Guest Professor at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Collaborator Contribution Hosting of Prof Gina Mills and engaging in collaborative research.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2016
 
Title Atmospheric Pollution Portal 
Description a new web-based tool that allows users to overlay and compare concentrations of a range of air pollutants across the UK and see how levels change through time from 2001 to 2014. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The Atmospheric Portal makes it easy for everyone to see how atmospheric pollutants move across the UK, and to understand how different parts of the UK might be affected by atmospheric chemicals that affect the health of humans and the environment 
 
Description A delegation from the China Meteorological Administration visited the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The delegation from China gained an insight into the atmospheric chemistry and effects research conducted at CEH covering aspects of measurements, processes and modelling of atmospheric composition change and fluxes of air pollutants and greenhouse gases.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Bioenergy Research. EERA Bioenergy Joint Programme / SUPERGEN Bioenergy Cooperation Workshop, London, UK (Rebecca Rowe) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This workshop reviewed currently ongoing research on the topic of the relationship between bioenergy development and land-use, from local to global scales. The main objective of the workshop is to propose ideas for common R&D projects within the members of the UK SUPERGEN Hub and the EERA Bioenergy Joint-Programme, targeting national or European calls for 2016 and 2017.

Participants are expected from the institutes involved in the SUPERGEN Hub and sub-programme 4 of the EERA Bioenergy JP. Invitations may be extended to relevant representatives from other research institutes, the industry and government bodies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description CEH hosted international conference on assessing the impact of air pollution on biodiversity and ecosystems around the world 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The 33rd International Cooperative Programme on Modelling and Mapping of Critical Levels & Loads and Air Pollution Effects, Risks and Trends (ICP M&M) brought together air pollution experts from across Europe, the USA and China to CEH's site at Wallingford, UK, from Tuesday 4 April to Thursday 6 April 2017.

One of the main purposes of the event is to assess the best ways to model and map the effects, risks and trends of air pollution while taking account of the interrelated challenges of climate change.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Contributing science activities to the NERC UnEarthed Event in Edinburgh, November 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Unearthed Event, organised by NERC and Our Dynamic Earth in Edinburgh attracted >7,000 members of the general public, including >1,000 school students from the wider Edinburgh/Lothians region. We presented air quality and nitrogen science at two stands, engaging on general scientific questions and specifically around air pollution and the atmosphere with students, teachers and a wide audience. As one result, the Scottish Minister for Education is going to visit CEH in 2018 to learn more about our science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://unearthed.nerc.ac.uk/
 
Description Participation in the science-policy engagement event "NERC in Holyrood: An insight into ground-breaking environmental science, policy and innovation" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact NERC's collaborations and partnerships in Scotland are delivering ground-breaking environmental science and innovation.

This parliamentary reception engaged Scottish parliamentarians, industry contacts and policy makers with the work undertaken around key aspects of environmental science, including climate change, natural capital and marine science, the contribution of evidence into shaping policy and realise the opportunities for future collaborations. We engaged with ~80 participants including MSPs, NERC Science Board & Council members and other stakeholders on topics around air quality and health impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.nerc.ac.uk/latest/events/list/holyrood/
 
Description Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 2016, organised on behalf of the International Ozone Commission (IO3C) in Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The 2016 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium (QOS-2016) was held on 4-9 September 2016 in Edinburgh, UK. The Symposium was organized by the International Ozone Commission (IO3C), the NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and the University of Edinburgh, and was co-sponsored by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, and the World Meteorological Organization. More than 300 participants from 39 different countries attended the Symposium. There were 6 keynote talks, 75 oral presentations and 270 poster presentations. QOS-2016 covered the breadth and depth of atmospheric ozone observations and research. Key topics included: stratospheric and tropospheric ozone observations and modelling; interactions between ozone, atmospheric chemistry and climate; ozone measurement techniques; and effects on human health, ecosystems, and agriculture. Engagement with stakeholders and policymakers was another key feature of QOS2016. The Symposium was opened by L. HEATHWAITE, Chief Scientific Advisor of Rural Affairs and Environment to the Scottish Government, and the Symposium's final day included two talks on the "Future challenges for stratospheric and tropospheric ozone", followed by a moderated panel discussion on policy issues related to atmospheric ozone. The concluding discussions focused on communication of the research findings to policy decision-makers. R. HARRABIN, the British Broadcasting Corporation's Environment Analyst, moderated a panel discussion, addressing future research challenges for ozone, and highlighting the relevance of communication at the science-policy interface. The final words were reserved for I. BOYD, Chief Scientific Adviser at the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, who reflected on the challenges of communicating complex scientific findings and uncertainties to policy decision-makers.
Before, during and after the Symposium, a number of side events took place. Under the auspices of WMO/GAW, NDACC and SHADOZ, an ozone sonde expert workshop addressed outstanding instrumental and operational issues, progress made in the ozone data quality assessment (O3S-DQA) with the homogenisation of long-term ozone sounding records and the preparation of design of JOSIE 2017/2018 experiments. A training school organised by the EU BrewNet COST Action ES1207 was primarily intended for Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer operators and managers. It focused on set up and basic maintenance, data handling and submission, and diagnosing problems.
A Dobson Ad Hoc committee meeting considered what the future holds for the ground based network of Dobson ozone spectrophotometers a world with expanding instrumentation and needs, after 90 Years of monitoring the ozone layer.
Another side meeting followed on from the Symposium on September 9-10 and addressed the fundamental question whether the positive trend in ozone in the post-2000 period is statistically significant or not? Among topics for discussion were uncertainties of ozone trend estimates, statistical tools, comparison between observation and model trend estimates, and next steps for the upcoming WMO ozone assessment of 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ozone-symposium-2016.org
 
Description Visit by Shirley-Anne Somerville, Scottish Government Minister for Further Education, Higher Education and Science along with Joanna Drewitt, Scottish Government Science Adviser 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact CEH were delighted to host Shirley-Anne Somerville, the Scottish Government Minister for Further Education, Higher Education and Science along with Joanna Drewitt, Scottish Government Science Adviser, on the 5th June 2018. The morning visit highlighting the wide range of science undertaken at Auchencorth was led by, Stefan Reis (CEH Atmospheric Chemistry and Effects Science Area Head) and Tim Wheeler (NERC Director of Science and Innovation). It was a beautiful sunny day on the Moss, and as people celebrated World Environment Day, the air quality, climate and ecosystem research at Auchencorth Moss was discussed in relation to policy and environmental issues.
Presentations were made to the minister on various subjects, over delicious cakes and tea at Springfield farm, summarised below. If you would like further information please contact the following-
- Introduction to the history of Auchencorth and its role for environmental science by Dr Christine Braban
- Whim Ammonia Facility and nitrogen effects by Dr Matt Jones
- Carbon in Auchencorth Moss hydrology by Dr Amy Pickard
- Mercury measurements by John Kentisbeer
- Ammonia and PM measurements by Dr Marsailidh Twigg
- Greenhouse gas and particle flux measurements and overseas work by Dr Eiko Nemitz
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ceh.ac.uk/news-and-media/news/scottish-science-minister-visits-auchencorth-moss-fieldsit...
 
Description Workshop on Air Pollution and Health organised by Edinburgh University (Ruth Doherty, Chris Dibben) and CEH (Stefan Reis) - 7/8/2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact A jointly organised workshop by Edinburgh University and CEH took place on 7th of August 2014, with > 25 participants (scientists, policy makers, health experts) from academia, research organisations, public health bodies (NHS Health Protection Scotland), regulatory agencies (SEPA), and other stakeholders (e.g. Transport Scotland) discussing general aspects of air pollution and health, including ground level ozone and other photochemical pollution in urban and rural areas. This workshop focused on exploration and information sharing, laying the foundations for a more structured collaboration on these topics between the different constituents.

This workshop has started and enhanced the dialogue between the different actors of air pollution health effects research in Scotland, with a series of follow-up meetings and invitations to workshops and conferences on the topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014