PML Marine Life Support System (biodiversity, marine ecology and molecular science)

Lead Research Organisation: Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Abstract

Marine biodiversity plays a central role in supporting ecosystem functions, from the basic building blocks of life (DNA, RNA and protein) to individuals, populations and communities. Knowledge of biodiversity in the marine realm is extremely limited, in particular what lives there, where it lives and how it functions. Marine ecosystems cover approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface, yet the total amount of seafloor actually surveyed by humans, is a small fraction of this huge area. To compound this problem the majority of marine life does not live on the seabed, where it can be easily seen, but lives either buried within or floating above it in the water column and, therefore, important organisms with a key role in ecosystem function and health may be yet to be discovered. The most severe threats to marine biodiversity are in the coastal zone and are mostly a direct result of human activity; habitat degradation; fragmentation and loss; climate change and other large-scale atmospheric changes, such as ozone depletion; direct and indirect effects of fishing and other forms of over exploitation; nutrient run-off; mineral extraction; pollution and marine litter; species relocations and invasions; watershed alteration, and the physical alteration of coasts. A loss in biodiversity would have consequences upon the provision of key biogeochemical processes and ecosystem function, which are still to be fully understood, and is of concern when considering the global economy’s heavy reliance on the goods and services provided by coastal waters. PML has a depth of expertise in understanding and valuing marine biodiversity, which is vital in developing tools and strategies for preserving the ocean’s vast biological diversity and, therefore, the goods and services provided by the ocean. To increase the value of this knowledge to society, PML is at the forefront of UK, European and international biodiversity networks, which enables the sharing of species and distribution data to researchers, industry, stakeholders and the general public across the world. Key research areas: a) measuring and describing biodiversity, b) marine food webs; c) variability through space and time; d) environmental change; e) ecosystem function.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This is a large interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary project that covers a broad range of science activities. The main findings in the reporting period are concerned with:
1. Impact of CCS leakage on benthic ecosystems
2. Impact of microplastics on marine ecosystems.
3. Long-term temporal and spatial patterns in benthic and pelagic communities.
4. Interactions across trophic and taxonomic levels.
Exploitation Route The ecological understanding (particularly with respect to environmental stresses and pressures) developed within MLSS will be used by a variety of academic (biologists, modellers, socioeconomists) and non-academic (government, NGO, regulators, environmental managers, industry) stakeholders.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Energy,Environment

 
Description Knowledge gained from this project has helped develop NERC's science commissioning by advising on new funding initiatives e.g. the JSR proposal on Autonomous Observations. Results from this project are published via social media (Facebook and Twitter).
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Environment
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Appointed as a Member of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR) Action Group on Krill
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Author on report arising from Antarctic krill stakeholder workshop (science-fishing industry-conservation NGO) , Woking, 9-10 June
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
URL http://www.iced.ac.uk/
 
Description ICES WG on Phytoplankton and Microbial Ecology - hosts of 2014 annual meeting
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
URL http://www.wgpme.net/
 
Description ICES WG on integrated morphological and molecular taxonomy - invited member
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
URL http://wgimt.net/
 
Description ICES Working group on Zooplankton Ecology - invited member - attendance at annual meeting
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
URL http://wgze.net/
 
Description Participating in a DEFRA subgroup on Ocean Acidification monitoring
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Scientific paper presented to the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Scientific paper • S Hill, A Atkinson, C Darby, S Fielding, B Krafft, OR Godo, G Skaret, PN Trathan, JL Watkins. Updating the Antarctic krill biomass estimates for CCAMLR Subareas 48.1 to 48.4 using available data. Submitted to CCAMLR EMM 15/28 20 June 2015, 20 pp Presented to CCAMLR Ecosystems Monitoring and Management meeting in July 2015. It provides evidence that biomass of fished krill stocks have not declined since the last international biomass survey, providing confidence that the existing management regime does not pose undue risks to the stock
 
Description Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship
Amount € 221,606 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 04/2014 
End 04/2016
 
Description The Changing Arctic Ocean
Amount £2,100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P006434/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 01/2021
 
Title Marine Optical pH Profiler (MOPP) 
Description Application of planar optode technology to facilitate pH profiling in marine ocean acidification and carbon and capture research. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Ability to profile at any depth within sediments (significant improvement in relation to microprofiling which is typically restricted to the first few cm below the sediment water interface). In addition the application supports fast data acquisition (online) enabling tracking of the same exact position of the sediment over time, which help resolve impacts caused by external stressors (e.g. manipulations of ocean acidification) from the natural spatial and temporal variability of pH in marine sediments. This characteristic supports the use of the application in replicated setups, typically required in ocean acidification and carbon capture and storage research to resolve the impact of experimentally manipulated treatments. 
 
Title Benthic N-cycle DY021 
Description Data on sediment nitrification, denitrification and anammox at four sites in the Celtic Sea (research cruise DY021) Additional work was carried out on advective sediments using flow-through-reactors. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Collaborative work with University of Portsmouth and joint presentation at American Geophysical Union Ocean Sciences 2016 meeting (February 2016, New Orleans, USA) 
 
Title Benthic Survey macrofauna 
Description PML Benthic Survey macrofauna abundance and biomass data from five sites (Cawsand, L4, Rame, Eddystone and E1) and megafauna from one site (L4) in the Western English Channel surveyed between 2008 to 2013 containing data from samples analysed up to and including September 2013 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Contribution to NERC SSB ongoing programme 
URL http://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/published_data_library/catalogue/10.5285/03167d6f-a9cd-2e1a-e053-6c86abc0...
 
Title CTD data from James Cook Research Cruise JC073 
Description Data from the CTD for the cruise JC073 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publication of Findlay et al. 2013 GBC; Findlay et al. 2014 Scientific Reports; Henry et al. 2014 Scientific Reports. 
URL https://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/published_data_library/catalogue/10.5285/e11247b8-e8b6-670c-e043-5386abc...
 
Title Carbon and nutrients concentrations associated with RRS James Cook cruise JC073 
Description Carbon and nutrient data from the cruise JC073 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publication submission by Joe Stewart at NOC, Southampton. 
URL https://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/published_data_library/catalogue/10.5285/e11247b8-e8b5-670c-e043-5386abc...
 
Title Conceptual models linking multiple ecosystem services to ecological research 
Description Conceptual models linking ecological knowledge to ecosystem services, intended to form the basis for developing computer algorithms/models. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact To early to say, article (Broszeit S, Beaumont NJ, Hooper TL, Somerfield PJ, Austen MC (in press) Developing conceptual models that link multiple ecosystem services to ecological research to aid management and policy, the UK marine example. Mar. Pollut. Bull.) in press. 
 
Title Diversified benthic macrofauna structure in ERSEM 
Description ERSEM input files for modelling diversified structure of benthic macrofauna were created. This structure contains 6 functional types compared to classical 2-type implementation in ERSEM. Model results were validated against observational data from Station L4 of the Western Channel Observatory. Functional role of each group within whole ecosystem was analysed. Manuscript describing model setup and results is currently in preparation. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This model structure was one of initial steps towards reseach of functional importance of benthic biodiversity using modelling approach, and mutual influence of biodiversity and physical forcing/hydrodynamics. 
 
Title Finescale temporal macrofauna dataset for L4 (WCO) 
Description Macrofauna abundance and biomass data collected at L4 before, during and after the 2012 spring bloom. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A paper has been submitted and the data are also contributing to the development of the benthic component of ERSEM (European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model). 
 
Title Four years of sustained plankton observations at Skomer Marine Reserve, Pembrokeshire 
Description This project aims to establish baseline conditions in the plankton sytem overlying a Marine Protected Area, from which to understand how its seabed fauna are maintained and its sensitivity to change. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None yet. 
 
Title KRILLBASE: a Southern Ocean plankton database 
Description This is an accessible, international database of krill and salp abundance and size structure, constructed over a period of 15 years, mainly although not entirely, under NERC funding. It now contains krill and salp abundance data from over 12000 net sampling stations, with over 1.3 million individual krill lengths. Versions are stored at CCAMLR (fisheries management organisation) and at the Polar Data Centre of the British Antarctic Survey. The database is freely accessible on request. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2006 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A series of high profile papers and press interest (National TV and radio interviews), starting with a Nature paper published from the database in 2004. Together with the dozen or so papers published subsequently that are based partly or entirely on kRILLBASE data, the Web of Science records over 650 citations. The database was described in a recent TV documentary on krill, under development at present. 
URL http://www.iced.ac.uk/science/krillbase.htm
 
Title KRILLBASE: a circumpolar database of Antarctic krill and salp numerical densities, 1926-2016 
Description Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and salps are major macroplankton contributors to Southern Ocean food webs and krill are also fished commercially. Managing this fishery sustainably, against a backdrop of rapid regional climate change, requires information on distribution and time trends. Many data on the abundance of both taxa have been obtained from net sampling surveys since 1926, but much of this is stored in national archives, sometimes only in notebooks. In order to make these important data accessible we have collated available abundance data (numerical density, no. m-2) of postlarval E. superba and salps (combined aggregate and solitary stages and species) into a central database, KRILLBASE, together with environmental information, standardisation and metadata. The aim is to provide a temporal-spatial data resource to support a variety of research such as biogeochemistry, autecology, higher predator foraging and food web modelling in addition to fisheries management and conservation. Previous versions of KRILLBASE have led to a series of papers since 2004 which illustrate some of the potential uses of this database. With increasing numbers of requests for these data we here provide an updated version of KRILLBASE that contains data from 15,194 net hauls, including 12,758 with krill abundance data and 9,726 with salp abundance data. These data were collected by 10 nations and span 56 seasons in two epochs (1926-1939 and 1976-2016). Here, we illustrate the seasonal, inter-annual, regional and depth coverage of sampling, and provide both circumpolar- and regional-scale distribution maps. Krill abundance data have been standardised to accommodate variation in sampling methods, and we have presented these as well as the raw data. Information is provided on how to screen, interpret and use KRILLBASE to reduce artefacts in interpretation, with contact points for the main data providers. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None as yet from the publication of the database, Previous versions of the database however have been used in publication together cited over 800 times. The data are in press in a data paper in Earth System Science data 
URL https://legacy.bas.ac.uk/dms/full-record.php?id=GB/NERC/BAS/PDC/00915
 
Title Model of benthic sensitivity to high CO2 
Description Marine systems may experience high levels of CO2 either as a result of Ocean Acidification or via leakage from geologically stored CO2. Ongoing research under both the OA and CCS research streams have allowed us to develop a prototype model that describes the response of both tolerant and sensitive benthic fauna as well as the recovery potential. The model is conceived as a sub-model of the ERSEM marine system model and is therefore able to place impacts in the context of resource levels, resource competition and predator - prey interactions. The model is currently being used to investigate CCS leakage scenarios and will shortly be applied to climate change / OA runs. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The model has yet to be published but is contributing to reports relating to best practices for CCS, currently in preparation 
 
Title Molecular analysis of gut content of bivalve and decapod larvae 
Description Molecular gut content analysis from the bivalve and decapod feeding experiments carried out at L4 2009-2010. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet. 
 
Title NGS of zooplankton 
Description Diversity of zooplankton assemblages at Station L4, Western English Channel, measured using next generation sequencing. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This work has been submitted to an open access database; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.817188 and raw reads from the 454 sequencing are publically available in the European Nucleotide Archive (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/PRJEB4768). The work has been published in PLoSone; Lindeque, Parry et al., 2013. Lindeque has been invited as a keynote speaker at a COST action workshop in 2015: ES1103 Microbial ecology & the earth system: collaborating for insight and success with the new generation of sequencing tools. 
URL http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0081327
 
Title Pelagic to benthic pigment biogeochemistry at the Western Channel Observatory 
Description Pigment data (including alteration products) from the water column and surface sediment at the Western Channel Observatory (site L4) during a prolonged bloom event in 2012. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Presentations at Nereis Park Conference, Challenger Conference for Marine Science and abstract submitted to present this work at ASLO 2015. Publication in review for Progress in Oceanography. 
 
Title Shelf sea Biogeochemistry: Candyfloss pelagic programme of seasonal measuremenst at the E1 site 
Description 10 sampling timepoints so far during 2014, collecting water and plankton samples through the water column at the Western Channel Observatory E1 site. The samples have been used to do zooplankton grazing experiments. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None yet, sample and experiments analysis is still underway 
 
Title Simulation of benthic macrofauna dynamics at Station L4 of the Western Channel Observatory 
Description Canonical model of benthic macrofauna based on ERSEM components was created to simulate dynamics of benthic macrofauna at Staion L4 in response to phytoplankton bloom dynamics. The model was used to estimate typical response times of macrofauna, as well as roles of functional types in ecosystem functioning. Manuscript describing this model and its results is currently in revision. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The main impact is influence on further integration of different research tools and methods to foster understanding of marine ecosystems. 
 
Title Simulations of benthic macrofaunal diversity in the northwest European shelf seas 
Description NEMO-ERSEM model with diversified benthic macrofauna structure was implemented to simulate dynamics of biodiversity within northwest European continental shelf sea during 2000-2016. Model results allow to analyse how physical forcing and hydrodynamic conditions shape biodiversity structure, which in turn affects biogeochemical cycling within the sea. Model results are currently analysed against available observational data. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These results allow to analyse how physical environment shapes marine biodiversity, which in turn affects biogeochemistry. This will further allow to analyse impacts of disturbance and climate change on biodiversity and marine ecosystem services in general. 
 
Title Vertically Structure Benthic Model 
Description An explicitly described vertically discretised benthic model has been developed to better resolve chemical gradients and biological response. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact A model based on a more explicit representation of the benthic ecosystem has been developed. Providing an improved ability to explicitly represent processes, compare to observations and resolve sediment chemical gradients this model provides the basis for a number of upcoming studies (as part of MERP, SSB) and is freely available upon request from the author or as a git-repository. 
 
Description AcidiCO2ceans, funded by the John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation, Greece 
Organisation Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR)
Country Greece 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Gastropod shells of individuals maintained in the UKOA 14 month benthic mesocosm experiments. Analysis of shell damage using image analysis and geomorphometric analysis.
Collaborator Contribution Consumables and staff time associated with the acquisition of micro computer aided tomography scans of gastropod exposed to a 14 month warming and acidification mesocosm experiment.
Impact MRes Marine Biology thesis, Saskia Ruhl (2013-2014) Plymouth University: Impacts of ocean acidification and warming on shell ontogeny, biomineralization and microstructure in juvenile Nucella lapillus (L.). Supervised by Ana M Queiros and Piero Calosi. The thesis is currently in preparation to submission in the ICES JOurnal of Marine Science under the title "Impacts of ocean acidification and warming on shell ontogeny, plasticity and microstructure in juvenile Nucella lapillus (L.)". Videos of the 3D scans have been produced for educational purposes, highlighting the impacts of ocean acidification on marine life.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with CEFAS 
Organisation Centre For Environment, Fisheries And Aquaculture Science
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Bringing together data, novel statistical methods and policy requirements to develop new science. Focusing on benthic systems.
Collaborator Contribution making data available, policy insights, researcher time to develop the work.
Impact Collaboration within research projects; collaboration in ICES WGBIODIV; PhD proposals; collaborative manuscripts; developing policy links for projects
Start Year 2014
 
Description EGU General Assembly session on benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Department Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Co-organisation and co-chairing a session on benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling at the annual EGU General Assembly.
Collaborator Contribution Co-organized a session on benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling for the EGU General Assembly 2016.
Impact The session in 2016 was jointly organised and 18 abstracts were received. Due to high amount of total abstracts submitted to EGU and very tight schedule, the session was merged with another session, similar, but more general in scope: OS3.1/BG3.8 Ocean biogeochemistry: novel approaches and synthesis. Poster session on benthic-pelagic coupling had a separate subtitle in the programme. In 2017 the session became a part of a bigger session "Biogeochemistry of coastal seas and continental shelves". This effort is a part of on-going collaborative activities on benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling research involving modelling, experimental and observational approaches.
Start Year 2015
 
Description EGU General Assembly session on benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling 
Organisation Italian National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics (OGS)
Country Italy 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Co-organisation and co-chairing a session on benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling at the annual EGU General Assembly.
Collaborator Contribution Co-organized a session on benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling for the EGU General Assembly 2016.
Impact The session in 2016 was jointly organised and 18 abstracts were received. Due to high amount of total abstracts submitted to EGU and very tight schedule, the session was merged with another session, similar, but more general in scope: OS3.1/BG3.8 Ocean biogeochemistry: novel approaches and synthesis. Poster session on benthic-pelagic coupling had a separate subtitle in the programme. In 2017 the session became a part of a bigger session "Biogeochemistry of coastal seas and continental shelves". This effort is a part of on-going collaborative activities on benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling research involving modelling, experimental and observational approaches.
Start Year 2015
 
Description EGU General Assembly session on benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling 
Organisation Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-organisation and co-chairing a session on benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling at the annual EGU General Assembly.
Collaborator Contribution Co-organized a session on benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling for the EGU General Assembly 2016.
Impact The session in 2016 was jointly organised and 18 abstracts were received. Due to high amount of total abstracts submitted to EGU and very tight schedule, the session was merged with another session, similar, but more general in scope: OS3.1/BG3.8 Ocean biogeochemistry: novel approaches and synthesis. Poster session on benthic-pelagic coupling had a separate subtitle in the programme. In 2017 the session became a part of a bigger session "Biogeochemistry of coastal seas and continental shelves". This effort is a part of on-going collaborative activities on benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling research involving modelling, experimental and observational approaches.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Helgoland Time-series Summer School 
Organisation Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Station L4 phytoplankton data were examined during a two-week workshop designed to understand patterns and trends in long-term time-series
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge and advice were provided from the Helgoland Roads and CPR time-series regarding data collection, preparation, manipulation and interpretation
Impact The L4 phytoplankton are included in a comparison study with Helgoland Roads, CPR, Stonehaven and other long-term time-series to quantify patterns, trends and drivers of target taxa in the North Sea and English Channel. These results will be published in a peer-reviewed publication.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Helgoland Time-series Summer School 
Organisation Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Station L4 phytoplankton data were examined during a two-week workshop designed to understand patterns and trends in long-term time-series
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge and advice were provided from the Helgoland Roads and CPR time-series regarding data collection, preparation, manipulation and interpretation
Impact The L4 phytoplankton are included in a comparison study with Helgoland Roads, CPR, Stonehaven and other long-term time-series to quantify patterns, trends and drivers of target taxa in the North Sea and English Channel. These results will be published in a peer-reviewed publication.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Hellenic Center for Marine Research 
Organisation Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR)
Country Greece 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Presentations and discussions at international conferences to explain how Marine Ecosystems Research Programme works, and how the approach may benefits others. Work on developing continental-scale infrastructures.
Collaborator Contribution Invitations to speak at international conferences to explain how Marine Ecosystems Research Programme works, and how the approach may benefits others. Collaborative conference presentations. Funding to attend conferences.
Impact Arvanitidis C, Warwick RM, Somerfield PJ, Pavloud C, Pafilis E, Oulas A, Chatzigeorgiou V, Patkos T, Faulwetter S, Bailly N, et 200+ al., Research Infrastructures offer capacity to address scientific questions never attempted before: Are all taxa equal? 4th World Conference on Marine Biodiversity (WCMB), Montréal, May 2018. Somerfield PJ, Predicting the consequences of marine ecosystem change in a complex world. Invited plenary, 12th Panhellenic Symposium of Oceanography and Fisheries, Corfu, June 2018. Arvanitidis C, Warwick RM, Somerfield PJ, Pavloudi C, Pafilis E, Oulas A, Chatzigeorgiou G, Gerovasileiou V, Patkos T, Bailly N, Hernandez F, Vanhoorne B, Vandepitte L, Appeltans W, Keklikoglou K, Chatzinikolaou E, Michalakis N, Filiopoulou I, Panteri E, Gougousis A, Bravakos P, Christakis C, Kassapidis P, Kotoulas G, Magoulas A, Research Infrastructures and their collaborative potential in addressing challenging scientific questions at global scale. Hellenic Bioinformatics 11, Thessalonica, November 2018. Current invitation to ERIC conference, Rome, May 2019.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Identifying Global Trends and Hotspots in Ocean Acidification Impacts on Marine Ecosystems 
Organisation Global Ocean Acidification - Observing Network (GOA-ON)
Country Global 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am leading a report / manuscript describing the biological observations required to monitor the impacts of ocean acidification at a global level.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are contributing ideas and text to this report.
Impact A draft manuscript is being developed.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Standardisation of phytoplankton biovolumes 
Organisation AquaEcology
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Phytoplankton belonging to different taxa in preserved samples from the North Sea (Helgoland) and Baltic Sea (Stralsund) were analysed at PML as part of an inter-laboratory exercise, using light microscopy. Individual cells were measured using image analysis and all measurements were entered onto the OrgaCount database to be collated by AquaEcology.
Collaborator Contribution The inter-laboratory exercise was organised by AquaEcology as part of a project funded by the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) to standardise the estimation of marine and freshwater phytoplankton biovolumes under the directive "CEN/TC230 - Mandate M/24 Development or Improvements in Support of the Water Framework Directive - WP7: Guidance on the estimation of algal biovolume"
Impact Station L4 phytoplankton time-series will adopt the standard biovolumes formulae once these have been determined by the project led by AquEcology
Start Year 2014
 
Description Visit to Marine Scotland and University of Aberdeen 
Organisation Marine Scotland Science (MSS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Samples from the Station L4 phytoplankton time-series were examined using state-of-the-art electron microscopy to determine species diversity in the western English Channel in an on-going collaboration comparing the L4 and Stonehaven phytoplankton time-series
Collaborator Contribution Station L4 phytoplankton samples were examined using electron microscopy under the guidance of Dr E Bresnan and identified to species level in order to assess and compare phytoplankton diversity in the western English Channel with the northern North Sea
Impact Species identification and diversity determined for the Coccolithophorid group at the monitoring Station L4
Start Year 2014
 
Description Visit to Marine Scotland and University of Aberdeen 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Samples from the Station L4 phytoplankton time-series were examined using state-of-the-art electron microscopy to determine species diversity in the western English Channel in an on-going collaboration comparing the L4 and Stonehaven phytoplankton time-series
Collaborator Contribution Station L4 phytoplankton samples were examined using electron microscopy under the guidance of Dr E Bresnan and identified to species level in order to assess and compare phytoplankton diversity in the western English Channel with the northern North Sea
Impact Species identification and diversity determined for the Coccolithophorid group at the monitoring Station L4
Start Year 2014
 
Title Catalogue of marine biodiversity indicators to assess the environmental status - a software and a review of the current indicator set 
Description A Catalogue of Biodiversity Indicators useful for the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was developed by the DEVOTES FP7 Project with the aim of providing the basis for assessing the environmental status of European seas. It is available online through the DEVOTool 0.64 software application that allows navigating a database of indicators related to the following MSFD descriptors: biological biodiversity, non-indigenous species, food webs, and seafloor integrity. The catalogue (v.6) contains over 500 indicators used by different initiatives, in national and international contexts. A comprehensive overview of these indicators is given: descriptions, data requirements, developmental status, geographical coverage and applicable habitats, biodiversity components and descriptors targeted, and related human pressures. The DEVOTool provides a query and analysis function for browsing the metadata, extracting and ranking lists of indicators best fulfilling pre-set criteria; enabling users to search, for example, for indicators suitable to fill in an identified gap or address a particular pressure in a marine area. The major strengths and gaps of the indicator set (at EU level) allow to focus the development of new indicators where it is most urgently needed, and to foster transfer of know-how across marine regions. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact Engament with EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive working groups, to support indicator selection. 
URL https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/140819
 
Description " License to Krill" - film documentary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A documentary film made by Dox productions, London, about Antarctic krill conservation, fisheries and climate change, including interviews with Angus Atkinson recorded at Plymouth Marine Laboratory. The film was shown at Sheffield film festival and the documentary was broadcast on TV across France and Germany on 25August 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2016 Ocean Sciences Conference (New Orleans, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Oral presentation entitled "Ecological equivalence of species within phytoplankton functional types" based on the peer-reviewed publication in Functional Ecology (doi:10.1111/1365-2435.12641)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/os16/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/91265
 
Description BBC TV interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Live interview conducted at 18:30 on 19 June 2015 with Kristian McConville from Plymouth Marine Laboratory to discuss the high numbers of jellyfish being seen off the South Coast. Kristian also provided live jellyfish to support a pre-recorded interview with Steve Widdicombe which was also shown as part of the jellyfish news arcticle
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Co-chair of MSP workshop in Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact As part of a project funded by the Irish government, Dr Somerfield co-chaired a workshop with policy makers and professionals in the Marine Institute, Galway. The workshop combined presentations and structured discussions, leading to a report with recommendations on the incorporation of climate change into marine spatial planning in Ireland.
Queirós AM, Beaumont NJ, Pascoe C, Somerfield PJ (2018) Spatial Data and Evidence Project, Marine Spatial Planning and Climate Change - A Best Practices Report for Marine Spatial Planning in Ireland. Produced by PML and ABPmer (ABPmer Report No. R.3008) for the Irish Marine Institute, December 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Contributed to Careers Fair at School of Creative Arts, Plymouth 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Participated in the Plymouth School of Creative Arts Career Fair (6th of February) to raise awareness with pupils about how science and arts cross overs can lead to career paths for creative thinkers form an arts background. Materials for dissemination were contributed by Thecla Keiser, Plymouth Marine Laboratory. Attendance supported by Paul Somerfield and the Marine Ecosystems Research Programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://twitter.com/DrAnaQueiros/status/828594418160631808
 
Description Convening an international science meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Somerfield co-organised, and presented at, 'Bob Fest 2018', a meeting to celebrate the career of K R Clarke, held at the Marine Biological Association in Plymouth, November 2018.
He is currently working on a special issue in a journal related to the meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Developing marine biodiversity science at the JNCC 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presenting work done in the Marine Ecosystems Research Programme at a conference organised by JNCC.
Thompson M, Cooper K, Couce E, Schratzberger M, Webb T, Grace M, Somerfield P, Assessing biodiversity stocks and flows and the emerging use of eDNA to support offshore science. Beyond the Coast 2018: JNCC's conference on the future of our offshore marine environment, University of Hull, June 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Drawing in science classes for school students studying for GCSE 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Students study drawing for GCSE (or equivalent) at the Plymouth School for Creative Arts. Dr Somerfield runs a practical class for these students where we look at how drawing skills and creative approaches are important in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description EGU 2017 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation discussing the findings of benthic foraminifera in plankton samples at Station L4 after storm events and the implications this may have for palaeoecology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2017/session/25070
 
Description Ecosystem Services Valuation for Coastal Managers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact PML led a workshop with regional stakeholders in the southwest to inform them how ecosystems services could be incorporated into policy implementation and day to day management in their local areas.
A survey was conducted before and after the workshop to gauge the perception and understanding of ES of the participants and to gauge whether this had improved, as a way of evaluating the success of the workshop. The trends showed that most people's confidence in ES increased from before to after the workshop. The greatest improvements seem to be for 1) understanding how ES can be used in management plans; and 2) being confident in using the approach within their profession.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ICES WG BIODIV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Working with international colleagues to develop practical indicators for marine management. Latest report: ICES (2018) Report of the Working Group on Biodiversity Science (WGBIODIV), 5-9 February 2018, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2018/EPDSG:01. 82 pp.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL http://www.ices.dk/community/groups/Pages/WGBIODIV.aspx
 
Description ICES working group on biodiversity (WG BIODIV) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This ICES working group is developing a trait-based disturbance indicator for use in managing impacts on benthic communities within the marine environment. Participation in this group resulted in new and re-established collaborative links with marine scientists from across Europe. MERP research was closely aligned and contributed to this international activity and is expected to continue.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview on Ocean Acidification for BBC Radio World Service (22nd October). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Steve Widdicombe did an interview on Ocean Acidification for BBC Radio World Service (22nd October).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Interview to the official United Nations Sustainable Development Goals social media TV channel at the 23rd United Nations Conference of Parties 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview describing innovative data on the blue carbon potential of coastal systems, which is emerging from the programme as a result of a benthic research led by PML (Queiros).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://twitter.com/SDGMediaZone/status/929286290348142593
 
Description Interviewed by Reuters 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed by Reuters on the impacts of climate change on marine-based food resources.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.reuters.com/article/climatechange-oceans-fishing-idUSL8N1DP46Y
 
Description Interviewed for IBTimes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed for IBTimes (online news) on new paper that came out in February on biodiversity and climate change and fisheries. Was also interviewed for the same reason by German public radio-station Deutschlandfunk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/six-biodiversity-hotspots-claimed-be-brink-ecosystem-collapse-1608040
 
Description Intreview for BBS Radio 4 "Inside Science" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Provided a BBC Radio 4 interview on their programme "Inside Science" on the role of Antarctic krill in mixing the ocean through their swimming activities, 26.4.18
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09zt3n5
 
Description Invited Plenary at National Conference in Greece 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Somerfield was invited to give a plenary at Greece's premier marine conference. He based his talk on the Marine Ecosystems Research Programme as an example of how to make progress by bringing people together.
Somerfield PJ, Predicting the consequences of marine ecosystem change in a complex world. Invited plenary, 12th Panhellenic Symposium of Oceanography and Fisheries, Corfu, June 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited committee member to the working group on integrated morphological and molecular taxonomy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The working group on integrated morphological and molecular taxonomy meet annually to work on terms of reference and generate deliverables such as promoting integration, knowledge exchange, provision of standards and training material and advise on the implications of developments for marine science and management.

Co-chair of a special session on the application of new genetic techniques to food-web studies at the ICES Annual Science Conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014
 
Description Invited lecture, University of Newcastle 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited lecture to marine biodiversity students, describing how Dr Somerfield developed a career in science and what lessons were learnt along the way. Lecture entitled 'Little to large: a marine biological ramble through time.'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Marine Biodiversity Research at PML Facebook page 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Publicise and promote PML's research and associated biodiversity topics and opportunities and educate the general public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
URL https://www.facebook.com/MarineLifeSupportSystems/
 
Description Member of the ICES Working Group on Phytoplankton and Microbial Ecology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Annual meetings and electronic communications to address specific terms of reference related to best practice, data generation and interpretation of phytoplankton species and community structure in a changing world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.wgpme.net/
 
Description Member of the International Group for Marine Ecological Time-Series (IGMETS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Station L4 time-series data added to the collection of ca. 300 time-series datasets
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://igmets.net
 
Description Multivariate statistical training 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Week-long training courses on non-parametric multivariate analysis of community data are given by Dr Somerfield several times a year. These use methods developed at PML and promulgate them internationally. These methods are now developed and marketed by a New Zealand company. Each course involves about 30 participants.
In 2018 courses were given in Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor; National Marine Science Centre, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour NSW; Marine Biological Association, Plymouth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009,2010,2011
URL http://www.primer-e.com
 
Description Nereis Park 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The discussions following a presentation directly addressed issues and problems associated with the implementation of biology and bio-physical processes in benthic models.

A more solid basis for the representation of biophysical sediment processes has been implemented in a benthic model
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description News article on PML website 'From Finding Nemo to minerals: what riches lie in the deep sea?' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This online news article was in line with a press release to draw attention to and publicise a review, published in Biogeosciences, a journal of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) summarising what the ocean provides to humans and emphasising the need to protect it. Dr Jeroen Ingels, Postdoctoral Research Fellow at PML, was a coauthor of the paper.


The news article enhanced the potential reach of the press release and promoted the information which Dr Ingels provided for the report, which will in turn ultimately feed into the knowledge base of what the deep sea provides as benefits to society and how this may be affected by exploitation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.pml.ac.uk/News/From_Finding_Nemo_to_minerals_what_riches_lie_in
 
Description News article on PML website 'New atlas of marine life in the Southern Ocean' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This news article was intended to promote the release of a new biogeographic atlas, contributed to by 147 world renowned experts including PML scientist Dr Jeroen Ingels.


The data and expert opinions in the atlas will help inform conservation policy, including the debate over whether or not to establish marine protected areas in the open ocean. This article widened the potential reach of this information to our stakeholders, collaborators and beyond.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.pml.ac.uk/News/Southern_Ocean_Atlas
 
Description News article on PML website 'PML scientist awarded Professorship' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact News article on PML website to announce that PML's Head of Science for Ecology and Biodiversity, Dr Stephen Widdicombe, had been awarded a three year visiting Professorship in Marine Ecology at the Marine Institute, hosted by the Plymouth University.

This article raised the profile of PML science with our audience and beyond, whilst increasing public knowledge of PML's long standing relationship between PML and Plymouth University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.pml.ac.uk/News/PML_scientist_awarded_Professorship
 
Description News article on PML website 'Seaweed thins as ocean moves towards acidity' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This online news article was in line with a press release highlighting the release of a new paper in Nature Climate Change "Skeletal trade-offs in coralline algae in response to ocean acidification" with PML Sophie McCoy Marie Curie research fellow as Lead Author. The paper suggests that ocean acidification will alter the structure of seaweed communities, based on observational and experimental studies in natural systems.

The news article widened the potential reach of the press release and increased the visibility of the findings of the study. It therefore will have also increased understanding of this issue, feeding into the current knowledge base of how ocean acidification will alter the structure of seaweed communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.pml.ac.uk/News/Seaweed_thins_as_ocean_moves_towards_acidity
 
Description News article on the PML website 'Solving the plastic puzzle' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Article on PML website to highlight the release of the open access paper 'Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms', with PML PhD student Matt Cole as first author.

It is expected that the method used in this research will be highly applicable to future plankton trawl samples where quantifying microplastics is the focus of the study. The website article will have increased awareness of this study with our stakeholders, including scientists and so promoted the use of this technique to a wider audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.pml.ac.uk/News/Solving_the_plastic_puzzle
 
Description PML/University of Exeter Science Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Collaborative meeting between scientists from PML and University of Exeter; promoted scientific discussion and future collaborative ventures.

Discussions resulted in collaborative outreach and MSc projects being developed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Pariticipated on United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 14 preparatory meeting, United Nations Headquarters, February 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Attended the United Nations in New York, attending the preparatory meeting for Sustainable Development Goal 14.
This is the part of the UN sustainability agenda that focuses on protecting life under water through ocean sustainability.
During the meeting, discussions are underway about what themes the world should work within to improve the sustainability of ocean life into the future, and that of living marine resources, under so many threats such as pollution, ocean acidification and illegal, unregulated and unreported fisheries.
Raised awareness of how such aims cannot be delivered without actions that consider the profound effect of a multi-stressor ocean under climate change. That is, SDG14 is tightly linked to SDG13 which focuses on climate change.
More importantly, at a time when solutions for a fast changing ocean are badly needed, Ana hopes to raise awareness about tools that the scientific community, a major group of stakeholders of the ocean, has already developed. These tools can enable action to meet this challenge and specifically through climate ready marine spatial plans.
Gave a short talk today on the topic at a side event organized by the Ocean & Climate Platform, a think thank promoting ocean sustainability under climate change, and will raised the topic throughout the meeting, including direct engagement with co-facilitators of this UN goal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://twitter.com/DrAnaQueiros/status/831996056955211776
 
Description Participation at United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Climate Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact COP22 was the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 22), held alongside the twelfth session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 12), at Bab Ighli, Marrakech, Morocco. Both were held as part of the The United Nations Climate Change Conference, in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
This event is a world stage where global leaders come together under the umbrella of the UNFCCC to align their national efforts to combat climate change, and the wider event is attended by science, industry, NGO's and civil society. Because of this, COP is a global stage within which research aligned with ocean research and climate change can be widely disseminated, and knowledge-exchange (KE) promoted. This was seen as a potentially great dissemination platform for NERC research undertaken within the Marine Ecosystems Research Programme (MERP), and a great way to raise the profile of Dr Ana Queiros, who is a mid-career senior scientist and a Co-I within the programme. Ana therefore attended COP22 as a representative of the MERP programme, and as part of the PML delegation to the event, which also included Dr Carol Turley, OBE (PML fellow) and Thecla Keizer (PML head of Marketing), joining colleages Dr Phil Williamson (UEA, NERC) and the team form the German Ocean Acidification Porgramme BioAcid.
PML has attended COP since 2009. At that time few delegates even considered the link between climate and the ocean, its ecosystems, its role in the climate systems and the services it provides human society. This has changed considerable, ocean acidification is now recognised as a slow onset event (Cancun agreement at COP16, Mexico, 2010), the ocean and its ecosystems are now mentioned in the Paris Agreement (COP21, 2015) and it is very evident that more and more delegates are considering ocean impacts as they move forward with its implementation. This is at least in part due to the science outreach provided by PML. These efforts have been previously funded in full by the UK Ocean Acidification research programme in addition smaller funding/in-kind contributions from a consortium of other programmes and research institutes (EU-EPOCA, EU-MedSeA, German-BIOACID, US-Scripps, IAEA's OA-ICC) led by PML. PML is now recognised as a significant science-evidence contributor at these conferences. Recognition of the role of the ocean within the COP process, and the IPCC, has been actively sought through PML's involvement in past years.
This year, a whole day was dedicated to the ocean at COP, though the Oceans Action day, organised by the Global Ocean Forum and within which MERP results were also presented. In this day, 400 high-level participants from around the world were brought in to advance oceans and climate change issues and to pledge concrete actions in support of the objectives of Sustainable Development Goal number 14, which is to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources (http://newafricanmagazine.com/ocean-climate-action-making-waves/#sthash.BybFvWx2.dpuf). SDG14 meeting was also attended by Dr Ana Queiros, please see separate entry.
COP22 involved high level participants such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission - UNESCO, the UN Environmental Programme, the World Bank, advisors to the UN General Assembly's Secretary-General, the IPCC, several high level envoys from governments around the world, the royal families of Monaco and Morrocco, and donors of marine research funding.
Through Ana's presence at COP22, results and activities from the NECR-DEFRA MERP were disseminated at this level, as well as to research, industry, policy and civil society.
Ana advertised MERP research in three ways at COP22: a) via media and social media; b) via talks at scheduled side-events; and c) via direct engagement at the PML stand.
Media & Social Media: Ana engaged though Twitter about her and PML's activities at COP via her personal account @DrAnaQueiros. Our top media tweet was our advertising of the side event hosted in the UK pavilion (Green is Great), where she presented MERP results, which received a reach of 2,242 impressions. NERC retweeted one of Ana's tweets promoting the presence of the NERC-DEFRA MERP at COP22. Further to this, Ana was interviewed by Laurie Goering, Head of Climate Programme at Thomson Reuters, as part of the group of marine researchers present at the event, resulting in the following article published by Reuters on 25 November 2016: http://news.trust.org/item/20161125090402-u92xa Reuters is frequently used by other media for their stories, and the story was re-published by the Daily Mail, All Africa, Business Times, Inter Press Service News Agency, Jakarta Globe, Humanosphere, Press Reader, Oman Daily Observer, The Guam Daily Post, and potentially others we have not been able to track. The interview was further disseminated by PML on social media. Ana was also interviewed for Moroccan TV Channel 1 in an interview focused on youth at COP22.
Presentations: Ana presented MERP research results pertaining to task 2.2 on blue carbon/macrophyte links to ocean carbon sequestration at a side event "Climate readiness -Ocean based adaptation and mitigation" in the GB pavilion (November 10th) with the presentation entitled "Blue Carbon + Climate Ready Conservation = Climate Action", which was followed by a Q&A session which was very well attended. The panellist list at this event included also Dr Carol Turley, Dr Phil Williamson, and Dr Tim Dixon from the International Energy Agency. Some of the blue carbon research advances in MERP was then again presented at the COP22 Ocean Action day side-event for Small Island Developing States, as Ana provided content for Dr Turley's presentation.
Ana engaged directly with COP22 delegates about MERP research at other side events which she co-organised with PML colleagues, which included other world class researchers as pannelists, including members of IOC-UNESCO, IUCN, NOAA, and the IPCC. Further to this, Ana engaged directly with delegates at the PML stand, which was placed with the Blue Zone, and with participants in all of the side events co-organised. The stand was an excellent way of engaging delegates from policy, industry, private sector, NGO's and civil society. At the stand, Ana was able to promote research undertaken within MERP, through dissemination of contact card with QR code hyperlink to the programme's webpage and dissemination of USB sticks with the programme summary documents custom written in layman language for this event by Kelvin Boot and K-M Davidson (PML) with the contribution of MERP wide researchers. Direct engagement focused primarily on Blue Carbon work undertaken as part of MERP task 2.2., but also modelling and ecosystems services research undertaken within the wider programme.
Following the event, Dr Queiros has made numerous international contacts and continues to promote and communicate the work she is doing through MERP.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.marine-ecosystems.org.uk/News/MERP_at_COP22
 
Description Plastics in our seas; school visit (Thurlestone, Devon) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 90 pupils (foundation, KSI and KSII) attended a talk about plastics in the ocean and the increased awareness of problems associated with microplastics. They then took part in 5 activities about microplastics around a range of topics from how they entered the marine environment to how they might enter the food chain, there was time after each activity for discussion and consolidation of what they had learnt.

The knowledge transferred to school children has changed their attitude to plastics and they have passed on their new knowledge to their parents. The school has expressed an interest in running this workshop again next year. It is also going to be run with secondary school children as the audience in March 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description PlyMSEF Conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Oral presentation to share results of benthic foraminifera diversity recorded in plankton samples at Station L4 following storms. These data will be published in a peer-reviewed paper.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation 'Benthic-pelagic coupling at L4' at Nereis Park 2014 meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation describing the impact of the 2012 spring bloom at L4 on the benthos. This stimulated a long discussion amongst the conference attendees on many aspects of the presentation it's possible implications.

This sparked interested from the conference attendees on benthic-pelagic work carried out on PML, with several now following updates through ResearchGate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation about the Marine Ecosystems Research Programme at Coastal Futures 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Short presentation advertising the programme outcomes and website for policy makers.
Somerfield PJ, The Marine Ecosystems Research Programme - an update. Coastal Futures 2019, London, January 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at the European Union pavilion at the Eu Ocean Day at the 23rd United Nations Conference of Parties: Oceans and Climate and Science III: From challenges to solutions (10 Nov 2017, 16:00-17:00) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation given on past EU funded PML led research (Queiros et al.) and its new application in several official development assistance projects I am involved in focusing on adaptation and mitigation measures to support coastal communities via climate-ready marine spatial planning, including the RCUK GCRF project Blue Communities (lead: Mel Austen, PML).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://ec.europa.eu/clima/events/0118/calendar_en.htm#schedule
 
Description Presentation at the ICES Annual Science Conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Station L4 phytoplankton time-series data included in comparison study of long-term biogeography of key phytoplankton groups in the North Sea. Results are due to be published in a peer-reviewed paper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at the UK pavilion at the United Nations Conference of Parties in event organised by the UK Department for International Development and Plymouth Marine Laboratory: Ocean Options: Climate challenges and science responses for seas and society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on innovative Blue Carbon data emerging from the programme, as a result of benthic research programme led by PML (Queiros) in WP2 of the programme. Followed up by request for interview with the official UN Sustainable Development Goals social media TV channel.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/659501/UK_Pavilion_Program...
 
Description Presentation on Marine Ecosystems Research Programme at 4th World Conference on Marine Biodiversity (WCMB), Montréal, May 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Somerfield gave a presentation at a major international conference describing MERP.
Somerfield PJ, Data, models and ecosystem services: the Marine Ecosystems Research Programme. 4th World Conference on Marine Biodiversity (WCMB), Montréal, May 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation on large-scale infrastructure for biodiversity studies at 4th World Conference on Marine Biodiversity (WCMB), Montréal, May 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Building on previous large-scale networking (e.g. MarBEF) to expand science previously done by Somerfield to a larger scale:
Arvanitidis C, Warwick RM, Somerfield PJ, Pavloud C, Pafilis E, Oulas A, Chatzigeorgiou V, Patkos T, Faulwetter S, Bailly N, et 200+ al., Research Infrastructures offer capacity to address scientific questions never attempted before: Are all taxa equal? 4th World Conference on Marine Biodiversity (WCMB), Montréal, May 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation on large-scale infrastructure for large-scale biodiversity science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Arvanitidis C, Warwick RM, Somerfield PJ, Pavloudi C, Pafilis E, Oulas A, Chatzigeorgiou G, Gerovasileiou V, Patkos T, Bailly N, Hernandez F, Vanhoorne B, Vandepitte L, Appeltans W, Keklikoglou K, Chatzinikolaou E, Michalakis N, Filiopoulou I, Panteri E, Gougousis A, Bravakos P, Christakis C, Kassapidis P, Kotoulas G, Magoulas A, Research Infrastructures and their collaborative potential in addressing challenging scientific questions at global scale. Hellenic Bioinformatics 11, Thessalonica, November 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation on long-term change at 4th World Conference on Marine Biodiversity (WCMB), Montréal, May 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Somerfield has been collaborating with scientists in France for many years, working on long-term change in the benthos. Here we reported progress at a major international conference: Thiébaut E, Dauvin J, Gentil F, Houbin C, Broudin C, Somerfield PJ, Changes in a benthic system exposed to multiple stressors: a 40-year time-series in the English Channel.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation on marine spatial planning and climate change at 4th World Conference on Marine Biodiversity (WCMB), Montréal, May 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Somerfield gave a talk at a major international conference describing collaborative work on linking models and data to look at marine spatial planning in a changing climate.
Somerfield PJ, Queirós AM, Huebert KB, Keyl F, Fernandes JA, Stolte W, Maar M, Kay S, Jones MC, Hamon KG, Hendriksen G, Vermard Y, Marchal P, Teal LR, Austen MC, Barange M, Sell AF, Allen JI, Peck MA, Solutions for ecosystem-level protection of ocean systems under climate change. 4th World Conference on Marine Biodiversity (WCMB), Montréal, May 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentations at the Marine Ecosystems Research Programme Stakeholder Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Marine Ecosytems Research Programme organised a major Stakeholder Symposium at the Royal Society, 25 April 2018. A series of talks by Dr Somerfield and project PIs led to structured panel discussion between scientists and stakeholders. Feedback on the event was very positive.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.marine-ecosystems.org.uk
 
Description Press release 'From Finding Nemo to minerals: what riches lie in the deep sea?' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release to draw attention to and publicise a review, published in Biogeosciences, a journal of the European Geosciences
Union (EGU) summarising what the ocean provides to humans and emphasising the need to protect it. Dr Jeroen Ingels, Postdoctoral Research Fellow at PML, was a coauthor of the paper.

The press release promoted the information which Dr Ingels provided for the report, which will in turn ultimately feed into the knowledge base of what the deep sea provides as benefits to society and how this may be affected by exploitation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.pml.ac.uk/News/From_Finding_Nemo_to_minerals_what_riches_lie_in
 
Description Press release for Current Biology Paper on iron fertlkisation by zooplankton 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release issued by British Antarctic Survey and PML Communications Teams on the publication of a paper in Current Biology reporting a newly discovered mechanism by which zooplankton fertilise the ocean with iron. It generated interest and enquiries from other scientists, primarily
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.bas.ac.uk/media-post/natures-ocean-fertiliser/
 
Description Press release: Seaweed thins as ocean moves towards acidity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This press release highlighted the release of a new paper in Nature Climate Change "Skeletal trade-offs in coralline algae in response to ocean acidification" with PML Sophie McCoy Marie Curie research fellow as Lead Author. The paper suggests that ocean acidification will alter the structure of seaweed communities, based on observational and experimental studies in natural systems.

The press release increased the reach of the findings of this study and will have also increased understanding of this issue, feeding into the current knowledge base of how ocean acidification will alter the structure of seaweed communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.pml.ac.uk/News/Seaweed_thins_as_ocean_moves_towards_acidity
 
Description Science Conference (Plymouth University) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Science staff from PML and the University of Plymouth gave oral presentations and posters to stimulate discussion between the two institutes.

Increased collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Science presentation at Polar 2018 Open Science Conference, Davos June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presented a talk on climate-induced shifts in Antarctic krill distribution at the Polar 2018 Conference in Davos, Switzerland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0370-z
 
Description Seeing the bigger picture: Models of systems or systems with models? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk titles Seeing the bigger picture: Models of systems or systems with models? was given a the National Partnership for Ocean Prediction inaugural meeting in April 2016. The aims of this engagement were to discuss the MERP programme with a broad professional group outside of the programme's regular scientific audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Statistical consultancy for Natural Resources Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Somerfield wrote a report adjudicating on statistical issues in a debate underpinning an ongoing court case in Wales.
Somerfield PJ (2018) External review of Appendix A: DML1743v1 - Compiled Comments and Responses. PMA243 for Natural Resources Wales. 24 pp
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Steve Widdicombe - "Is the biology sensitive to CCS leakage?" talk at QICS meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This presentation - "Is the biology sensitive to CCS leakage?" - was given at the QICS completion meeting 'Environmental impacts, baselines and monitoring for sub-marine geological Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)' at Westminster Conference Centre, London (8th May 2014). The audience were a mixture of government, industry, NGO and academics. The talk informed the audience on the potential impacts of CCS leakage.

Interest shown from Shell to help develop a monitoring programme for the Goldeneye CCS project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk by Steve Widdicombe at 4th Nereis Park Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Steve Widdicombe gave a talk on "Impacts of CCS leakage on benthic communities and bioturbation: Results from the ECO2 project." at the 4th Nereis Park meeting, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, 8th - 10th July 2014. The talk prompted discussion and wide interest.

None yet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The NERC/Defra Marine Ecosystems Research Programme. Coastal Futures 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk at Coastal Futures 2018 explaining the Marine Ecosystems Research Programme and advertising an upcoming Stakeholder Symposium at the Royal Society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description What lies beneath 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed and provided text input to a short article featuring jellyfish and the PML Western Channel Observatory monitoring. The article appeared in Devon Life magazine (authored by Helen Murray PML) in Feb 2017 (p72-73)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016