Badenoch Textiles: Economy, Innovation and Identity in the Eighteenth Century

Lead Research Organisation: University of the Highlands and Islands
Department Name: Centre for History

Abstract

This project explores the unique relationship between Highland cloth and
cultural identity. Highland cloth, like all textiles, is a physical manifestation of
its origins and surroundings, embodying the complex relationship between
communities, nature and individuals through the human effort of gathering
and processing the raw materials, the communal aspects of production, and
the lives of the individuals that are literally and metaphorically woven into the
fabric.
'Badenoch Textiles' is the first study to explore the material culture of the
central Highlands, using textiles as evidence for the construction of identities
during the long 18th century. At its centre is the magnificent collection of
textiles and artefacts in the Highland Museum collections, primarily held at the
Highland Folk Museum in the heart of Badenoch. In addition, 'Badenoch
Textiles' contributes to a much broader historical and cultural debate about
the central Highlands through its analysis of Gaelic sources and materials. In
particular, it focuses on the Badenoch dialect, reflecting on the influence of
geography on the spread of language and the possibility that this, too, may
have had an effect on the 'dialect' of textiles, with each piece having its own
unique identity and voice in the pattern, form and weave. This identity can be
compared with textiles from other regions, not just within Scotland but also
abroad.
The aim of the study is to examine the way in which the material objects
provide insights into the socio-cultural environment of the time. In addition,
this 'Badenoch Textiles' explores the aesthetics of the artefacts and the care
devoted to their execution to discuss the cultural function these items served,
not just as pleasing objects but as vehicles of personal expression, where the
maker has introduced intricacy of pattern and colour to items which were
everyday and private. It will also examine how the development of stylistic
cultures expressed particular identities in specific areas, discussing local
trends as markers of a distinct Badenoch identity within a broader Highland
context. It will explore - and put into practice - the use of dyes and the extent
to which trade routes to the area and the unique local sub-Arctic flora and
fauna had an influence on the use and appearance of colour in the process of
dyeing. This can be compared with the wider use nationally of dyes at the
time, as well as their availability due to the connectedness of the Highlands to
national and international trade and markets. Its aims and objectives, then,
are
1. To examine manufacturing techniques, patterns and stylistic features of
textiles in Badenoch;
2. To establish the extent of geographical, linguistic and dialect influences on
textile production in Badenoch;
3. To analyse the cultural significance of Badenoch textiles during the 18th
century, as well as investigating their modern significance within the Highland
region and the broader Scottish diaspora;
4. To establish the position of Badenoch in the wider British economy,
contributing to broader historiographical debate about identity and agency in
the central Highlands.
In its focus on material culture, this project makes a significant contribution to
scholarship on Highland, Scottish and British identities by adding objects to
the research palette. This focus on material culture will enable the project to
address a complex range of factors, including issues of raw materials,
processes (technology and proto-technologies) and the factors of production
(not least the human), form and function of objects, patterns of use, regional
variation, demographics, gender balance, transport and communication,
patterns of demand and supply, language and dialect, acculturation and
diglossia and will introduce ethnological comparanda from overseas.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The research is still in progress, but has so far achieved the following, within the award objectives:

'Badenoch Textiles' explores the material culture of the central Highlands, using textiles as evidence for the construction of identities during the long eighteenth century. Central to this research is the magnificent collection of textiles and artefacts in the Highland Folk Museum, in the heart of Badenoch. In addition, 'Badenoch Textiles' contributes to a much broader historical and cultural debate about the central Highlands through its analysis of Gaelic sources and materials.
The research has examined the way in which the material objects provide insights into the socio-cultural environment of the time. In addition, 'Badenoch Textiles' explores the aesthetics of the artefacts and the care devoted to their execution to discuss the cultural function these items served, not just as pleasing objects, but as vehicles of personal expression, where the maker has introduced intricacy of pattern and colour to items which were every day and private. It also examines how the development of stylistic cultures expressed particular identities in specific areas, discussing local trends as markers of a distinct Badenoch identity within a broader Highland context. It explores - and puts into practice -flax growing, as a main textile economy of the eighteenth century in both Badenoch and Scotland, within the context of empire. The research puts Badenoch within this context, and examines the connectedness of the Highlands to national and international trade and markets, as well as the role of entrepreneurship in the context of a Gaelic-speaking population.

The research has so far examined manufacturing techniques, patterns and stylistic features of Badenoch textiles. It has examined the cultural significance of Badenoch textiles during the 18th century, as well as investigating their modern significance within the Highland region and the broader Scottish diaspora. The research has established the position of Badenoch in the wider British economy, contributing to broader historiographical debate about identity and agency in the central Highlands.

In its focus on material culture, this study makes a significant contribution to scholarship on Highland, Scottish and British identities by adding objects to the research palette. This focus on material culture has enabled the thesis to address a complex range of factors, including issues of raw materials, processes (technology and proto-technologies) and the factors of production (not least the human), form and function of objects, patterns of use, regional variation, demographics, gender balance, transport and communication, patterns of demand and supply, language and dialect, acculturation and diglossia.

Additionally, the project has incorporated an element of 'learning by doing', by growing flax by eighteenth century methods. Doing this has helped to understand the broader research objective - to demonstrate that there was a vibrant tradition of textile production in the region. 'Learning by doing' has informed the research, but this has in turn informed the flax growing. The flax growing process has supported the historical research, deepened understanding of the process of flax growing and material culture of flax growing the the eighteenth century. Gaelic and Scots terms relating to flax-growing and flax culture have been resurrected, and repatriated to the material culture and items held in a publicly owned museum collection.

Flax-growing has directly informed understanding of historical sources of Badenoch, its economy, material culture and social life, but has in turn informed the research by adding depth to understanding of working practices of the eighteenth century, particularly in the context of flax growing. This has enabled the working economy of Badenoch to be placed within the context of 'Northern Britain' as a part of the Union, but also, in examining chain of supply and manufacture, has established direct links to clothing of enslaved people in British colonies. In examining supply and export routes of flax, the research places the flax economy of Badenoch within a wider European context, particularly the Baltic states.
Growing flax has triggered interrogation of growing methods, as a direct challenge to some of the reasons for the failure of the industry in Badenoch, where climate was given as reason for its failure. Material culture, written Gaelic sources and documentary evidence show that this was not the case, and growing flax successfully has underpinned this. Experimental flax cultivation has also stimulated interrogation of processing methods, eighteenth century flax working tools and vocabulary. This in turn has led to an intimate understanding of the high levels of skill and dedication required in raising flax, as well as the cohesion of the industry in Scotland in the eighteenth century, and the place of Badenoch within that. The research highlights that this was not as a result of people being cleared, but that the linen industry in fact required a core population. Additionally, the research has established that the linen industry was a factor in the social mobility of women in Badenoch in the eighteenth century, where spinning wages had an impact on the economic circumstances of women, with women able to earn more from spinning and refusing to work for lower wage offered as servants.

'Learning by doing' through growing flax has not only informed the research, it has fulfilled one of the aims of the project - to demonstrate the importance of linen production in the Highlands, which is not reflected in the collection and curatorial practice of the Highland Folk Museum. Growing flax has also facilitated collaboration with additional outside public bodies - Historic Environment Scotland asked the award holder to grow oilseed flax, using 18th century methods, at the Highland Folk Museum. The seed was successfully raised and delivered. HES intend to press the seed into oil to recreate traditional linseed oil paint, for use in one of their historic properties. This is a direct impact arising from the award.
Additionally, the award has led to connections with the linen community further afield, with the research leading to participation in 'Our Linen Stories' - a European project which seeks to reconnect us with our linen heritage. This is being further expanded [information pending].
Exploitation Route The research is not yet complete, but I would suggest the following as ways the findings may be taken forward:

- The involvement of the Highlands in the linen industry on the 18th century is understudied and would benefit from being taken forward.

- Repatriating Gaelic and Scots terms to our material culture history in publicly held collections throughout Scotland.

On a more general level, the findings could be put to use by anyone seeking to revive their linen history, which our Scottish towns and villages have connections to.
Practically, the findings could be put to use by growing linen, and offering it as a unique Scottish product.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

 
Description The research has made impact in three key areas: 1. Changing curatorial understanding and practice for staff and collections of Highlife Highland. 2. Engaging the public and changing public and academic understanding of this key element of Highland history and culture. 3. Practical application of research in growing flax using eighteenth century methods, which has helped to understand and broaden the research objective of demonstrating the vibrant tradition of textile production in Badenoch.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Badenoch Textiles: Economy, Innovation and Identity in the Eighteenth Century
Amount £68,648 (GBP)
Funding ID 1790827 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2020
 
Title Flax processing tools 
Description Flax working tools, recreated from original eighteenth century drawings and manuals 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Public engagement; Gaelic; historical interpretation; repatriating a vital but missing part of the Highland Folk Museum's interpretation of life in Badenoch. Availability for other flax projects - notably Prof Christine Borland's Flax Project, with Deveron Projects in Huntly. 
 
Description An Goirtean (Gaelic - the wee enclosure) 
Organisation Highland Highlife
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Highlife Highland's collections engagement policy is being developed by the Badenoch Textiles project [ongoing], contributing to HLH's model of Community Curation, a way of working together with specialists, professionals, education providers and participants, societies and organisations and local community members to improve collections' display and interpretation. The award contribution is instrumental in helping HLH to place its extensive textiles collection in a broader academic context, establishing its international significance and helping to promote the region's culture and heritage on a global stage.
Collaborator Contribution High Life Highland (HLH) have provided access to the collections, curatorial and museum expertise, management support, and supervision. The student has benefited from extensive access to HLH collections, in particular working with the Highland Folk Museum's textile holdings, and with guidance from the curatorial and museum expertise of staff at the Highland Folk Museum. The student has received significant management support from HLH, which has helped the student to maximise the project's potential impact on heritage professionals, local communities and commercial partners. The student has had access to some team meetings, providing further practical experience of working in the heritage sector.
Impact Education and outreach Cultural - growing and processing oilseed flax for Historic Environment Scotland
Start Year 2016
 
Description Growing Paint - Oilseed Flax 
Organisation Historic Environment Scotland
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I grew oilseed flax in a field at the Highland Folk Museum, specifically for the purpose of providing seed to Historic Environment Scotland. The seed was to be made into linseed oil for traditional paint, for use in one of their historic properties. The flax was grown and processed as close to 18th and 19th century methods as possible, and 14.1kg of hand processed seed was supplied directly by the award holder. A small amount has been pressed at HES Engine Shed in Stirling, and has been tested as straight linseed oil on woodwork. There are trials of linseed oil paint currently underway. The award holder is also supplying a technical Paper for Historic Environment Scotland on the first part of the 'Growing Paint' oilseed flax process.
Collaborator Contribution Historic Environment Scotland provided funding to the Highland Folk Museum for fencing around the flax, to stop rabbits eating the crop. HES also purchased the lint seed. They have also provided social media and blog coverage of the project, which is still ongoing.
Impact Outcomes are yet to be finalised, as this project is ongoing, although a public engagement event has been listed in the 'Engagements' section.
Start Year 2018
 
Description A' Grèidheadh an Lìn - flax working at the 'Milehouse of Nuide' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A' Grèidheadh an Lìn - flax working at the 'Milehouse of Nuide'

This took place over two days at the Highland Folk Museum, at a specially created outdoor area which served as an interpretation of the 'Milehouse of Nuide', which was the place in Badenoch where flax raiser Duncan Grant conducted business in the 18th century. All Flax Day demonstrators were appropriately costumed and in role as 18th century flax workers, or as 'Badenoch Worthies'- for example - Minister Blair (fellow PhD student from the university), the Board of Manufactures Flax Overseer, sent from Edinburgh (my PhD supervisor), and Mrs Grant of Laggan (one of my former supervisors). I was costumed as Duncan Grant, using clothes I had been kindly loaned by a different museum nearby.
Flax tools were researched and recreated as authentically as possible, crafted by the museum's woodworkers. Flax which was grown on site over two years as part of the PhD research was then processed by hand, demonstrating 18th century methods to museum visitors. In addition, some academic colleagues were assigned roles by me and dressed up according to their part, which they kept to over the Flax Days.
Some of the staff from the academic partner brought students from their Public History degree course, and the students were all assigned roles by me as 'trainee flax workers'. This had two benefits: the visiting public could hear and see the demonstrations of flax working, while the students learned about flax working. They helped process flax, which was grown specifically under the award for Historic Environment Scotland. The flax was then hand processed and supplied to HES as dressed seed to be made into traditional linseed paint, recreated by them and used in their historic properties. [See under separate entry].
The students and any visitors who wished to try the tools were part of that process. Children could also try the tools and handle the flax, under close supervision.

The fibre flax had been retted in a recreated retting pool on site at the Highland Folk Museum, created by the award holder with manual help from the museum grounds team and their digger.
Four talks in total were given to visitors, two of which were in Gaelic, with simultaneous translation given by me.

The Flax Days were filmed and broadcast by BBC Alba for their evening news channel 'An Là'. I gave an interview on the PhD and Flax Day in Gaelic on the BBC Alba news channel (Reach c.530,000 people/10.3 pc of Scotland. Source: MG Alba Annual Report 2018/19 http://www.mgalba.com/downloads/reports/annual-report-18-19-en.pdf ).

The aims of the Flax Days were to inform visitors of the flax history in Badenoch in the 18th century; to allow people to touch and feel flax and to try the tools; to show people something of what 18th century social and economic life in Badenoch might have looked like; to offer people access to the Gaelic language and make them aware of its prominence as a language of all social strata in 18th century Badenoch.
Visitors reported a better understanding of the flax history in the area, and an increased awareness and appreciation of Gaelic as a result of the Flax Days.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oLY_Dl73Gr0&feature=youtu.be&fbclid=IwAR2FXkeGI70_hnt4lKWJ84yV1xY_BR...
 
Description BBC Alba interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for BBC Alba, the Gaelic evening news television broadcast, on Historic Environment Scotland's thatching collaboration with the Highland Folk Museum.
The intended purpose was to represent the Highland Folk Museum and talk about the thatching work, and the history of the museum's reconstructed hebridean blackhouse, in Gaelic. The interview was broadcast on their national Gaelic evening news programme, which covers all of Scotland as well as the Irish Republic. Viewers were therefore able to learn more about the Historic Environment thatching project and the Highland Folk Museum.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ihbconline.co.uk/context/158/32/#zoom=z
 
Description Badenoch Great Places Launch 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Badenoch Great Places Project celebrates the regions culture heritage over a three year period.
The launch of the project featured several local heritage and culture organisations, a shinty match between school teams, as well as working demonstrations of wool waulking and Gaelic song. An Goirtean - the Wee Field of Flax was represented with a display of flax which I worked and grew at the folk museum as part of the award, and I conducted tours of the flax field so people could see it growing. The public were able to engage with the crop, but also with the research, introducing them to the history of flax growing in Badenoch.
The intended purpose was to increase knowledge of flax in the area, and for people to see the oilseed flax growing part of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Co-obrachadh: research and interpretation at the Highland Folk Museum in partnership with the University of Highlands and Islands  
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at Museums and Galleries Scotland recognised collection holders meeting, where the collaborative PhD was introduced to a variety of Scottish museum and gallery curators. The event was hosted by Museums and Galleries Scotland, which is the National Development Body for the Scottish museums sector. The intended purpose was to show how collaborative working could take place between universities and cultural organisations, using their collections as a primary source.
Three museum managers approached me directly afterwards, one of whom was interested in founding a PhD collaboration. The other two wanted to discuss how museums could monetise their collections, with historical research as a jumping off point.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Flax in the field 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Flax working at the Highland Folk Museum

Planting and tending flax, in an outdoor museum, fully dressed in 18th century Highland costume.
The flax was planted and grown using traditional methods, and while I was in the field, I engaged with museum visitors, telling them about the history of the flax in 18th century Badenoch, and its global context, particularly in relation to enslaved people and linen exports from Scotland, but specifically from Badenoch (where the Highland Folk Museum is situated).
Many were not aware of the material culture history of linen locally in Badenoch, but more importantly not aware of the role of the Highlands in linen export to the slave colonies.
The work enabled engagement with museum visitors who had little or no English, as I could show them what I was doing, and they could show me their understanding visually. In some cases, through a friend who could speak English, they told me of the various words associated with linen production, and I could compare them not only to English, but as a native of Badenoch and a Gaelic speaker, make connection to the similarities in the flax terms.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
 
Description Grantown Society talk - the Grant of Achnarrow Collection 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk and demonstration of artefacts for Grantown Society on the Grant of Achnarrow Collection.

The aim of the talk and demonstration was to reconnect Grantown residents and Grant descendants with a section of the collection at the Highland Folk Museum. I F Grant, founder of the Folk Museum, made a significant acquisition of objects from the Peace family, descendants of the Grants of Achnarrow, who were gentry class tacksmen in Strathspey, near Grantown. The collection is significant as it contains an Arisaid - a type of woman's very long shawl, which was high fashion in the 18th century Highlands. Women's dress in Highland culture is an understudied area, and as such the 'Achnarrow Arisaid' embodies and challenges some widely held prejudices regarding not only women's dress, but their status in 18th century society as conscious and considered consumers.
Among the other items used in the demonstration was a very old 19th century photograph album, and one of the society members was able to identify an uncle of her late husband's family. In conjunction with a native of Grantown who is a professional genealogist and society member and this particular lady confirming, she was able to offer further information regarding the Peace descendants of the Grants - this was vital information, as it helped to confirm the identity of the Grant woman who had the initials 'I. M.' embroidered at the foot of the 14ft long Arisaid.
Subsequent sharing of the talk and photographs via the Clan Grant diaspora led to contact being made by a woman in the United States, who had evidence that an ancestor of hers was in fact a weaver in Achnarrow, and was possibly the weaver of the Arisaid.
All of this information was submitted to Highlife Highand's Adlib museum catalogue for future use and further research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.facebook.com/pg/maureenhammondillustration/photos/?tab=album&album_id=1777459382472690
 
Description Kingussie Heritage Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The annual Kingussie Heritage festival celebrates the culture and heritage of Badenoch.

It draws a range of participants to a variety of events, and offers a programme of speakers whose research or area of expertise relates to Badenoch or the Highlands in general in the 18th century.

The purpose of my participation in the event was to increase awareness of the publicly owned items in the Highland folk Museum, which are currently not shown due to lack of exhibition space, and any access by public request is at (very movable) curator discretion.
Items from the textile collection currently held in storage were brought to the festival and I delivered a talk about them. Festival attendees were able to look up close at the textiles and ask questions. Some recreated costume was available for people to dress up, and I had volunteers from the audience dress up in 18th century clothing to demonstrate my talk.
Another purpose of my participation was to make people aware of my research, and to be able to ask questions, and to be aware of the indigenous Gaelic language of Badenoch. I used Gaelic in my talk, and in conversation with some attendees.
There are a few items I brought along which attendees were able to supply more information about, and join up some gaps in the museum's knowledge and provenance of their collection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
URL http://www.visitcairngorms.com/?id=291&refno=1000005109
 
Description L'Invitation au Voyages - L' Écosse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interviewed for the French German channel ARTE, for a programme on the Highland Clearances. This was based on research conducted as a result of the award.
The intended purpose was to clearly convey information about the Highlands history, and to guide the film crew towards historical sites in Badenoch for filming.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.arte.tv/fr/videos/093092-000-A/en-ecosse-l-exil-force-des-highlanders/
 
Description Lairg History Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on Highland textiles of the 18th century for Lairg Historical Society. The aim of the talk was to provide information to the members about the heritage of textiles in their area. They had also been invited to bring in any textile pieces they had at home so that I could try and analyse them and provide further information. This would also expand my understanding of the textiles of the NE Highlands.
Members reported an increased awareness and appreciation of the textiles of the 18th century and what they may have looked like in their area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Loom Dancer Weaving Odysseys 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Loom Dancer Weaving Odysseys visited the Highland Folk Museum, with the intent of seeing some original Highland textiles, held in the Highland Folk Museum and the source materials for my research. The group visited from the United States of America and were all weavers.

They were able to see and examine the original historical artefacts, and they learned about life in the Highlands from 1700 to the present day.
Some of the group were able to demonstrate Scandinavian patterns that were showing up in the Highland pieces.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.facebook.com/maureenhammondillustration/photos/a.1808278479390780/1808278589390769/?type...
 
Description Storylines: a workshop about land and folk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Panel speaker as part of Prof Christine Borland's 'Storylines: a workshop about land and folk', talking about flax raising and linen production in the Highlands in the 18th century.

The aim was to support Prof Borland's flax project by supplying flax artifacts, hand raised flax among them, as well as offering a historical background to flax, and a question and answer session for attendees.
The audience said they had not realised what raw flax looked like before it became linen, nor had they realised the intensity of the work required to process it.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.deveron-projects/events/storylines
 
Description Twilight Talks: Place Making and Creative Industry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Panel speaker as a Linen practitioner/grower

The talks engaged with Craft and Design skills and how they defined a place, and looked at how Craft and Design tradition enable new creative Industry.

I was the Scottish representative alongside two other speakers, with complementary stories representing Ireland and The Netherlands, joining an expert chair to debate these themes. The panel was part of a Europe-wide linen network, created and overseen by Dr John Ennis, curator Our Linen Stories, producer GP Journeys in Design.

Those attending could ask questions about the flax work at the Highland Folk Museum (grown and managed by me as part of my PhD research), and practitioners were able to ask questions and compare both growing and processing techniques. The audience members identified afterwards that they had been unaware of Scotland's linen history and in particular the Highlands part in that and had learned something about that from my panel participation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.ourlinenstories.com/twilight-talks/