Understanding the Political and Institutional Conditions for Effective Poverty Reduction for Persons with Disabilities in Liberia

Lead Research Organisation: Leonard Cheshire Disability
Department Name: Research Centre

Abstract

This research will address the overarching question 'What political and institutional conditions are associated with effective poverty reduction and development, and what can domestic and external actors do to promote these conditions?' It will do this by focusing on one country, Liberia, and exploring in-depth the relationship between national and international institutions and actors to understand how the linkages and processes between state and society are benefiting one of the most marginalised populations - persons with disabilities.

It is argued that persons with disabilities tend to be among the poorest in the world (Groce et al 2011), particularly in lower income and post-conflict countries. They frequently face social exclusion, marginalisation and stigmatisation. This generally implies they have limited "political voice", which is reflected in a lack of attention to disability issues within national policies, in particular those aimed at poverty alleviation. As a result, the living conditions of persons with disabilities tend to worsen over time, facilitating a frequently discussed reciprocal link between disability and poverty - a 'vicious circle' - that produces a spiral of increasing deprivation.

However, the Government of Liberia is trying to break this circle. Since the end of the brutal civil conflict in 2003 and the election of Africa's first female President in 2005, Liberia has taken a number of steps to try to improve the lives of persons with disabilities. It has signed and ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), and has supported the establishment of a National Commission on Disability. One of the major international actors, the United Nations, through the Human Rights and Protection Section (HRPS) of the UN peacekeeping mission in Liberia (UNMIL), has been instrumental in facilitating a productive interchange and constant dialogue between the Liberian government and civil society, as well as increasing the human rights focus in national poverty reduction and policy development. These actions are based on the premise that it is possible to promote and foster a 'virtuous circle' in which the efforts of the Liberian Government can be reinforced through an iterative feedback process from persons with disabilities and their organisations. In order to understand this iterative process, further work needs to be undertaken using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies to better understand the impact of policies and programmes on the lives of persons with disabilities across Liberia.

The promotion of wellbeing for persons with disabilities and their families is crucial in achieving equitable development, as measured by indicators such as the Millennium Development Goals, particularly considering the recent shift in the criteria for measuring country-level development performance from economic production to people's wellbeing (Stiglitz et al. 2009). This shift entails new challenges, different assessment and evaluation procedures, multidisciplinary theoretical approaches and new analytical strategies.

This research will represent a first attempt to use an innovative approach to broaden knowledge in this area by surveying families that have at least one member with a disability, assessing quality of life indicators from different members within the same household, and analysing the information using methodologies which take into account the nested nature of this data. In addition, the research will be situated within the on-going international debate on wellbeing. Due to the complexity of both multidimensional poverty and disability issues, a multidisciplinary approach will be used and a broad range of stakeholders will be involved throughout the process, including disabled peoples organisations, NGOs, and universities.

If successful, the research project will be submitted to the UCL Ethics Committee for approval.

Planned Impact

This research will situate a study of the quality of life and multidimensional poverty experienced by individuals with disability and their families in Liberia within the on-going international debate on wellbeing. There is a general agreement about the need to focus on inequalities as an essential determinant of wellbeing (Stiglitz et al, 2009). Therefore a study examining the subjective and objective wellbeing of individuals with disabilities and their families must be considered a priority, especially as disability is among the main sources of inequality in low income countries. Specifically, using a mixed method approach this study will collect information related to objective indicators of socio-economic wellbeing and the complex drivers of poverty (both established and emerging ones), including intergenerational transmission, and subjective indicators of psychosocial wellbeing, Due to the multidimensionality of poverty, the need for integration of objective and subjective well-being indicators and the complexity of disability issues, it is essential to adopt an interdisciplinary approach, including economic, sociological, anthropological and psychological competences. These will be reflected in assessment procedures that integrate different perspectives and methodologies, include a pilot phase to test and refine tools, and promote a culturally sensitive approach. We will adopt more a "family" than a "household" approach for data collection, surveying different members within the same household, balanced by gender and age. This will avoid the assumption that the information derived from head of households reflects perceptions and experiences of all members. In turn, this will identify differences linked to gender and age as well as specific issues related to the policy delivery process.

The primary beneficiaries will be persons with disabilities and their organisations (DPOs), policy makers, donors, and international and national actors working on poverty reduction, as it will support improved policy planning and implementation. The results will also be of interest to UN agencies, NGOs, universities and think-tanks supporting on-going work on disability and poverty.

There is a clear indication from the Liberian government and international community of the pressing need to increase inclusion of persons with disabilities into policies and programmes that alleviate poverty and improve wellbeing. Greater understanding of gaps and generation of evidence-based data on persons with disabilities will increase the effectiveness of national and international programmes aimed at fostering inclusive development and better living conditions, guiding the design and implementation of more effective and sustainable interventions. Universities and think-tanks will be involved throughout the project to promote interest and commitment to disability research by in-country research programmes. The results of this research will provide foundations for planning future long-term longitudinal national studies aimed at highlighting causal pathways to poverty in a context sensitive perspective.

Results will be disseminated though publications, policy briefs and updates, shared with a range of government and civil society partners, with particular attention to the Human Rights and Disability Task Force (HRDTF), at national and local levels. This group will provide a forum at which to present findings and a platform for robust input into on-going research. The results will also be presented to the National Disability Commission, who are well positioned to utilise the research findings in advocacy and campaigning.

A key stakeholder workshop, to be held in Monrovia in the inception phase, will ensure all partners and stakeholders are fully engaged with, and have input into, the project. In addition to local partners, the team will invite members of the HRDTF, government ministry representatives, UN representatives, academics, DPOs and NGOs
 
Description The final findings of the project revealed some interesting gaps in perceptions about wellbeing between disabled and non-disabled people, some of the first research of its kind to do so. Whilst initial analysis has been undertaken, further analysis of these gaps is warranted. Looking across the data, the following key findings can be observed: 1. There is a lack of expectation around state support, particularly regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state towards older adults and women. 2. Persons with disabilities - particularly women with disabilities - and their families are at increased risk of multidimensional poverty and have limited or no capacity to withstand any kind of 'shock'. 3. Adults and children with disabilities are not well supported by the current education system, and experience higher levels of exclusion. 4. Healthcare workers at all levels need training on disability. 5. Persons with disabilities are often politically disengaged, perpetuating marginalisation and exclusion 6. Persons with disabilities experience higher risk of crime and insecurity These key findings have implications for the Government of Liberia, as well as donors and other stakeholders both within Liberia and internationally. Though unintended, the research also raised some very interesting questions about the impact of the 2014-15 Ebola outbreak on persons with disabilities. While our initial findings are being written up into a paper, there is scope for further research into this area on the longer term disabling consequences of Ebola as well as the impact on persons with pre-existing disabilities. Another new avenue of research is that of youth and employment. Our research findings highlighted the limited employment opportunities for youth and adults with disabilities. At the final dissemination event, the Deputy Minister of Youth and Sports was concerned to hear this, given the government's purported focus on strengthening technical vocational education and training (TVET). This led to a small scoping study to explore how TVET and other opportunities could be strengthened to ensure inclusion of youth and adults with disabilities. We are hoping that this will lead to further research opportunities following the appointment (designate) of a new Minister, after the recent presidential election and transition to a new government. Finally, a considerable achievement of the overall project has been working with the National Union of Organisations of the Disabled (NUOD), who were involved in all aspects of the research and have worked closely with the University of Liberia. Previously there had been very little research or other forms of collaboration between the university and NUOD, so this project not only increased the prominence of disability as a research field, but also the importance of including students with disabilities more fully into the student body at the university.
Exploitation Route In our impact statement, we stated we would build on existing contacts as well as develop new ones to ensure maximum leverage for our research results. Based on our contacts, we are very optimistic that our findings and outcomes will be taken forward both within and outside Liberia and by academic and non-academic routes. In terms of academic routes, the collaboration with Dr Tim Colbourn has been especially profitable, and he has even presented findings at a conference on global health. This has introduced him to research on disability, and has led to some very interesting discussions about how to develop these findings further. We are planning to continue to develop the research partnerships in Liberia, and have already identified a number of potential grant opportunities. Within the government sectors, we have maintained strong and positive collaboration with the Ministry of Justice (Human Rights Protection Division), and we have provided input, based on our research findings, to the MoJ team tasked with drafting the Report on the Status of the Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Liberia, to be submitted to the UNCRPD Committee this year. We have drafted a report on disabilities for the Committee on the CRPD, but the report has not been submitted due to the ongoing transition post-election, and needs to be validated and endorsed by the new cabinet. We have also regularly presented findings to the Disability Alliance (formally the Human Rights and Disability Task Force), of which NUOD are a fonder member, as they will support the civil society inputs into their own 'Shadow Report 'to the Committee on the CRPD. We have also shared some of our findings via national radio. In terms of policy, we have been working closely with UNDP both regionally and nationally about the development of a National Disability Action Plan (though this is also on hold following the election). The MoJ will also utilise the results to feed into the updated National Human Rights Action Plan. Finally, although the LCD West Africa Regional Office closed down in 2016, we have maintained strong links across the other teams in LCD, and are confident the results are being communicated clearly to a non-academic audience.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice

 
Description 2017 The findings of the research have the potential to input into the Liberia UN Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) report to the United Nations Office for the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), which is due in July 2017. The GoL are currently holding consultation about the indicators that will be used to monitor national progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. The results of this research have the potential to feed into his process and ensure that persons with disabilities are included in the indicators The Government of Liberia (GoL) are currently holding consultations across the country regarding national level indicators to monitor progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. The results of this research have the potential to feed into this process and ensure that disability issues are included in these indicators to ensure no one is left behind. 1. Lancaster Disability conference (September, 2016) - results were presented by Ellie Cole to an audience of disability academics and advocates 2. Ebola-related results were presented by Dr Tim Colbourn on 6th December 2016 at the International Centre for Evidence in Disability Seminar Series on: Ebola and Disability: What are the long term implications? The panel discussion explored the current evidence on the long term implications on Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) survivors, and presenting evidence from this research in Liberia amongst people with disabilities. 3. Panel presentation at Health Systems Global (November, 2016) - results were presented by Dr Maria Kett in a panel entitled 'Disability, equity and rights: Sharing intersectional approaches to building responsive, resilient and inclusive health systems'. Dr Kett was also part of a satellite session, 'Engaging power and politics in promoting health and public value' http://www.healthsystemsglobal.org/globalsymposia/ 4. Presentation in-country (October, 2016) - results were presented in Liberia by Dr Mara Kett and Ellie Cole to an audience including representatives from the University of Liberia, national and international NGOs, government ministries and disabled people's organisations 5. Presentation on 'Examining the wellbeing of persons with disabilities in Liberia' at the Lunchtime Seminar Series hosted by the COUNTDOWN/ REBUILD Consortiums at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (September, 2016) -by Dr Maria Kett. 6. Guardian interview (August, 2016) - Dr Maria Kett was interviewed for a Guardian article on disability and disabled children in Liberia https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/aug/10/liberia-school-deaf-marginalised-my-job-is-to-make-children-hopeful 7. Truth FM, Liberia (January, 2017) - Dr Maria Kett and Ellie Cole were interviewed on a Liberia national radio station on a regular programme about disability and inclusive education in Liberia. 8. Bridging the Gap blog (January, 2017) - Dr Maria Kett and Ellie Cole published a blog, 'Opportunities for better data about disability in Liberia?', for the regular Bridging the Gap research blog series http://gap.leonardcheshire.org/2017/01/23/opportunities-for-better-data-about-disability-in-liberia/ 2016 report 1. Cambridge Disability Impact Initiative workshop (29 February-1 March). Disability has been identified as a cross-cutting theme by the Impact Imitative and this event bought together a range of grant holders specifically working on disability issues from across the Poverty Alleviation scheme, giving them an opportunity to share research outcomes and enhance impact. Dr Kett gave a presentation on progress to-date. There were in-depth discussions on ways in which findings can be communicated to ensuring the greatest positive impact on the lives of persons with disabilities within the wider framework of the SDGs. Dr Kett was also videoed for the Impact Initiative website discussing the potential impact of the research in Liberia. 2. ESRC-DFID Joint Fund for Poverty Alleviation Research in Pretoria, 16-18 March. Dr Kett and Mr Richard Ngafuan (University of Liberia) will attend the conference in Pretoria and present the research to date in Liberia. The conference is a key opportunity to raise awareness of the project with other ESRC grant holders and develop key linkages and networks to increase its impact. Dr Kett is also co-leading a side panel on 'Multi-sectoral approaches to disability and poverty alleviation' at the event, which will further bring together a range of interested parties to share ideas, discuss policy and practice impacts, as well as develop a road map for impact. 2018 Update on emerging economic and societal impact arising: • Summary of findings requested by UNDP country office to feed into development of National Plan of Action on Disability in Liberia • Summary of findings requested by consultant for AIFO who is undertaking a capacity building programme (funded by from the Italian Development Cooperation agency) for three national federations in Monrovia (NUOD, CFUH and LNAD), as well as DPOs in Bong, Nimba and Grand Gedeh counties. 2019 Update on emerging economic and societal impact arising: This year, there have been two conference presentations (see updates on engagement section for full details). In addition to presenting at the ALTER conference in Lille, collaboration with the Impact Initiative continues, and the PI and national partner presented at the Power of partnership: Research to alleviate poverty conference in New Delhi, India 3 - 5 December, 2018. They were also part of the team that won the 'Dragons Den' initiative, partnering with YOUR World a the National Youth Forum in Ethiopia (to be held in March 2019). Three articles have been submitted (but not yet published): • Carew, M. T., Colbourn, T., Cole, E., Ngufuan, R., Groce, N., & Kett, M. (in prep.) Inter- and intra-household relative inequality among disabled and non-disabled people in Liberia. [Manuscript sent to PLOS ONE - currently under review]. • Kett, M., Cole, E., Ngafuan, R., Colbourn, T., Carew, M.T. and Groce, N. (in prep.) What are the Political and Institutional Conditions Necessary for Effective Poverty Reduction for Persons with Disabilities in Liberia? [Manuscript send to Journal of Development Studies - currently under review]. • Kett M., Carew, M. T. Asiimwe, J. B., Bwalya, R., Gitonga, A.,Nyehn, B. A., Olenja J., Swartz, L., Groce, N. (2019) Exploring research and policy collaborations for societal impact: lessons learned from collaborative research in Africa. IDS Bulletin. [Manuscript accepted for publication]. A blog has been commission for the International Society of Political Psychology (forthcoming, March) by Carew, M. T., Cole, E., & Kett M. People with disabilities in Liberia and the democratic deficit. One grant, in collaboration with NUOD and other national academic and non-academic research partners was submitted to the United Nations Democracy Fund, entitled 'Building skills and citizenship through TVET and sport for youth with disabilities in Liberia. Requested Grant Amount: US$249,944. Sadly it was unsuccessful. Future funding opportunities will continue to be sought.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Maria Kett and Ellie Cole published a blog,= (Jan 2017) 'Opportunities for better data about disability in Liberia?', for the regular Bridging the Gap research blog series:
Bridging the Gap blog
http://gap.leonardcheshire.org/2017/01/23/opportunities-for-better-data-about-disability-in-liberia/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description DFID/ESRC conference 'Lessons from a Decade's Research on Poverty: Innovation, Engagement and Impact 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Kett and her colleague Dr Paul Lynch (University of Birmingham) facilitate a session at the DFID/ESRC conference 'Lessons from a Decade's Research on Poverty: Innovation, Engagement and Impact', held in Pretoria 16th - 18th March 2016. This parallel session, entitled 'Multi-sectoral approaches to disability and poverty alleviation' was held on the final day of the conference and included a brief overview of all the disability-related DFID/ESRC projects (including an interactive map); a brief presentation on the outcomes from the Cambridge workshop and then a call for the development of a 'road map' to 2030 (linked to SDGs), based on a set of agreed collective key messages from Impact Initiative workshop.
Mr Richard Ngafuan was also invited to attend the conference in Pretoria in his capacity as southern research partner, and this was an excellent opportunity for him to meet a wide range of colleagues and stakeholders (he was also invited to the workshop in Cambridge, but unfortunately was unable to get a visa in time). Dr Kett and Mr Ngafuan presented the Liberia work to date at the parallel session on disability.

Dr Kett and Mr Richard Ngafuan (University of Liberia) presented progress on the research to date, and were also interviewed during the conference. Dr Kett was particularly asked to give her thoughts on how the two conferences (Pretoria and Cambridge) linked. It is our understanding that these will eventually be available on the Impact Initiative website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Guardian interview (August, 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr Maria Kett was interviewed by the Guardian newspaper (Development section), for an article on disability and disabled children in Liberia (August, 2016):
https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/aug/10/liberia-school-deaf-marginalised-my-job-is-to-make-children-hopeful
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/aug/10/liberia-school-deaf-marginalised-my-job-i...
 
Description Impact Initiative Workshop 'Establishing a dialogue on disability for higher impact' (University of Cambridge 29 February - 1 March 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact My Liberian research partner and I were invited to attend and present at this workshop (unfortunately he was unable to attend due Impact Initiative Workshop 'Establishing a dialogue on disability for higher impact' (University of Cambridge 29 February - 1 March 2016). The event garnered a great deal of interest amongst academics, policymakers and practitioners and has already resulted in the setting up of a cross cutting theme within the impact intiative.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.theimpactinitiative.net/blog/news-establishing-dialogue-disability-higher-impact
 
Description Launch of research in country 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact In-country (Monrovia) launch of the research programme to invited audience, including policy makers, UN officials, academics and practitioners to inform them and engage in a debate about the forthcoming research, to ensure they were informed about it, and who they could communicate with about it. The event was well attended and reported locally. We have subsequently entered into a formal partnership with one of the attendeed (National Union of Disabled People, Liberia).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Panel presentation at Health Systems Global (November, 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Maria Kett gave a presentation on the research findings at Health Systems Global (November, 2016) panel 'Disability, equity and rights: Sharing intersectional approaches to building responsive, resilient and inclusive health systems'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation (LSTM) September, 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Maria Kett.gave a presentation on 'Examining the wellbeing of persons with disabilities in Liberia' at the Lunchtime Seminar Series hosted by the COUNTDOWN/ REBUILD Consortiums at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (September, 2016)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation of initial findings to Disability Alliance in Monrovia (Oct 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Disability Alliance Meeting - Dr Maria Kett and Ms Ellie Cole presented the initial results of the household survey to members of the Disability Alliance tand other invited stakeholders in Monrovia. After the presentation, there was group discussion about the implications of some of the findings, particularly around the access to health services in light of Ebola crisis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation on Ebola and Disability: What are the long term implications? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Ebola-related results from the household survey were presented by Dr Tim Colbourn on 6th December 2016 at the International Centre for Evidence in Disability Seminar Series on: Ebola and Disability: What are the long term implications?

The panel discussion explored the current evidence on the long term implications on Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) survivors, and presenting evidence from this research in Liberia among people with disabilities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Radio presentation in Liberia (Truth FM) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Maria Kett and Ms Ellie Cole were invited to join Mr Mohamed Kohneh, Director of Inclusive Education, Ministry of Education on his weekly call-in radio show on Truth FM, a well-respected radio station with national reach. The hour-long show discussed a range of issues around disability, including the research finding in Liberia, and the need for robust disability data. The phone lines were lively with many people calling in and expressing their support, as well as giving their own experiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2017
 
Description Research findings launch - Monrovia, July 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Formal project launch, which was attended by around 70 people. Research findings were presented and was followed by a lively discussion. In the afternoon, UNDP held a workshop on developing a National Action Plan on Disability. The results of the research were highlighted as being of vital importance in developing this plan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ucl.ac.uk/iehc/research/epidemiology-public-health/research/leonard-cheshire-research/re...
 
Description The impact of Ebola on persons with disabilities in Liberia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation to audience at Alter (European Socety for Disability Reseach) in Lille, France (July 2018).based on work by:

Carew M.T, Colbourn, T., Ngufuan, R., Beato, L., Nyehn, B., Cole, E., & Kett, M.'The impact of Ebola on persons with disabilities in Liberi'a.

Approximate audience 150 persons - good discussion and related linkages
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://alterconf2018.sciencesconf.org/
 
Description What are the Political and Institutional Conditions Necessary for Effective Poverty Reduction for Persons with Disabilities in Liberia? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact M.Kett (PI) and Boakai Nyehn presented findings from an academic paper 'What are the Political and Institutional Conditions Necessary for Effective Poverty Reduction for Persons with Disabilities in Liberia?', co-authored by Maria Kett, Ellie Cole, Richard Ngafuan, Tim Colbourn, Mark Carew and Nora Groce at the Power of partnership: Research to alleviate poverty conference in New Delhi, India 3 - 5 December, 2018.
The conference, hosted by the Impact Initiative, and attended by several senior DFID staff focused on the outcomes of the DFID/ESRC Joint Fund for Poverty Alleviation Research as it approaches its final phase. Over 100 researchers - funded through the Joint Fund - attended, together with policy actors and practitioners, to look at how evidence coalesces around key policy issues and the role of partnerships in achieving impact.
The team also collaborated in a 'Dragons Den' style competition,and came first - resulting in a future collaboration with YOUR World at the National Youth Seminar being held in Ethiopia on 21st March 2019, funded through the Impact Initiative.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.slideshare.net/theimpactinitiative/power-of-partnership-conference-presentation-effectiv...