Inclusive Growth: Improving Microfinance Regulation to Support Growth and Innovation in Micro-enterprise

Lead Research Organisation: Cardiff University
Department Name: Cardiff School of Planning and Geography

Abstract

Micro-enterprises in low-income economies employ hundreds of millions of poor people and make crucial contributions to economic growth, many operating outside the formal economy. In developing countries, where the formal economy cannot provide sufficient jobs, micro-enterprise is critical to the survival of the urban poor, and a key platform for urban economic growth.
Increasingly urban growth is taking place in secondary towns, which are not well researched, and where micro-enterprises thrive in economic growth sectors. For example, in 2011 half the world's tin production came from artisanal mining. Similarly, construction is a common entry sector into urban employment and widely reliant on own-account workers and work gangs. The rapid growth in importing consumer goods from the far East to Africa has attracted hundreds of thousands to street-vending; the growth in tourism to Africa has seen many micro-entrepreneurs take up the manufacture and sale of curios and other tourism services; while growing numbers of urban and rural households are involved in the processing of fishery or agriculture produce.
However, recent evidence suggests that, even when involved in economic growth sectors, micro-entrepreneurs face significant barriers in implementing innovations and expanding their businesses-level trading. Two reasons which have been put forward are the obstacles to accessing capital and other financial services; and the detrimental impact of unregulated services and lack of consumer protection on their businesses.
Thus the growth of microfinance has raised concerns. Significant numbers of borrowers are now over-indebted to a point where they can never repay, as a result of overselling of loans, competition amongst providers, and surplus liquidity. Problems in India have been widely reported, with a spate of suicides, for example in Andhra Pradesh, by borrowers caught in a spiral of debt. At the other extreme, in Africa recent research indicates that micro-entrepreneurs are not accessing the growing microfinance sector, prevented by a combination of unsuitable products and lack of trust in the system.
This research examines microfinance regulation, microfinance services and micro-enterprises in five economic growth sectors (retailing, construction, mining, food processing and tourism service) in secondary towns of five countries (Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda and Ethiopia in Africa and Andhra Pradesh in India), to answer the key question: By what mechanisms and under what regulatory conditions, do micro-finance services facilitate grassroots, micro-enterprise growth in economic growth sectors?
The hypothesis of the research is that poor national and local regulation and supervision of MFIs, and lack of safety nets, in particular national consumer protection regulations for MFI customers, may either limit the accessibility and take-up of microfinance services, or result in excessive burdens of debt for poor borrowers. Thus, lack of consumer protection regulations for MFI services inhibits micro-enterprises from innovation and growth. The research is explored through comparative case studies in Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Ethiopia and India.
The research objectives are to understand and comparatively analyse:
1) National and local policies on consumer protection in micro-finance provision,
and in the case study cities:
2) implementation of consumer protection mechanisms inherent in types of micro-finance package available;
3) the availability of micro-finance and impact on micro-enterprises' growth of alternative types of micro-finance;
4) barriers to and benefits of take-up of micro-finance services experienced by micro-enterprises;
in order to deepen understanding and inform national and international practice among all stakeholders, as well as theoretical debate:
5) on consumer protection policy in microfinance, competing micro-finance models, financial inclusion, and micro-enterprise growth.

Planned Impact

The research has direct relevance to policy experts and financial-service managers at international, national and municipal level in providing a conceptual framework for improved understanding of: the financial-service requirements of micro-entrepreneurs in five sectors; the barriers and opportunities for access inherent in a range of microfinance services; the risks undertaken by the poor in accessing them, and the gaps in, and benefits of the regulatory context within which these services operate.
The research is also central to the concerns of grassroots organisations of the working poor in providing a powerful 'evaluation toolkit' to support advocacy for strengthening customer rights and evaluating proposed interventions in the system.
The core aim of the Pathways to Impact (Appendix 5) is to channel the findings into pro-poor policy, facilitate the take-up of the conceptual framework and the proposed 'evaluation toolkit' by international, national, municipal and civil society organisations, and make 'local recommendations' in each of the cities studied.
Key targets groups include:
- In-country organisations including central /local government and professional groups
- International agencies and the donor community
- Organisations of street traders and the working poor.
The Impact Plan includes:
a) Local Dissemination:
In each country a workshop with representatives from micro-entrepreneur associations, microfinance institutions and services, regulators and representatives of other stakeholder groups .
b) International Dissemination:
Two international seminars will be held for donors, government representatives and CSOs, one facilitated by UN-Habitat in Nairobi, and a second facilitated by the ILO in Geneva. A seminar in India at Ahmedabad will facilitated by CEPT University, a leading Indian urban planning school.
c) Dissemination to Organisations of the Working Poor:
The toolkit will be widely disseminated through the WIEGO network. WIEGO and its affiliates of member-based organisations of the working poor together represent about two million workers; and through WILDAF, an international umbrella association of women concerned with legal reform in development.
d) Involvement in Other Programmes:
The research team is well-placed to bring the work to the attention of a wider practice-based audience, for example at the World Urban Forum 2014, and through professional networks, and the Commonwealth Local Government Forum.
To ensure legacy, a core part of the research strategy has been the involvement of Advisors to comment on the detailed research design, help refine the research outcomes, and disseminate findings. The research will be informed by, and feed into WIEGO's five-year project on 'Inclusive Cities for the Working Poor,' which will allow medium term monitoring of the impacts.
The research will also be disseminated through ANLEP, the Academic Network for Legal Empowerment of the Poor, an on-going project to examine mechanisms for pro-poor legal reform, with which the PI has now worked for five years.

Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
ES/J009369/1 01/11/2012 26/02/2013 £303,749
ES/J009369/2 Transfer ES/J009369/1 27/02/2013 26/03/2016 £282,517
 
Description The research aimed to analyse barriers, benefits and risks to urban micro-enterprises in accessing financial services and the potential for improved microfinance (MF) regulation and consumer protection. The focus was on secondary towns and larger cities in expanding economies: Ethiopia; Kenya; Rwanda, and Tanzania. India's more mature microfinance sector provided a comparison. The research recognises that access to secure financial services, including savings, transfers and credit, is not a silver bullet, but an important part of wider poverty-reduction initiatives.

Two countries, Kenya and Tanzania, promoted a market-led approach. Kenyan law divides microfinance institutions (MFIs) into deposit-taking, credit-only, and informal savings/loan associations (SLAs). Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOs) also exist. Consumer protection is embedded in the constitution and legislation. Job creation is a priority with government-supported MF provided through county funds for youth, women etc. Innovations in mobile money are transforming financial access-one mobile savings/credit company had 9.2m accounts by 2014.

Tanzania also has a wide range of MF provision including: banks, MF companies, financial cooperatives, SACCOs, credit-only MFIs, financial NGOs, and unregulated self-help groups. The 2013 National Financial Inclusion Framework is being implemented, but a 2013 report estimated that 14% of urban residents were still financially excluded. Mobile credit is now taking off. In both Kenya and Tanzania, NGOs are piloting VSLA (village SLA) methods in urban areas.

In contrast, Ethiopia and Rwanda have strong state-led approaches to MF development. In Ethiopia, micro-enterprise development through government-sponsored training and solidarity loans, is central to poverty-reduction and business strategies. All MFIs are deposit-taking, but poor phone infrastructure hinders expansion of mobile money. In Rwanda, SME development is also core to government strategy, with a focus on youth and cooperative formation. After an MF policy was launched in 2008, and legislation in 2009, 416 Umurenge SACCOs were created, one in each district, representing about half of the country's MF assets. Mobile money is growing rapidly.

Four key findings arise from surveys of 821 micro-enterprises across four growth sectors: trade, tourism, construction and manufacturing.

1) Access: to MF varies in nature and scale due to the roles of government and private sector, types of institutions, innovations (e.g mobile money), the overall economy, and lack of MF products that accommodate fluctuating incomes.

2) Use: the studies reaffirm the widely-proven varied use of MF in the lives of the poorest, for businesses, school fees or family emergencies. Savings and borrowing in Ethiopia were notably high.

3) Consumer protection: varies across products/institutions and countries, and there are important lessons to be shared, particularly in relation mobile money.

4) Growth: studies found limited signs of micro-enterprise growth, as productivity was hampered by social issues (e.g. fear of borrowing), institutional barriers (e.g. harassment by authorities), and financial barriers (e.g. lack of MFI capital; lack of financial literacy).

Key recommendations include the need for: better integration between SLAs and formal finance; wider dissemination of good practice on urban SLAs; written loan agreements; more transparency on mobile micro-credit; loan products that accommodate fluctuating incomes, and better management information systems for SACCOs.
Exploitation Route This research is useful to international agencies, national governments, microfinance institutions and associations of micro-entrepreneurs.

Key partners have included i) national banks (National Bank of Rwanda, Central Bank of Kenya, and Bank of Tanzania), ii) microfinance associations, including AEMFI (Association of Ethiopian Microfinance Institutions), TAMFI (Tanzanian Association of Microfinance Institutions) and AMIR (Association of Microfinance Institutions in Rwanda), iii) NGOs including CARE International, World Visions and local NGOs, and iv) micro-enterprise associations.

The research has been taken forward through in-country seminars in all four East African countries, bringing together MFI providers, regulators and micro-enterprise associations. Each partner is currently taking forward the results relevant to their organisation. Presentations have also been made to the World Forum on Local Economic Development, and the findings will be included in a joint publication between UN-Habitat, WIEGO and Cardiff University.

A key research partnership has been with the Bank of Tanzania, which is using the findings nationally in implementing national financial consumer protection systems, regionally through training with the East Africa Community, and internationally through the Alliance of Financial Inclusion's work on Digital Delivered Credit. Work is on-going with World Vision to explore the development of urban savings groups.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Creative Economy,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/informal-economy/projects/inclusive-growth-improving-microfinance-regulation-to-support-growth-and-innovation-in-micro-enterprise-2/
 
Description This research aimed to contribute to practice, policy and theory, analysing the barriers, benefits and risks to micro-enterprises in accessing financial services, and the potential for improved microfinance regulation and consumer protection to address these barriers. The research is of relevance to: - global and national microfinance research organisations; - central government regulators of micro-finance institutions (MFIs), ie: Central Banks and Ministries of Finance; - ministries of social protection and consumer welfare; - commercial and charitable MFIs and MFI associations - NGOs working to support poverty reduction - consumer-protection organisations, and - associations of micro-entrepreneurs 1. CASE STUDIES THE research team completed case studies in Rwanda (Muhanga, Musanze, Kigali); Tanzania (Arusha, Dar es Salaam); Kenya (Kisumu, Nairobi), and Ethiopia (Hawassa, Addis Ababa), and India (Rajkot and Ahmedabad, Gujarat). In each country work included: - regulatory and document review and for background paper; - key informant interviews with regulators (Central Bank and others), micro-finance banks, micro-finance institutions (credit-giving), NGO providers etc; - extended semi-structured questionnaires with micro-enterprises to examine patterns of borrowing from informal or formal lenders: 1043 interviews have been completed (Rwanda: 221) (Tanzania: 206) (Kenya: 201) (Ethiopia: 208) (India: 207). 2. DATA ANALYSIS AND FEEDBACK Data analysis reports have been completed for each of the 5 case studies. Feedback visits were held in the four East African countries (Dar es Salaam, Feb 15; Nairobi, Apr 15; Addis Ababa, May 15; Kigali, Sep 15). Findings from India are being used to inform the East African case studies. Feedback visits included a workshop with key stakeholders in micro-finance regulation and operation from four main groups: Central Bank and Ministry staff involved in SME promotion; micro-finance associations and operators; NGOs involved in savings programmes; and small business operators. 3. TANZANIA WORKSHOP In February 2015, the research team contributed to the high-level workshop in Tanzania run by REPOA, in partnership with ODI, entitled Shaping Economic Transformation in Tanzania. This brought together findings from three DEGRP projects and was attended by several Ministers and MPs. The team's presentation looked at the role of micro-finance in economic transformations for small and micro-enterprises. 4. LONDON WORKSHOP The team held a final workshop on 25 June 2015 to discuss project findings. The workshop was held in London at ODI. ODI also facilitated a public event on the project, Microfinance and Innovation in Africa's Cities, which was recorded and live-streamed. The event, chaired by Prof A Brown, included 6 speakers from the project: Dr. Wolday Amha, Association of Ethiopian Microfinance Institutions, Mrs. Winnie Terry, Tanzania Association of Microfinance Institutions, Mr. Peter Gikang'a, Central Bank of Kenya, and Katherine Hughes, Financial Inclusion Programme Officer, CARE International, with responses from Prof T GebgreEgziabher, Univ. Addis Ababa and Prof D Mahadevia, CEPT University. 5. OVERALL FINDINGS Two countries, Kenya and Tanzania, promoted a market-led approach. Kenyan law divides microfinance institutions (MFIs) into deposit-taking, credit-only, and informal savings/loan associations (SLAs). Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOs) also exist. Consumer protection is embedded in the constitution and legislation. Job creation is a priority with government-supported MF provided through county funds for youth, women etc. Innovations in mobile money are transforming financial access-one mobile savings/credit company had 9.2m accounts by 2014. Tanzania also has a wide range of MF provision including: banks, MF companies, financial cooperatives, SACCOs, credit-only MFIs, financial NGOs, and unregulated self-help groups. The 2013 National Financial Inclusion Framework is being implemented, but a 2013 report estimated that 14% of urban residents were still financially excluded. Mobile credit is now taking off. In both Kenya and Tanzania, NGOs are piloting VSLA (village SLA) methods in urban areas. In contrast, Ethiopia and Rwanda have strong state-led approaches to MF development. In Ethiopia, micro-enterprise development through government-sponsored training and solidarity loans, is central to poverty-reduction and business strategies. All MFIs are deposit-taking, but poor phone infrastructure hinders expansion of mobile money. In Rwanda, SME development is also core to government strategy, with a focus on youth and cooperative formation. After an MF policy was launched in 2008, and legislation in 2009, 416 Umurenge SACCOs were created, one in each district, representing about half of the country's MF assets. Mobile money is growing rapidly. Four key findings arise from our surveys of 821 micro-enterprises across four growth sectors: trade, tourism, construction and manufacturing. A) Access: to MF varies in nature and scale due to the roles of government and private sector, types of institutions, innovations (e.g mobile money), the overall economy, and lack of MF products that accommodate fluctuating incomes. B) Use: the studies reaffirm the widely-proven varied use of MF in the lives of the poorest, for businesses, school fees or family emergencies. Savings and borrowing in Ethiopia were notably high. C) Consumer protection: varies across products/institutions and countries, and there are important lessons to be shared, particularly in relation mobile money. D) Growth: studies found limited signs of micro-enterprise growth, as productivity was hampered by social issues (e.g. fear of borrowing), institutional barriers (e.g. harassment by authorities), and financial barriers (e.g. lack of MFI capital; lack of financial literacy). E) IMPACT: The most important impact has been through the involvement of partners from Central Banks and national microfinance associations, particularly the Bank of Tanzania; Central Bank of Kenya; National Bank of Rwanda; Association of Ethiopian Microfinance Institutions (AEMFI), and Tanzania Association of Microfinance Institutions (TAMFI). An important finding from the research is the need to encourage the graduation of micro-enterprises from small-scale group savings methodologies to individual loans. There is also need for much greater transparency in charges for micro-finance products.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description A Systems Approach to Air Pollution in East Africa (ASAP), with University of Birmingham
Amount £19,000 (GBP)
Organisation East Africa Research Fund 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Kenya
Start 09/2017 
End 01/2020
 
Description Small-scale research project
Amount £8,000 (GBP)
Organisation Reall 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2016 
End 06/2017
 
Description Advisory Board, Kuala Lumpur Declaration, WUF9, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Advisory Board Member, advisors to Government of Malaysia in drafting the Kuala Lumpur Declaration, World Urban Forum 9: Cities for All: Implementing the New Urban Agenda, February 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://wuf9.org/kuala-lumpur-declaration/
 
Description Anonymous livelihoods: reintegration and recovery after conflict, ECAS, University of Basel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation to ECAS, the 7th European Conference on African Studies, 29 June-1 July 2017, Panel 121, "The ones who moved to the town: Informal DDR through urbanisation", University of Basel, Switzerland
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.nomadit.co.uk/ecas/ecas2017/panels.php5?PanelID=4935
 
Description Chair and Convener, Expert Working Group, Enabling Productivity in the Urban Informal Economy, Surabaya, Indonesia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Expert Working Group, Enabling Productivity in the Urban Informal Economy, Habitat III Preparatory Committee III, with WIEGO, Bumi Surabaya City Resort, Surabaya, Indonesia, 28 July 2016. Working group held to inform preparation of the UN-Habitat report on 'Enhancing Productivity in the Urban Informal Economy'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Chair, Special Session on the Informal Sector, Launch of the report 'Enhancing Economic Productivity in the Urban Informal Economy', Habitat III 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Special Session on the Informal Sector, Casa de la Cultura, Quito, Tues 18 Oct, 2016, Habitat III, UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development,17-21 October 2016. Debate around the Habitat III Issues Paper on the 'Informal Sector', with presentations from WIEGO worker leaders, experts and the ILO
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://habitat3.org/programme/page/2/?d=2016-10-19
 
Description Cities of Informality, Cardiff, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Cardiff School of Geography and Planning, Evening Event, Cardiff University
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Enhancing the potential of Africa's urban informal economies, Co-creating Inclusive Lagos, HBS, Lagos, Nigeria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Co-creating Inclusive Lagos, 4 July 2017, Workshop of worker unions, governments and academics, Heinrich Böll Stiftung, Lagos
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://calendar.boell.de/en/event/co-creating-inclusive-lagos
 
Description Ethiopia Inclusive Growth Workshop, 15 June April 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop gave feedback to research participants, and reviewed the outcome document for Ethiopia. The aim was bring together policy makers, microfinance institutions, NGOs working on financial inclusion and operators of micro-enterprises, to explore policy directions. The workshop was supported by the Association of Ethiopian Microfinance Institutions (AEMFI).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/informal-economy/projects/inclusive-growth-improving-microfinance-regulat...
 
Description Expert Group Meeting on Women in Sustainable Housing, Nairobi, 7-8 December, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact UN-Habitat Expert Group meeting, to define new work programme on Women in Sustainable Housing. Chairing 2-day event
Presentation: Urban myths and invisible work: globalisation and hidden labour, Presentation to the UN-Habitat Expert Group Meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://unhabitat.org/women-empowerment-through-decent-jobs-and-sustainable-construction/
 
Description Informal economies, conflict recovery and absent aid: Development Studies Association, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Development Studies Association (DSA) Annual conference, Sustainability interrogated: societies, growth, and social justice 7-9 Sep 2017, Panel 11 - Supporting change in fragile states: experiences and next steps, Bradford
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://nomadit.co.uk/dsa/dsa2017/conferencesuite.php/panels/5739
 
Description Invited Speaker, Street-Level Perspective on Rights, European Regional Meeting on the Right to the City 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact European Regional Meeting on the Right to the City, Global Platform on the Right to the City, Barcelona, 2-3 April, 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.righttothecityplatform.org.br/event/european-meeting/?lang=es
 
Description Kenya Inclusive Growth Workshop, 20 April 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop gave feedback to research participants, and reviewed the outcome document for Kenya. The aim was bring together policy makers from the National Bank of Kenya, microfinance institutions, NGOs working on financial inclusion and operators of micro-enterprises, to explore policy directions. The workshop was supported by the National Bank of Kenya, CARE Kenya and World Vision Kenya.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/informal-economy/projects/inclusive-growth-improving-microfinance-regulat...
 
Description Launch of - Trends in Urban Resilience, 2017 - UN-Habitat Report, WUF9 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Side Event, World Urban Forum 9: Cities for All, Implementing the New Urban Agenda, February 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://unhabitat.org/books/trends-in-urban-resilience-2017/
 
Description Leave No-one Behind: Working with the informal Economy: Cities, Livelihoods and Governance, DFID video-link presentation to Livelihoods and Governance Cadres, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact One of two speakers on a video-link presentation to DFID country offices, launching the Evidence on Demand Topic Guides on 'Livelihoods and Urbanisation', and 'Urban Governance' Department for International Development, 1 Whitehall, London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Leaving No-one behind, World Day for Health and Safety, International Labour Organisation, UN, New York 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited Speaker, 'Leaving No-one Behind, Occupational Health and Safety at WIEGO', World Day for Health and Safety, International Labour Organisation, 28 Apr, 2016, New York, USA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Low income housing: the longer view - the employment impacts of upgrading and low-income housing development. Habitat III Quito 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Panelist on the Habitat III Networking Event, entitled, 'Partnerships with community, government and investors essential to delivering affordable housing in the global south', Casa de la Cultura, Quito, Tues 18 Oct, Habitat III, 17-21 October 2016. Event organisers were the NGO, Reall: Real Equity for All, which operates the successful CLIFF (Community-Led Infrastructure Finance Fund)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://habitat3.org/networking-events/
 
Description Microfinance and Innovation in Africa's Cities, London Workshop 25 June, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This event brought together key policy makers from Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Kenya, with CARE International's expert on community savings and loans groups (VSLAs), to debate findings from Cardiff University's DEGRP research on Inclusive Growth: Improving Microfinance to Support Growth and Innovation in Micro-Enterprise. The event was held at ODI offices in London and live-streamed to a global audience.

The event explored the findings on access to finance by micro-enterprises, and the potential for improved financial access to contribute to jobs and economic growth. The research recognises that microfinance is not a guaranteed route out of poverty, but sees access to secure financial services as an important right.
SPEAKERS:
1) Microfinance and Innovation in Africa's Cities: Workshop introduction, Prof Alison Brown, Dr Peter Mackie, Dr Alastair Smith
2) Innovations in Africa's urban businesses: is microfinance key? Winnie Terry, CEO, Tanzania Association of Microfinance Institutions (TAMFI)
3) Development of microfinance in Ethiopia: Regulation and inclusiveness, Wolday Amha, Executive Director, Association of Ethiopian Microfinance Institutions (AEMFI)
4) Peter Njogu Gikang'a, Innovation and micro-finance regulation, Portfolio Manager, Bank Supervision, Central Bank of Kenya
5) Savings groups: Strengths, emerging needs and adaptation of the model from CARE's experience, Katherine Hughes, Financial Inclusion Programmes Officer, CARE International UK
DISCUSSANTS
Prof Darshini Mahadevia, CEPT University, Ahmedabad
Prof Tegegne GebreEgziabher, Institute of Development and Policy Research, University of Addis Ababa
(Additional url: http://www.odi.org/events/4225-microfinance-growth-degrp-dfid-esrc-business-economic)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/informal-economy/projects/inclusive-growth-improving-microfinance-regulat...
 
Description Panelist, Dialogue on the Right to the City and Cities for All, Habitat III, 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Panelist, Dialogue on the Right to the City and Cities for All, Casa de la Cultura, Quito, Tues 18 Oct, 2016, Habitat III, UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development,17-20. Session chaired by Action Aid, India, provided debate on the Habitat III Policy Unit Paper 1, on the 'Right to the City and Cities for All'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://habitat3.org/dialogues/
 
Description Panelist, Local Economic Development, Productivity and Employment Creation in Cities, WUF9, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Special Session: Local Economic Development, Productivity and Employment Creation in Cities, World Urban Forum 9: Cities for All: Implementing the New Urban Agenda, February 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://wuf9.org/programme/special-sessions/local-economic-development-productivity-and-youth-employm...
 
Description Panelist, United Nations, New York, Habitat III Preparatory Process, Policy Unit 10 Housing, Open-ended Informal Consultative Meetings, UN, New York 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Panelist, United Nations, on the debate on Policy Unit 10, Housing, Habitat III Preparatory Process, Open-ended Informal Consultative Meetings, Moderators, Inter-American Development Bank and Habitat for Humanity. Conference Room 3, United Nations, 25-27 April 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://papersmart.unmeetings.org/ga/un-habitat/habitat-iii-open-ended-informal-consultative-meeting...
 
Description Political economy of street vending in Africa, IFRA, Nairobi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote Speech to the International conference on Urbanization and Street Vendors, Institut Français de Recherche en Afrique, with Institut Français, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, University of Nairobi, Jomo Kenyatta University and British Institute of East Africa, 9-10 November, 2017, Nairobi
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://ifra-nairobi.net/1075
 
Description Post-conflict economic recovery in Somaliland, IIED, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact "Crises in Cities and Cities in Crisis: Towards a Collaborative Urban Response", Urban Crises Programme 2015-2017, Workshop 15-16 Nov 2017, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.iied.org/iied-hosts-international-conference-humanitarian-response-urban-crises
 
Description Presentation to the European Commission, Council Working Party on Preparation for International Development Conferences, Brussels, Right to the City and Cities for all 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to the European Commission; Contribution to the Council Working Party on Preparation for International Development Conferences, Brussels, Right to the City and the New Urban Agenda, Preparation of a Common Position of the EU and its Member States for the Third United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III) to be held in Quito, Ecuador in October 2016, 22 April 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Promoting Decent Work and Livelihoods: Supporting Inclusive Economies in Cities for All, Training Event, WUF9, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Training Event, World Urban Forum 9: Cities for All: Implementing the New Urban Agenda, February 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (with University of Lagos)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://wuf9.org/programme/training-events/promoting-decent-work-and-livelihood-opportunities-and-sup...
 
Description Prosperity for all: Enabling the Informal Economy through Participatory Slum Upgrading, WUF9, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Networking Event, World Urban Forum 9: Cities for All: Implementing the New Urban Agenda, February 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://wuf9.org/programme/networking-events/prosperity-for-all-enabling-the-informal-economy-through...
 
Description Public space and livelihoods: view from the pavement, Habitat III Thematic Meeting on Public Space, Barcelona 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Keynote speaker to the introductory Panel, for the Habitat III Thematic Meeting on Public Space, Ajuntament de Barcelona, 4-5 April 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www2.habitat3.org/barcelona
 
Description Rebel streets: street trade and the law, Law Faculty, University of Zürich, Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Workshop on "Rights for the Entrepreneurial Poor, Center for Ethics, Center for Human Rights Studies, Center for Sustainable Finance and Private Wealth, Law Faculty, University of Zürich, 26 October 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.csp.uzh.ch/dam/jcr:e75fe4f0-0b30-4538-8a79-c84862703081/Workshop%20Zurich_Rights%20for%20...
 
Description Right to the City and the Informal Economy, Presentation on Co-Creating the City, World Summit of Local Leaders, UCLG 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Panelist at the World Summit of Local Leaders, convened by UCLG (United Cities and Local Governments) in Bogota, Colombia. Platform included city mayors and experts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.bogota2016.uclg.org/en
 
Description Right to the City, Universidad Catolica de Ecuador, Quito, Habitat III 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Training event organised by the Global Platform on the Right to the City, with the Law Department, Universidad Catolica de Ecuador, Quito
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Rwanda Inclusive Growth Workshop, 15 September 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The workshop gave feedback to research participants, and reviewed the outcome document for Rwanda. The aim was bring together policy makers from National Bank of Rwanda, microfinance institutions, NGOs working on financial inclusion and operators of micro-enterprises, to explore policy directions. The event was supported by the Microfinance regulation department of the National Bank of Rwanda and AMIR (Association of Microfinance Institutions of Rwanda).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2015
URL http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/informal-economy/projects/inclusive-growth-improving-microfinance-regulat...
 
Description Shaping Economic Transformation in Tanzania - High Level Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact High-level workshop convened by ODI, brining together three DGEPR ESRC-DFID grant programmes.
Conference presentation: Alison Brown & Peter Mackie, Finance and Economic Transformation in Tanzania
Video interview by Alison Brown. Short essay as part of ODI report.
http:// http://www.odi.org/events/4117-economic-transformation-economic-growth-tanzania-degrp
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://bit.ly/1FETHbX
 
Description Speaker, Next City's World Stage, Right to the City, Asamblea Nacional, Habitat III 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on the World City Stage in the Habitat III Exhibition Pavillion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Surviving the city: refugee livelihoods in Addis Ababa, ECAS, University of Basel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact ECAS, 7th European Conference on African Studies, 29 June-1 July 2017, Panel 121 - The ones who moved to the town: Informal DDR through urbanisation, University of Basel, Switzerland
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.nomadit.co.uk/ecas/ecas2017/panels.php5?PanelID=5208
 
Description Tanzania Inclusive Growth Workshop, 26 February 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop gave feedback to research participants, and reviewed the outcome document for Tanzania. The aim was bring together policy makers from the Central Bank of Tanzania, microfinance institutions, NGOs working on financial inclusion and operators of micro-enterprises, to explore policy directions. The workshop was supported by the Central Bank of Tanzania, and the Tanzania Association of Microfinance Institutions (TAMFI).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/informal-economy/projects/inclusive-growth-improving-microfinance-regulat...
 
Description Third World Forum on Local Economic Development, Turin, 13-15 October 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to the session on Local Economies and Public Space. Presentation by Alison Brown on "Local economic development and the informal economy: view from the pavement", highlighted the potential and challenges of access to finance for micro-enterprises
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ledforumtorino2015.org/
 
Description Urban Informality in 21st Century, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk to the Department of Urban & Regional Planning, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018