Assessing Models of Public-Private Partnerships for Irrigation Development in Africa (AMPPPIDA)

Lead Research Organisation: Int Food Policy Research Inst
Department Name: Env and Production Technology Division

Abstract

Although irrigation offers the potential to increase productivity and provide resilience to climate shocks, the high cost of irrigation and the fiscal constraints faced by many African governments constrain the development of irrigation. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) offer a potential institutional arrangement to mobilize additional resources-including financial, technical, and managerial-from the private sector for critical investments in irrigation (Chimhowu 2013; G-20 Toronto Declaration; Fan 2010). But there are few cases of PPP for irrigation, and previous experiences in other sectors with PPPs highlight the difficulty in managing and distributing the costs and benefits among stakeholders, with women and those with insecure tenure often losing out. Many African ministers and irrigation officials are now raising the need for evidence and guidance on how to engage in the PPP process for irrigation development as they explore ways to overcome the financing gap for necessary irrigation investments in order to meet domestic and international agriculture and food security related growth targets. This research responds to requests from African irrigation authorities for help in identifying suitable PPP strategies that voiced during a SSA-wide stakeholder workshop on irrigation development in Ethiopia, February 4-6, 2013.

This research aims to provide guidance to these SSA countries and irrigation officials on developing and implementing PPPs that are beneficial to the countries, private investors, and, ultimately, the end-users of these irrigation projects. This objective will be addressed through research to understand the factors that influence the outcomes of PPP processes and outreach to raise awareness and build capacity for policy makers on how to engage in PPP processes. We will assess different types of irrigation arrangements across SSA and implement in-depth case study work in Tanzania and Ghana, based on key informant interviews and focus groups, that highlight, among other factors, the different ways that men and women participate in and benefit from different irrigation arrangements, including PPPs. In addition, workshops with country stakeholders will employ participatory Netmapping techniques to identify relationships and networks critical for engaging in effective and equitable PPP arrangements. Both local universities and government stakeholders from irrigation ministries will be key partners in the process, along with an international policy research organization with considerable expertise on institutional arrangements for irrigation development.

The research will contribute to the successful implementation of Tanzania's and Ghana's policies of encouraging private sector investment in the irrigation sector. However, our lessons will be more broadly applicable to other SSA countries facing similar challenges and difficulties and will be useful in encouraging private sector investment that can bring benefits for investors, irrigation users, and national governments in terms of meeting food security and nutrition goals. The framework, methods, and results of this research will be assembled in a toolkit and shared broadly through IFPRI's networks, reaching a wide and diverse audience of civil society, governments, donors, private sector, and actors. Ultimately, we anticipate that this project will raise awareness about the potential and the limitations for PPP to contribute to irrigation development and will help SSA governments in drafting PPP arrangements that help balance the competing needs of investors, nations, and communities while providing socially, economically, and environmentally sustainable results.

An indicator of success will be that within three years governments (irrigation development authorities) in two countries apply the toolkit to ensure more sustainable PPPs that meet food security needs.

Planned Impact

PPPs are an increasingly important player in the landscape of irrigation finance. However, previous experience with PPPs suggests that some countries may not have the capacity to negotiate PPP contracts equitably and fairly. As this research is being conducted in response to demand expressed by irrigation agencies in 8 countries in SSA, including Tanzania and Ghana, for assistance in negotiating and establishing PPPs and being conducted with representatives of irrigation agencies in Tanzania and Ghana as co-investigators, we see a strong link to impact being through the policy circles. Both countries have mandates in their legislation to expand the role of private sector in irrigation; this research and the toolkit developed will help these irrigation agencies be better able to negotiate and implement PPP arrangements that are environmental, socially, and economically sustainable, contribute towards meeting national food security and nutrition goals, and bring benefits to both end-users of irrigation and to investors. Moreover, our research plan seeks the early and active involvement of all key stakeholders through research and workshops, thus contributing to the legitimacy, salience, and credibility of the final products (Cash et al. 2003). This builds on IFPRI's long-standing work in SSA, including its country support strategy program in Ghana. We are aware that Ghana is not classified as a LIC for the purposes of the call, but the need for help on the topic came most strongly from the head of Ghana's Irrigation Development Authority, who is confronted with several PPP proposals and plans; and proposed as a collaborator for this proposal. We also believe that other LICs have much to learn from the ongoing Ghana experience in irrigation development, and this will be highlighted by the dialogue between Tanzania and Ghana under the project.

We will work to inform and strengthen capacity of other countries in SSA by developing a toolkit for identifying a range of PPP approaches and how to evaluate alternatives in terms of their likely sharing of costs and benefits among various stakeholders, and the likely impact on food security and environmental, economic, and social sustainability. IFPRI's long established network and presence in agricultural research and policy in SSA, including country support strategy programs in Ethiopia, Uganda, Senegal, Malawi, and the DRC, will make it possible to facilitate the wide distribution of the framework and toolkit and encourage its incorporation into country-level decision-making processes. We will also publicize this toolkit through the IFPRI website, the blog of the CGIAR program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE), and presentation at a number of regional and international meetings, such as the African Ministers' Council on Water, WLE meetings, the Global Water Partnership, and World Water Forum, as well as two academic articles.

Because of the strong interest in so-called "land grabs" and "water grabs", we can also reach out to the international media and forums such as the International Land Coalition's initiative on Commercial Pressures on Land and the World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Linking to these forums will enable us to address civil society and the major donor organizations as well, to raise awareness of the potential and limitations of PPPs for irrigation development and what can be done to make any such arrangements more equitable as well as sustainable.

In addition, by partnering with local institutions and local government agencies, we will build the capacity of these institutions to collaborate, to identify policy-relevant research questions, and develop and apply rigorous qualitative methods to answer and address these questions.

An indicator of success will be that within three years governments (irrigation development authorities) in two countries apply the toolkit to ensure more sustainable PPPs that meet food security needs.
 
Description PPPs for irrigation development are increasingly gaining importance in policy, political and investment circles, mainly as a way of overcoming financial resource constraints. While they do have potential to tap both financing and external expertise, our preliminary work suggests that there are several shortcomings in the ways that these arrangements are typically implemented.
• The roles of the various partners and the distribution of costs, risks and benefits are often not spelled out clearly.
• More efforts should be made to involve smallholder farmers-as key private sector actors-into the process of de-veloping PPPs.
• Access to land and water resources are essential for any irrigation development. In PPPs, (re)distribution of land and water rights needs careful examination, including attention to existing customary rights and claims, to ensure that the PPP activity does not exacerbate inequalities.
• Sound data on long-term water availability and seasonal fluctuations is needed for planning to ensure that new water users do not deprive existing users.
• Extending irrigation access is only the beginning. To succeed, PPPs need to attend to the entire chain of irrigation service provision and marketing of the increased production.
• What is needed for effective Public-Private-Producer partnerships is:
- Inclusiveness in negotiations
- Capacity building of government, private sector, and smallholders
- Effective financial instruments. This requires greater communication with finance experts, who often do not understand the particularities of agriculture or irrigation.
While PPPs may offer some advantages in terms of mobilizing additional resources for cash-strapped governments, they do not necessarily reduce the need for government investment in roads, electricity, and even irrigation infrastructure. Moreover, large-scale PPPs potentially have large environmental and social implications that must be addressed, particularly to ensure that they benefit smallholders and local communities as well as the private investor and also meet government objectives of development.
The framework we developed in this project can identify a broader range of options for PPPs, and the stakeholder netmapping can be used to identify active participation in different aspects.
Key implications of this study include:
• The need to add finance to the interdisciplinary mix for irrigation development
• There is a range of options for "PPP" arrangements, not only the large-scale systems that are often favored by governments.
• PPPs require that irrigation is profitable for investors, which is often not the case, given low commodity prices and high investment costs. There may be a logic for state investment in irrigation when the financial returns are not positive, but the private sector cannot be expected to engage when it is not profitable.
• Time is needed to build trust among the various actors, but there are often time/cost tradeoffs, which make it difficult for private sector investors to invest sufficient time.
• PPPs are not a panacea. They are not simple, and are not a substitute for serious investment by government or donor organizations. Indeed, they are likely to be even more complex than conventional state or farmer-managed irrigation. To be successful, those promoting PPPs need to engage with complexity. This requires tools for understanding complex arrangements, which our project is developing.
Exploitation Route Our government collaborators can use the framework and findings to increase participation in public private partnerships (PPPs) and develop a broader range of options for irrigation development. IFAD is also interested in applying our framework. We are in the process of piloting the AMPPPIDA Matrix as a tool in irrigation projects in Ghana and Tanzania. Based on this, we will modify the framework as a took and put out a "practitioners' guide". The people involved will be able to lead this process in Ghana and Tanzania in the future.
Given the growing interest in PPPs, our presentations at international events helps increase awareness that it is not only technology and finance that matters, but also the institutional arrangements that link the different stakeholders that need to be considered if PPPs are to succeed. Given that PPPs are largely pushed by donor organizations, we hope that presenting our findings in Washington DC and other international venues will raise awareness that PPPs are not a panacea for irrigation development; neither are they a substitute for funding governments to provide critical infrastructure in Africa.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy

URL http://www.ifpri.org/project/assessing-models-public-private-partnerships-irrigation-development-africa-ampppida
 
Description Our research on public-private partnerships for irrigation development is influencing debates about the structure of PPPs for irrigation, which are now being discussed in many water resource development forums. In particular, in 2016 at the World Bank Development Finance Forum we provided a more detailed on-the-ground perspective of how PPPs play out in practice. Presentation of our study at the IFAD/DIE International Dialogue on Water in Agriculture presented our framework to study teams from more than 10 countries, and elicited a request from IFAD for us to work with them on adapting our framework into a tool they can use in their programming of PPPs. This was found useful for their value chain projects in Georgia. The workshop we organized on "New Directions for Irrigation in Tanzania: The Context of Public Private Partnership", co-hosted with the Tanzanian National Irrigation Commission, provided two other DfID/ESRC projects on irrigation with a forum to present and discuss alternatives to the large-scale PPP model of irrigation development currently being prioritized by the government. It also led to the National Irrigation Commission requesting us to develop our framework into a tool they can use to enhance transparency in PPPs. The results we have found about the problems with large-scale PPPs has contributed to the new National Irrigation Development Strategy in Ghana. Instead of stressing only large-scale PPPs, the new policy (sent to Cabinet in February 2018) recognizes partnership with smallholder farmers as an alternative mode of "PPP" development, instead of only emphasizing large-scale (corporate) "investors".
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Input to Ghana National Irrigation Policy
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Title The AMPPPIDA Matrix: a framework for assessing public private producer partnerships in irrigaton 
Description The conceptual framework that we developed to provide a common basis for comparing PPPs has become a useful tool for creating transparency in PPPs. This framework identifies the various actors--disaggregating the public sector, private sector firms, smallholder producers, as well as other institutional actors (e.g. donor organizations, banks for finance organizations, research organizations) and the activities needed, from project planning through implementation, production, and marketing of output. By systematically identifying the roles that each actor is to play, it is possible to identify gaps in the institutional arrangements, as well as to clarify expectations among the various actors. We are developing this as a tool to be used by Ghana Irrigation Development Authority and the National Irrigation Commission of Tanzania, and then IFAD has indicated an interest in applying it in different countries. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Tanzania has a new PPP for irrigation that has recently been approved. We will be validating the applicability of the tool on that case in March 2018. If successful, it should lead to fewer tensions and misunderstandings between smallholder farmers and scheme management than experienced in other PPPs. IFAD is also interested in applying this to their value chain projects. The tool will be revised after this piloting, and disseminated on our website and through various international meetings. 
 
Title Netmapping of stakeholders involved in PPPs 
Description This project has applied stakeholder Net-Mapping to the identification of who influences PPPs for irrigation, at either the national regional, or scheme level. While the netmapping methodology already exists, our project adapted it to understand PPPs. We now have the data from 3 schemes in Tanzania, and the national and regional levels in Ghana. The data are not yet published, but the reports with them are being edited. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The netmapping exercises helped us to see how complex the arrangements for PPPs are. This helped us to clarify some of the misunderstandings arising on the schemes, and led us to create the AMPPPIDA matrix tool. 
URL https://www.ifpri.org/project/assessing-models-public-private-partnerships-irrigation-development-af...
 
Description Collaboration with Ghana Irrigation Development Authority 
Organisation Ghana Irrigation Development Authority
Country Ghana 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The IFPRI research team has convened the research and provided training on netmapping, which is one of the major tools we are using for this research to identify the influences on public private partnerships.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Ben Vas Nyamadi, CEO of Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA), Government of Ghana was influential in originally requesting research on what it takes to make public-private partnerships work for irrigation. He participated in the inception meeting and provides overall guidance to the Ghana study.
Impact This is a multi-disciplinary partnership, involving agricultural engineers and planners at GIDA and sociologists and economists at IFPRI, plus economist research partners from University of Development Studies, Ghana.
Start Year 2014
 
Description National Irrigation Commission of Tanzania 
Organisation Ministry of Water and Irrigation
PI Contribution When the National Irrigation Commission was started, we reached out to them to discuss our research and get their ideas on public private partnerships. This led, among other things, to the NIC hosting a workshop for our project, the SAFI project, and one other DFIK/ESRC project on irrigation, to discuss the policy implications. Since that time we have deepened that collaboration, with the head of the NIC accompanying our Tanzanian collaborators to visit the Ghana field sites and attend the Ghana international workshop. The NIC is interested in implementing the AMPPPIDA matrix as a tool for clarifying roles in PPPs in Tanzania. We are to pilot this on March 16, 2018.
Collaborator Contribution The NIC has provided us with a great deal of insight on the development of irrigation policy in Tanzania, the challenges faced, and how our tool can be adjusted to be useful.
Impact Workshop on "New Directions for Irrigation Development in Tanzania: The Context of Public Private Partnership" Friday, 2 September, 2016
Start Year 2015
 
Description SAFI project 
Organisation Nelson Mandela African Institute for Science and Technology
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Because we identified that the SAFI and AMPPPIDA projects, both funded out of the same call, are both working on irrigation in Tanzania, we decided to team up for a workshop to increase our collective policy impact. Our project had better ties to policymakers, particularly the National Irrigation Commission (NIC), so we used that to get the NIC to co-host our workshop. This started a dialogue between our projects, to present irrigation development by smallholder farmers as an alternative to large-scale PPPs. The SAFI project then arranged a "Bellagio convening" to discuss the future of farmer-led irrigation in Africa. We were able to arrange for our government collaborator from Ghana to attend, and his presence helped other countries to see a way to embrace irrigation development by smallholders (which is either invisible or illegal in many countries). The PI of the AMPPPIDA project also presented on institutional arrangements and gender issues arising in farmer-led irrigation.
Collaborator Contribution The SAFI project handled the finances and logistics for the Tanzania workshop and as noted above, they arranged for the Bellagio convening. Substantively, the SAFI project's findings about the viability of smallholder farmer-led irrigation strenghtens our contention that large-scale PPPs are not the only, or even the most appropriate, modality for irrigation development. We have subsequently joined forces to develop a proposal for further funding of a 4-country study on farmer-led irrigation under an ACIAR/IDRC call for proposals on "Cultivating Africa". The proposal is led by Nelson Mandela University, and our project particularly contributed on the gender methodology and approaches to studying the institutional arrangements, drawing on our AMPPPIDA project.
Impact Irrigation engineering, Geography, Sociology,
Start Year 2016
 
Description SAFI project 
Organisation University of Manchester
Department School of Environment, Education and Development
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Because we identified that the SAFI and AMPPPIDA projects, both funded out of the same call, are both working on irrigation in Tanzania, we decided to team up for a workshop to increase our collective policy impact. Our project had better ties to policymakers, particularly the National Irrigation Commission (NIC), so we used that to get the NIC to co-host our workshop. This started a dialogue between our projects, to present irrigation development by smallholder farmers as an alternative to large-scale PPPs. The SAFI project then arranged a "Bellagio convening" to discuss the future of farmer-led irrigation in Africa. We were able to arrange for our government collaborator from Ghana to attend, and his presence helped other countries to see a way to embrace irrigation development by smallholders (which is either invisible or illegal in many countries). The PI of the AMPPPIDA project also presented on institutional arrangements and gender issues arising in farmer-led irrigation.
Collaborator Contribution The SAFI project handled the finances and logistics for the Tanzania workshop and as noted above, they arranged for the Bellagio convening. Substantively, the SAFI project's findings about the viability of smallholder farmer-led irrigation strenghtens our contention that large-scale PPPs are not the only, or even the most appropriate, modality for irrigation development. We have subsequently joined forces to develop a proposal for further funding of a 4-country study on farmer-led irrigation under an ACIAR/IDRC call for proposals on "Cultivating Africa". The proposal is led by Nelson Mandela University, and our project particularly contributed on the gender methodology and approaches to studying the institutional arrangements, drawing on our AMPPPIDA project.
Impact Irrigation engineering, Geography, Sociology,
Start Year 2016
 
Description University for Development Studies, Ghana 
Organisation University for Development Studies
Country Ghana 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution IFPRI has provided training on Netmapping and jointly conducted qualitative research with UDS colleagues
Collaborator Contribution UDS team has conducted field work in case study sites and drafted report
Impact Netmapping training and field work on PPPs in Ghana. Collaboration is multi-disciplinarly, with economists with UDS working with IFPRI sociologists and engineers and planners from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority.
Start Year 2014
 
Description University of Dar es Salaam 
Organisation University of Dar es Salaam
Department Institute of Resource Assessment (IRA)
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution IFPRI has provided training in netmapping and qualitative data collection for the AMPPPIDA project
Collaborator Contribution University colleagues have conducted netmapping activities and case studies of public-private partnerships for irrigation in Tanzania
Impact Draft case studies of PPP for irrigation in Tanzania. Collaboration is interdisciplinary (development studies, sociology, and irrigation)
Start Year 2014
 
Description AMCOW/UNEP panel on "Investments in agricultural lands vs water security" at World Water Week in Stockholm 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact The panel provided an opportunity to respond to Afrcian Ministers' priority issues on irrigation investment, and to compare our results with those of an IWMI-led study of agricultural investments in 6 countries in Africa. One of the key points that Claudia's presentation brought in was the lack of involvement of women and youth in discussions about large-scale land acquisitions and irrigation development, as well as the role of individual farmers and their own investments; She made the point that we have to go beyond irrigation and bring in input suppliers and output markets into the discussion based on the IFPRI note. This sparked a number of questions from the audience.

We are discussing how to better link and compare to the IWMI study.
CGIAR program on Water, Land and Ecosystems is publicizing this on their blog and Twitter
How best to invest in sustainable intensification http://bit.ly/1hBvn0O #SWWW

Responding to our #ThriveBlog Big Question: Sustainable intensification, oxymoron or big deal? Issues of investment: http://bit.ly/1hBvn0O
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://programme.worldwaterweek.org/event/5094
 
Description Bellagio Convening: Irrigating Africa - Reframing Agricultural Investment 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Two of the core team members of this project participated in a Bellagio convening organized by the Studying African Farmer-led Irrigation (SAFI) project on Irrigating Africa - Reframing Agricultural Investment. Discussion and synthesis of research by the Studying African Farmer-led Irrigation Project at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Conference Centre, 6-9 February 2018

Purpose
To bring together key researchers, academics and policy makers to discuss:
- Is farmer-led irrigation a significant development in African Agriculture? Do we think it is important?
- Does its existence demand new policies and approaches to irrigation policy?
- If so, what are the new policy directions and interventions?
The aim is to reach conclusion / consensus and to define what we want to say to policy makers and others.
A policy brief has been drafted based on this meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.safi-research.org/
 
Description DEGRP AERC conference 'Economic opportunities for a better future Leveraging agriculture, innovation and financial inclusion' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of "Understanding Complexity in Public-Private Partnership for Irrigation Development in Africa" at DEGRP AERC conference 'Economic opportunities for a better future Leveraging agriculture, innovation and financial inclusion'
28-29th October 2016, Nairobi
Brought together researchers from various AERC projects to present results to a broader audience of policymakers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://degrp.squarespace.com/events-1/2016/10/28/economic-opportunities-for-a-better-future-leveragi...
 
Description IFAD/DIE International Dialogue on Water in Agriculture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We presented results from our project in a presentation titled "PPPs for Irrigation: Framework and Insights from Ghana and Tanzania" at the Ninth International Dialogue on Water in Agriculture "Public-Private Partnerships in irrigation: experiences, benefits and risks" June 1-2, 2016, Bonn, Germany.
This was the largest workshop to review experience with PPPs for irrigation. Our framework and findings prompted considerable interest, including an invitation from IFAD to work with them to develop our framework into a tool to be used in other countries for creating transparency in PPPs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.slideshare.net/ifpri/ppps-for-irrigation-framework-and-insights-from-ghana-and-tanzania
 
Description International Workshop on Assessing Models of Public-Private Partnership for Irrigation Development,Accra, Ghana 13 March 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This workshop provided an opportunity to present the AMPPPIDA research output for feedback and validation. The audience was composed primarily of key policymakers in the irrigation and agricultural sector as well as representatives of several irrigation PPP projects and advisors on the overall policy on PPPs for Ghana, with our collaborators and a few key policymakers from Tanzania as well The workshop reviewed the role of PPPs in irrigation policy in Ghana, presented results of the AMPPPIDA research, including the Ghana and Tanzania empirical studies and the AMPPPIDA Matrix, a tool developed to identify and clarify roles and responsibilities in PPPs for irrigation development. The discussion helped to validate and refine findings and recommendations, based on participants' expertise.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ifpri.org/event/international-workshop-assessing-models-public-private-partnership-irrig...
 
Description Panel on Enabling Investment in Irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa at the Stockholm World Water Week 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ruth Meinzen-Dick presented "Assessing Models of Public-Private Partnership for Irrigation Development" at a panel on Enabling Investment in Irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa at the Stockholm World Water Week 2016. This prompted considerable dialogue about the scale of investment (large versus small scale) and the potential for mobilizing investment from governments, private sector and farmers to support irrigation development. Several donor organizations were represented, along with academics and policymakers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://programme.worldwaterweek.org/event/6048
 
Description Participation in ICID workshop on PPPs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage is a mostly technical body. Claudia Ringler's participation injected some of the institutional issues that we are dealing with, and sparked some discussion.
Participation at the event was useful for the project as it showed how quickly PPP in irrigation are spreading globally in both developed and developing countries and that a key reason for spreading is to be able to charge water user fees and recover costs of operating irrigation schemes, something government agencies often cannot legally do, whereas PPP operators can.

We have had some follow-up correspondence from people interested in more information about our project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://icid2015.sciencesconf.org/conference/icid2015/ICID2015_SideEventPPP_Call_Proposal_vf_ENG_1.pd...
 
Description Piloting the AMPPPIDA Matrix in Ghana 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project met with farmer representatives and representatives of the IWAD irrigation project to validate the findings of our case study and to pilot the applicability of our AMPPPIDA matrix--a tool we have developed to improve the transparency of irrigation PPPs. The interaction helped to identify some sources of misunderstanding between farmers and the scheme management, and helped us to refine our tool.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description South-South study tour: Tanzania to Ghana 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Our lead collaborators from Tanzania, the head of implementation of the Tanzania National Agricultural Development Strategy, and the head of the National Irrigation Commission accompanied the PI and the Ghana field team to two of the Ghana field sites, piloting of the AMPPPIDA matrix, and the international workshop in Ghana. This helped the Tanzanian policymakers to see the similarities in their situations, as well as the challenges involved in PPPs for irrigation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description WLE Blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Water Land and Ecosystems "Thrive Blog", which intends to stir discussion and debate on major issues. Although there were not many comments on the blog itself, it prompted some discussion among WLE researchers and communications staff.

In the next phase of CGIAR Research Programs, we have had discussions of where public-private partnerships will be addressed--whether in WLE or the program on Policies, Institutions and Markets
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://wle.cgiar.org/thrive/2015/09/02/sustainable-intensification-how-best-invest
 
Description Water for Food International Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 4 of the key partners from this project participated in Water for Food International Forum sponsored by the Robert B. Daugherty Water for Food Global Institute at the University of Nebraska and The World Bank, in partnership with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the U.S. Agency for International Development, January 29 - 30, 2018 at The World Bank,
Washington, D.C., USA. This forum discussed the potential and challenges of developing small-scale irrigation in Africa. Our PPP experience provided an alternative approach to the exclusively small-scale system.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://events.r20.constantcontact.com/register/event?llr=scmo9toab&oeidk=a07eer65yfkfaf1310e
 
Description Workshop on "New Directions for Irrigation in Tanzania: The Context of Public Private Partnership" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We organized a Workshop on "New Directions for Irrigation in Tanzania: The Context of Public Private Partnership", co-hosted with the Tanzanian National Irrigation Commission, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2 September 2016. It was attended by various government agencies, donor organizations, and researchers. Results of the study on Assessing Models of Public-Private Partnership for Irrigation Development
in Tanzania were presented, along with 2 other DfID/ESRC projects on irrigation in Tanzania. The workshop had intensive discussions of the implications of this for irrigation development, and addressed challenges of acquiring land and water for irrigation in Tanzania.
The National Irrigation Commission followed up with a request for our project framework to be developed into a tool for negotiating future PPPs for irrigation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ifpri.org/event/new-directions-irrigation-development-tanzania
 
Description World Bank Development Finance Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ruth Meinzen-Dick attended the World Bank Development Finance Forum as an expert on agriculture. She was able to draw on the study of Assessing Models of Public Private Partnerships for Irrigation Development (AMPPPIDA) to provide insights on what would or would not work for financing of agricultural development, particularly the need to match time frames of agriculture with financing plans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016