Realising EU welfare rights: administrative gatekeeping and the accessibility of EU law

Lead Research Organisation: University of York
Department Name: York Law School

Abstract

What do EU rights mean in practice? What are the hidden barriers to accessing EU rights in the UK? Are those rights accessible for citizens with disabilities? This project seeks to tackle these questions, to expose academic theory, and media misinformation, to some practical reality.

EU migrants, and their families are the focus of much ill-informed media coverage as benefit tourists, and some of the 'tightening' of the benefits system has anti-migrant undertones while other aspects of welfare reform may well impact disproportionately on migrants with disabilities. In fact the procedures for asserting rights to EU-law based equal treatment for some benefits, or to cross-border co-ordination for others, involve invoking fiendishly complex EU legal provisions. This project asks whether the claims processes for social assistance and social security benefits for EU migrants create barriers to claiming entitlements. This is a serious question of administrative justice for an increasing section of the UK population.

Much theoretical academic study presumes the existence of a migrant worker rights to welfare benefits. However, in practice the pursuit of those rights can be difficult, and the barriers claimants encounter may be especially detrimental to persons with disabilities - creating problems of disability discrimination. But these barriers have not been examined, partly because those working with EU migrants in the social welfare advice sector are not EU specialists, so that EU rights are not fully pursued.

This project bridges the gap between the academic legal theory and those giving practical advice to EU migrants, by using both my technical knowledge of EU law, and my CAB case work experience, to pursue EU rights more fully for clients, and to document the barriers we encounter in trying to pursue claimants' best interests, and identify which of those barriers - such as language issues, are specific to EU legal claims. These might include extra procedural requirements or evidential burdens, translation and comprehension issues, problems with information and awareness and the degree of administrative co-ordination between different national benefit offices.

This practice-based method is innovative because it takes an empirical, socio-legal and administrative approach to the study of EU law. It will allow me to reach stages of a claim that might not otherwise be reached, so creating the opportunity to study administrative procedures and barriers, which would otherwise go unexamined. Barriers to accessing EU-based rights to welfare call into question the coherence of the co-ordination system as a whole, suggesting something about administrative cultural hostility to EU claims, which in turn leads to questions of citizenship and accountability.

Barriers to the pursuit of EU rights will result in an uneven distribution of those 'rights', so this project will consider the impact of those barriers in the context of disability, and examine them as potentially disproportionately affecting access to EU rights for persons with disabilities - an effect that in itself would be contrary to EU principles. This will not only raise big questions about the meaning of European citizenship, and whether EU rights still operate along the principles of the 'playboy directive' by catering only for the privileged, but it will also open up opportunities to identify ways of accommodating/adjusting procedures where possible.

As well as a number of academic outputs, I plan to produce an 'advising EU migrants' toolkit, to help identify rights, to take adviser through the claims process, to flag up potential barriers, and suggest strategies for tackling them. My results should also feed into policy papers, to inform, and make suggestions to, administrative decision-makers, and to provide evidence for organisations campaigning for administrative justice and working in the interests of EU migrants and/or persons with disabilities.

Planned Impact

In focussing upon the reality of making EU-law based welfare benefit claims, and identifying specific procedures, possible barriers and possible implications, this project has a number of social and legal policy impact ambitions, and aims to target the following beneficiaries:

Advisors: Those working with EU migrants and trying to help them to assert EU law based claims should benefit from the findings of the research, as the project will highlight particular avenues of argument for making EU-law based claims, that might otherwise be missed. In outlining administrative procedures that are encountered, advisors will be better informed about the full pathway of a claim and may feel more confident about going beyond a first interview with clients. In identifying possible barriers, it should help advisors to anticipate and so begin to tackle these barriers.

EU migrants: Those assisted as part of the project should receive advice and help to make informed decisions, and support in choosing from options and in taking action. However, the findings of the project should help a broad range of EU migrants, through highlighting the difficulties faced in realising their rights - information which is not just useful to them but which should increase public awareness of the obstacles they face, and the relationship between such obstacles, and nationality and disability.

Administrative decision makers: This project should provide useful feedback to administrative decision makers on the fairness of, and any drawbacks to procedures for pursuing benefit claims. Organisational policies, as well as legal obligations, will be tested and held up against the reality of the claims experiences. This feedback should include suggestions about service delivery and on good practice generally.

Monitoring bodies: The findings of this project should provide valuable monitoring information to bodies tasked with ensuring the correct implementation of and judicial respect for EU law. These would include the House of Lords Select Committee on EU law, the European Commission and the Equality and Human Rights Commission, which is also tasked with monitoring compliance with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. These specific societal impacts should have more diffuse economic impacts, related to social inclusion and labour market engagement.

Non-governmental organisations: The themes of this project - administrative justice, indirect discrimination on grounds of nationality and disability, and the rights of EU migrants - mean that the analytical findings should provide not material to help with education and/or campaigns ideas or angles for NGOs working with migrants or persons with disabilities, and organisations who are interested in administrative fairness, and/or the European constitutional project.

Legal practitioners, judges: The legal system, with presumptions of fairness, has reasons to hope that it is backed up by good administrative decision-making and fair administrative procedures, not only to avoid excessive, costly litigation, but also to ensure the integrity of the system as a whole. Practitioners and judges would have an interest in knowing what the many claimants have been through who never reach a higher court, and so how most of the decision making happens which is otherwise invisible to them.
 
Description Key findings relate to: the limitations of EU citizenship in the UK; the effects of new welfare rules directed at EU nationals; the difficulties faced by EU nationals asserting rights.


During the course of the project, the UK government unveiled a series of measures addressing and changing the welfare rights of EU nationals. As the project was about administrative injustice faced by EU nationals in the UK welfare system, these changes were pertinent, and I was well placed to provide the first comprehensive analysis of these changes, as well as having first hand experience of negotiating the changed welfare terrain with clients. One key finding was that the risk of administrative injustice, which was already present, became more acute in the context of legal transition. A lot of rules changing quickly meant that clients themselves did not understand their rights and responsibilities, and first tier generalist advisers reported feeling lost, or feeling a sense of dread when having to engage with the new rules.

The amount of rapid change led to the need for quickly produced decision-maker guidance documents. A number of these were very dense, and difficult to interpret. Several contained misleading references to EU law, or in some cases contained directions that created open clashes with EU law. These factors increased further the risk of administrative error and confused decision making.

Drawing upon the case studies I categorised the administrative injustice encountered into three types: getting it wrong (errors in the law); not caring about getting it right (inappropriate processes, not gathering the right information, not checking, refusing first and asking questions later); and stopping claimants putting it right (communication barriers - a impenetrable automated helpline; departments with no means of quickly communicating with each other or sharing information; departments that do not give
contact details to claimants, or departments that disappear).

A key academic argument made as a consequence of this research is that EU nationals are not really given 'equal treatment', and that equal treatment 'just' for the economically active really amounts to equal treatment for no-one because of the extra burdens and risked then placed upon the economically active. Equal treatment on the grounds of nationality is illusory when it comes to welfare law. There are multiple administrative obstacles to asserting EU nationals' welfare rights. Administrative and legal obstacles interact so that legal changes augment administrative obstacles, through e.g. increased decision-maker confusion and steering decision makers to restrict rights rather than facilitate them, promoting a refuse-first culture.

A further original contribution was my analysis of the UK's welfare
reforms directed at EU nationals as a programme. I have developed a theory of declaratory discrimination in public law, drawing upon the private law concept of discrimination by declaration, established in the CJEU case of Feryn. In that case the CEJU found that discriminatory announcements from prospective employers were capable of constituting discriminatory acts. I have argued that government communications are capable of amounting to declarations of an intent to discriminate and/or create obstacles to movement.
Exploitation Route The project was in considerable demand, and we exceeded the planned number of cases for advice and advocacy; in particular there was strong demand for secondary advice and support to first tier advisers nationwide. Immediate uses of the research included supporting clients to prevent families being evicted, to secure accommodation for families who had lost their homes, and to secure benefit entitlement for those who had been wrongly denied it. This included requests for mandatory reconsideration, appeals, and first tier tribunal appeals. The project also supported challenges to claims for overpayments HMRC wrongly mounted against clients, in one case preventing the wrongful recovery of tens of thousands of pounds.

There was excellent engagement on the part of advice and other organisations in terms of knowledge exchange activities (held in York, Skipton, Harrogate, Coventry, Stoke, Brighton and Merthyr Tydfil). This meant that the project was able to provide numerous training opportunities, and the feedback collected suggests that the advisers attending these sessions were going to put the information gathered to use in their advice work straight away.

Key findings are feeding into the advice for EU migrants toolkit, which will be available to advisers around the country to support them as they advise EU nationals. The findings will also inform potential judicial review claims. One stream of the research associated with the project - entitlements of families reliant upon the CJEU case of Zambrano, resulted in the production of an academic article written with practitioners in mind. It was used in the written and oral submissions made by Richard Drabble QC in the Supreme Court, and Mr Drabble recommended the whole of the article to the court. Judgment is currently pending.

Some findings have already been called upon in a report I co-authored for the European Commission, and which has been widely read among relevant government departments of Member States - I have received enquiries from the Danish Ministry of Employment, for instance.

Key findings will also inform two infringement complaints that I am currently compiling to the European Commission on the implementation of new benefit rules applied to EU nationals.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other

URL http://www.eurightsproject.co.uk
 
Description I held a successful end of project workshop in June 2017, bringing together leading academics, practitioners, judges, policy makers and advice organisations, to talk about legal action research and how we can work together in the future. Participants included two representatives of the European Commission; two UK Upper Tribunal Judges; barristers, including a leading silk; the Director of the AIRE Centre, the Director of services for Shelter; senior welfare experts at Citizens Advice, the Child Poverty Action Group, and the Children's Society. Academic participants included Professor Catherine Barnard, Professor Kate Pickett, Professor Peter Dwyer, Professor Michael Dougan, Professor Eleanor Spaventa, Professor Stefano Civitarese Matteucci, Professor Niamh Nic Shuibhne, Professor Dorte Sindbjerg Martinsen, Professor Dora Kostakopoulou, and Professor Michelle Everson. I designed the two-­-day workshop around table discussions, with a seating plan, and a pre-­distributed questionnaire, to ensure as much cross-­-sector experience sharing as possible. I have since been informed that one of the participants, Professor Stefano Civitarese Matteucci, has shared the questionnaire among his postgraduate students in Pescara as an example of excellent, innovative research event practice. Feedback was outstanding; the format was described as 'a revelation', and the content 'brilliant'. The exposure to different perspectives was transformational for some; one participant reported 'It has completely changed my theoretical/conceptual understanding of the place and purpose of individual free movement in EU law'. Other impacts so far include good outcomes for clients of the action research project - preventing homelessness, accessing benefits, securing rights to reside; successful challenges to claimed overpayment recoveries from HMRC. These cases included different levels of advocacy, and included successful representation at tribunal. One level up, impacts include better informing practitioners and advisers, and politicians. HMRC agreed to retrain their helpline advisers as result of one of our cases. And a level up again the project findings have been incorporated into EU Commission reports, informing litigation plans and compliance monitoring. The project findings informed one of my academic publications in the Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, which was in turn adopted by counsel in a Supreme Court case, and then cited substantially in the final judgment. My work on the project led to my invitation to give evidence to the House of Commons Select Committee on Exiting the EU. My oral evidence has been cited on the floor of the House of Commons, by Stephen Timms MP on the 12 October 2017; and at length by Joanna Cherry MP, Seema Malhotra MP and Stephen Timms MP during the European Union (Withdrawal Bill) debate, on 21 November 2017, columns 911-921. Stephen Timms MP has further referred to my evidence in an oral submission before the Committee for Exiting the European Union (para Q203). My evidence is drawn upon heavily in the final report of the House of Commons Exiting the European Union Committee on the European Union (Withdrawal Bill), published 17 November 2017. It is referred to 8 separate times, accounting for 58 lines of text. Further outcomes include better informing advisers, through knowledge exchange events and activities.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice,Other
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Citation in Supreme Court judgment
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.supremecourt.uk/cases/docs/uksc-2015-0215-judgment.pdf
 
Description Cited heavily in submissions made to the Supreme Court
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.supremecourt.uk/watch/uksc-2015-0215/220617-am.html
 
Description Co-drafted an amendment to the Article 50 bill with Women's Equality Party and the Green Party; was tabled in House of Commons, and debated in House of Lords
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Evidence cited in the Committee for Exiting the EU final report on the Withdrawal Bill
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmexeu/373/373.pdf
 
Description Findings incorporated into report for the EU Commission
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=15476&langId=en
 
Description Gave evidence to the London Assembly on discrimination experienced by EU nationals. Cited in letter to the mayor.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/london_assembly_brexit_directive_1_-_eu_citizens.pdf
 
Description Gave oral evidence to the House of Commons Select Committee for Exiting the European Union
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://parliamentlive.tv/Event/Index/7b9cfa19-578f-4148-90b7-df3b5273e40b
 
Description HMRC agreed to revise practices and train advisors
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Invited to roundtable meeting with MEP Theresa Griffin; she requested follow up activity
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Membership of the European Commission's advisory body - the Free Movement and Social Security Network
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
URL http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?langId=en&catId=1098
 
Description Project work cited in report on Social Security Advisory Committee consultation
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/376102/HB-Habitual-Residen...
 
Description Providing specialist training to Advisers of EU migrants
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Knowledge exchange and impact related to Brexit
Amount £22,626 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 04/2017
 
Description Joint workshop with ESRC Welfare Conditionality project 
Organisation University of York
Department Welfare Conditionality
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We worked together on a joint ESRC funding bid to hold a joint workshop on our findings and implications for Brexit.
Collaborator Contribution The Welfare Conditionality project organised the finalisation of the bid and the costings, and is administering the award and hosting the workshop.
Impact Successful bid leading to ESRC impact award to fund the workshop and related impact activity.
Start Year 2017
 
Description An insubstantial pageant fading: a vision of EU citizenship under the AG's Opinion in C-308/14 Commission v UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited to analyse the AG Opinion on the case challenging the lawfulness of the right to reside test for Child Benefit and Child Tax Credit
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://eulawanalysis.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/an-insubstantial-pageant-fading-vision.html
 
Description Article for The Independent on free movement post Brexit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wrote an article for the Independent on free movement post-Brexit
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/brexit-europen-free-movement-eu-migrants-paying-their-way-europe...
 
Description Brexit: what welfare, what rights for European migrants in Britain?, 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact I co-­organised this event with Peter Dwyer (University of York). The event brought together academics and NGOs working on the topic of the rights of EU nationals in the UK,. It
was held on the day Article 50 was triggered, and was a forum for discussion, and a showcase for research work undertaken for both the Welfare Conditionality project and the EU Rights Project. This demonstrates leadership of cross-­-university research initiatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Cameron's renegotiation and the burying of the balance of competences review 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited to contribute to the 'UK in a Changing Europe' Blog
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://ukandeu.ac.uk/camerons-renegotiation-and-the-burying-of-the-balance-of-competencies-review/
 
Description Contributed to expert panel in the Guardian on free movement of workers and Brexit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Asked to write a response to a query about different models of the free movement of workers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.theguardian.com/small-business-network/2016/mar/29/would-brexit-make-harder-hire-eu-work...
 
Description EU Rights Project Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact I organised this event, with the help of Jed Meers. This event brought together leading academics, NGOs, practitioners and PhD students on the subjects of EU citizenship and social justice. Participants included two representatives of the European Commission (DG Employment); two UK Upper Tribunal Judges; barristers, including a leading silk; the Director of the AIRE Centre, the Director of services for Shelter; senior welfare experts at Citizens Advice, the Child Poverty Action Group, and the Children's Society. It was a chance to disseminate findings of the project, but also to bring all these different stakeholders together to discuss set questions and think about future collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description EU Rights Project workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised and led an end of project workshop for the EU Rights Project, showcasing the findings of the project and bringing together academics, advisors, other third sector orgs, such as the Children's Society, CPAG, Cit Advice, AIRE Centre; also lawyers and judges, and representatives of the European Commission. Feedback suggested interest in working together again. Several participants reported a change in their understanding of EU citizenship.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Full Fact blog on Child Benefit dimension of EU-UK New Settlement 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact FullFact commissioned a series of analyses on the 'New Settlement' conducted by 'some of the country's leading experts in EU law'; I was invited to contribute the one on Child Benefit: https://fullfact.org/europe/explaining-eu-deal-exporting-child-benefit/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://fullfact.org/europe/explaining-eu-deal-exporting-child-benefit/
 
Description Gave a talk at children's rights event organised by the Children's Society and National Children's Bureau, on Brexit, EU citizenship and children 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Gave two talks at the workshop, attended by children's rights organisations and practitioners, drawing upon project findings and effects of free movement rules upon children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Gave a talk in a Brexit- ask the expert event on free movement, in city of York 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a talk on free movement and EU nationals' rights, and contributed to Q&A
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Gave a talk in the York event 'BREXIT: Making an Informed Decision' on free movement and EU citizenship 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a talk based on my research about free movement rights and limits placed on EU citizenship
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Gave a talk on the legal implications of Brexit - free movement in Liverpool 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a talk held in the city of Liverpool on free movement and contributed to Q&A.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Gave paper at the Public Law Project conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave paper on Brexit, welfare benefits, and the rights of EU nationals at PLP conference. Was approached by a number of members of the audience asking for further details and for possible collaboration. Several audience members reported a change of views, as they had not realised the complexity of the issues involved, or the administrative implications of Brexit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.publiclawproject.org.uk/data/files/North_2017_web.pdf
 
Description Genuine Prospects of Work Test 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Invited to present at Child Poverty Action Group specialist seminar on the Genuine Prospects of Work test
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Hart Judicial Review conference: Brexit and the free movement of people. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave an invited presentation alongside an impressive list of speakers, including Richard Gordon QC, James Maurici QC, Michael Fordham QC, Professor Richard Rawlings, Sir Patrick Elias QC, and The Rt Hon Lord Dyson. Helen Mountfield QC was replaced with Rhodri Thomas QC, meaning I was the only woman presenting. The substantial audience included a large number of lawyers from the Government Legal Department, many barristers, and a good number of judges; there were also representatives of the Cabinet Office, the Northern Ireland Civil Service, the Welsh Government; the Court of Justice of the European Union; Ofgem and Ofcom. The delegate list is attached. A number of delegates came to find me afterwards to say my presentation was 'wonderful, a real tonic', and 'magnificent'. Sinead Moloney, Hart's Editorial Director, has since written to me to say 'A number of the attendees singled your paper out for particular praise!'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.bloomsburyprofessional.com/uk/hart/conferences/
 
Description Homelessness workshop in Amsterdam 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Presented at a workshop on homelessness in the EU, with other academics, third sector organisations and a representative of the Netherlands ministry of security and justice. Attendees reported interest in the project, and I was invited to a future conference in Amsterdam.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Interviewed by Newsweek on free movement proposals after Brexit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed by Newsweek about the different proposals for free movement rules and employment rules after Brexit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://europe.newsweek.com/eu-migrants-jobs-brexit-immigration-theresa-may-proposal-negotiations-uk-...
 
Description Interviewed by the Financial Times about rights of EU nationals 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed by Financial Times about a ruling on the UK right to reside requirement for child benefits, and its effects upon EU nationals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.ft.com/content/5376d942-320a-11e6-bda0-04585c31b153
 
Description Interviewed on BBC Inside Out on rights of EU nationals 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed on BBC Inside Out as part of documentary on the rights of EU nationals and their experiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interviewed on Radio York 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed on Radio York about the start of Brexit negotiations, and rights of EU nationals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=38POAR-F7Rc
 
Description Interviewed on Radio York 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed on Radio York just after the General election on the implications for the Brexit negotiations and rights of EU nationals. Was invited back a week later for another interview as negotiations started.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rV_zxg7uaOU
 
Description Keynote speaker at Citizens Advice York conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Gave keynote talk to Citizens Advice York on rights of EU nationals and Brexit
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Knowledge exchange events with practitioners and advisers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Further referrals and submissions of evidence, and further invitations to speak.

Dissemination throughout organisations represented
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Media interest (interview with the Today programme) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview yet to be broadcast at time of writing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at the Welfare Benefit Unit forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Gave a talk on the key findings of the project and issues for advisers to look out for in coming years
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presenting at the Law Centres Network Living Rights project conference: Best practice in supporting vulnerable EEA nationals and their families 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact I gave the keynote speech on Brexit, equality and human rights. The coordinator of the Law Centres Network Living Rights project wrote to me afterwards to say: 'Many, many thanks for your excellent presentation and contributions. Everyone mentioned how much they enjoyed them.'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Public lecture: EU migrants and xenophobic law making 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact One of four Open Course lectures organised by the Law School on the subject of 'Law, Government and the Public'. Was approached afterwards and asked to give a number of other talks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Training for a range of practitioners at the Bingham Law Centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I delivered this training, and received strong written feedback; my average score from scores given anonymously, was 5/6, with 24% marking me as 6/6. The feedback included the following anonymous comments:

'Loved the examples and case studies'
'Case studies were useful and eye opening'
'Demonstrates why the UK needs to provide EU nationals and other non UK nationals the right to remain in/come to the UK.'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Why the EU emergency brake is sexist 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wrote a piece for the Conversation. Was reproduced in the Independent. Was promulgated on social media, e.g. Natalie Bennet tweeted about it. It was listed by Politics Home (who have 70 000+ followers) as one of the day's five key political pieces, alongside the work of Owen Jones and Joshua Rozenberg.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/why-the-eu-emergency-brake-on-migrant-benefits-is-sexist-a685493...
 
Description Wrote an article for Positive News about free movement 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Was asked to write an article for Positive News about the free movement of people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.positive.news/2016/society/politics/21177/eu-in-or-out/
 
Description YorkTalks 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave talk at YorkTalks 2016 entitled 'EU migrant Benefit cuts: the pillory, the precipice and the slippery slope'. YorkTalks is a showcase of some of the university's most innovative and thought-provoking research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://youtu.be/Iz-dY3g-ZAI