A Comparative Analysis of the Documentation of Torture and Ill-Treatment in Low-Income Countries

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Sch of Social and Political Science

Abstract

In many Low Income Countries (LICs), violence is endemic. Among urban populations, the poor are the most vulnerable to torture and ill-treatment. They are also the least able to access forms of accountability. As such, the documentation of torture and ill-treatment can play a key role in improving access to justice and human security. However, recent research demonstrates that routine torture and ill-treatment is difficult to document. In addition, the instruments used for the documentation of torture and ill-treatment assume a level of institutional capacity that is often not available in LICs. They are relatively weak at identifying forms of torture and ill-treatment that are not already reported to NGOs or public bodies. There is therefore a need to develop techniques that can be effectively used to document torture and ill-treatment in situations with limited clinical and legal resources.

This project has three key objectives.
A. A comparative analysis of the challenges faced by those attempting to document torture and ill-treatment in LICs.
B. The development of a survey technique for the documentation of torture and ill-treatment.
C. The development of policy recommendations for the most effective methods for the documentation of torture and ill-treatment in LICs.

The broader objectives of the research is to contribute to wider debates about the most effective ways to document violence and to help marginalised populations enforce accountability. Structural inequalities and poverty have a key impact on both the vulnerability of marginal populations to state violence, and their ability to seek redress. Case studies will be drawn from three countries: Kenya, Bangladesh and Nepal. All three countries have histories of state led violence and urban poverty.

This research project will ask the following empirical questions:
1. How is the prevalence and form of torture and ill-treatment distributed across poor urban populations?
2. What factors determine the relative likelihood that survivors of torture and ill-treatment among the urban poor report their experience and to whom?
3. Towards which particular ends are attempts made to document torture and ill-treatment?
4. What do those who attempt to document torture and ill-treatment in LICs perceive as the benefits and limitations of the current instruments that are available?
5. What forms of torture and ill-treatment, and amongst which populations, do currently available instruments fail to adequately document?
The findings from these five questions will be brought together in order to answer an overarching policy question:
6. What are the implications of the research findings for the development of techniques and instruments for the documentation of torture in LICs with relatively low clinical and legal capacity?

The research will be divided into two broad areas. A mixed method victimisation survey, and a qualitative analysis of the issues faced by those who attempt to document torture and ill-treatment in specific research sites. The mixed method survey will serve two purposes. First, it will provide a comparative base line with for the analysis of the perceived limitations of current instruments for the documentation of torture and ill-treatment (Q1). Second, it will allow the development a survey based instrument for the documentation of torture and ill-treatment that works on general, rather than individual scale. Such a survey method can be used as both an advocacy tool and to enable the better targeting of policy interventions. The qualitative analysis of the use, potential and limitations of current instruments (questions 2 to 4) will allow the creation of concrete policy recommendations for the most effective ways to document torture and ill-treatment in situations of limited institutional capacity (questions 5 and 6).

Planned Impact

The research is intended to have an impact on diverse but interrelated constituencies of groups working at different levels. The first will be academic researchers interested in the documentation and measurement of human rights abuses. The second will be policy makers at a domestic and international level who are interested in the relationship between accountability, violence and poverty. The include government officials and those working for international bodies, such as the UN human rights system. The third, and main beneficiary, will be human rights groups and NGO who are seeking effective forms of redress for poor and marginal populations. This includes domestic NGOs, as well as international anti-torture organisations. There is a dearth of knowledge in particular about the prevalence of state led violence among poor populations, which means that interventions operate on a low knowledge base, and reformers have great difficulty in producing persuasive evidence.

The research will produce detailed empirical knowledge about the extent of torture and ill-treatment in three case studies. More importantly, the results of this empirical research will produce practical policy recommendations for the effective documentation of torture and ill-treatment in situations of limited institutional capacity that can be applied to the specific locales, as well as more broadly. This research will allow NGOs to lobby and campaign more effectively on behalf of the poor through the assessment and development of more effective techniques aimed at the documentation of torture and il-treatment. It will also also allow provide domestic and international policy makers with concrete evidence of the distribution of torture and ill-treatment across marginal groups, and therefore produce better designed interventions aimed at increasing vulnerability to violence. The research will therefore contribute towards evidence based policy making, and help create more effective forms of public accountability. In doing so, it will aim to enhance the quality of life for marginal populations.

Impact is built into the design of the project. The project has been designed and will be carried out in close cooperation with anti-torture practitioners, such as DIGNITY and the Independent Medico-Legal Unit. The project will also consist of an international advisory board drawn from human rights workers from partner organisations in the three case studies, as well prominent international practitioners (such as Odhikar in Bangladesh, CHRISP in Kenya, Advocacy Forum in Nepal, as well as the UN Sub-Committee for the Prevention of Torture, and the UN Human Rights Committee. The Case Studies will be carried out alongside local organisations, including NGOs and research centres (such as Social Science Baha, and the Dept of Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Dhaka). The embedding of practioners within the research design and implementation will allow local and international human rights practitioners to better target their interventions aimed at reducing the vulnerability of the poorest to torture and ill-treatment. Through comparative analysis, this project will also enable practitioners from each Case Study country, as well as internationally, to learn from others facing related challenges and to reflect on their own practices.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Dhaka film 
Description Producing a short documentary film in collaboration with Alphafilm looking at torture, corruption rand endemic violence by law enforcement agencies. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact To soon to tell. 
 
Description There are five main findings from the research:
• Torture and ill-treatment is a widespread phenomena amongst the residents of informal settlements in Nairobi, Dhaka and Kathmandu.
Formal human rights documentation techniques are often unable to reach torture survivors amongst the poor.
• Internationally recognised techniques for the documentation of torture are often too resource intensive to be used consistently and effectively in Low-Income Countries.
• On the ground human rights groups use multiple informal techniques in order to provide protection and document torture. However, these are often not recognised by formal human rights procedures.
• Protecting survivors is a major issue in documentation, as without feeling safe and secure survivors will not come forward to be documented.
Exploitation Route We are currently developing recommendations for ways in which human rights organisations can work with other civil society organisations with a relatively stronger presence amongst the urban poor.

We are also working with Dignity to create a coalition of human rights NGOs to promote the importance of protection issues around torture survivors.

Dignity have submitted a £1m project grant to the European Union to work with NGOs in Morocco and the Philippines on torture documentation. The grant proposal is built around our research findings, and seeks to implement some of our recommendations. We shall find out if it is successful in the autumn of 2017.
Sectors Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://torturedocumentationproject.wordpress.com/publications/
 
Description The main impact of the research has been to stimulate debate amongst the public and practitioners, and to influence human rights practice amongst organisations working to combat torture in Low Income Countries. In terms of stimulating and contributing to public debate, the survey findings have been picked up by the national press in Kenya, Nepal and Bangladesh helping to foster a debate about torture and poverty. See, for Nepal: http://epaper.ekantipur.com/the-kathmandu-post/2016-08-03/2, for Kenya: http://ow.ly/YECft We were also invited to write opinion pieces for the national press in Nepal and Bangladesh, with the aim of stimulating public debate on the prevalence of torture amongst the poor. For Nepal see: http://admin.myrepublica.com/opinion/story/42817/documenting-torture.html; http://admin.myrepublica.com/opinion/story/40736/far-too-common.html; for Bangladesh see: http://archive.dhakatribune.com/long-form/2015/jun/06/invisible-urban-poor In 2016 we held a dissemination workshop in Geneva with human rights practitioners. Participants included the Chair of the UN Sub-Committee Against Torture, the Director of the World Organization Against Torture, Legal Advisor to Al-Karama (Middle East focused human rights organization), founder of Advocacy Forum (Nepal), director of the Independent Medico-Legal Unit (Kenya), Director of Balay Rehabilitation Centre (Phillipines), Director of Research for the Centre of Victims of Torture (USA), Director of the Social, Economic and Cultural Rights Programme at Amnesty International. Following the Geneva workshop we were invited to give an extended brief to the UN Committee Against Torture, building on our work and its insights around protection issues. The briefing was carried out in conjunction with Dignity and British anti-torture NGO Redress. The Committee responded with interest and has asked for further information and recognized the need to address these issues. A longer briefing paper was presented to the Committee in late 2017 Our research findings were used in a shadow report produced by IMLU and presented to the UN Committee Against Torture as part of the evidence prior to the examination of Kenya at the UN. Dignity also used to research to prepare an invited submission to the UN Special Rapporteur on extra-custodial torture as part of his report to the UN General Assembly in July 2017. Using the research, Dignity were also invited to brief diplomatic delegation in 2018 to the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva, in preparation for a resolution on the relationships between torture and corruption. The UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and Extreme Poverty described our research as 'important' for understanding the relationship between poverty and civil and political rights in his 2017 report to the UN General Assembly: http://undocs.org/A/72/502 Beyond the UN system, we were invited to facilitate and chair a dialogue session on the website of US based New Tactics human rights NGO. The forum focused on the identification and protection of torture survivors in Low-Income countries. New Tactics are a US-based human rights organisation that is very influential in the development of new approaches to human rights work and regularly host influential discussion forums for practitioners. 612 people from 81 different countries participated in the forum. It is expected that nearly all of them will be human rights practitioners. We have co-developed (with Dignity and IMLU partners) an App for the documentation of torture and ill-treatment. It is currently being used by around 340 practitioners, there have been 80 notifications and 10 news cases of torture have been identified as a result. The App has been picked up by the Kenyan media, helping to spread awareness of torture, irrespective of the number of cases reported through it (See for example, reports in Capital FM: http://www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2016/09/mobile-app-developed-real-time-reporting-torture-cases/ ; The Star News paper: http://www.the-star.co.ke/news/2016/09/05/imlu-to-launch-mobile-app-to-aid-in-reporting-torture-cases_c1415160; and the Daily Nation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDEN3tKIgaM). We have an article in the journal of International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims Torture in 2017. The piece focused on the practical challenges of documenting torture in Low-Income countries, and was the centre of a debate, with responses from practitioners. Dignity convened a meeting of human rights NGOs in 2017 Geneva as a first step to forming a coalition to promote the issue of victim protection amongst human rights organisations. Dignity have launched a development project with human rights NGOs in North Africa, which builds explicitly on our research findings, focusing on simplified 'grass roots' forms documentation. The projects will be partnerships with human rights NGOs in Tunisia, Morocco and Egypt looking to expand the numbers of people involved in what they call 'front line' documentation. The research has also influenced the implementation of other Dignity projects, notably a community-led approach to addressing state violence in poor urban neighbourhoods in Manila, Johannesburg and Monrovia with a much larger focus on extra-custodial violence and on protection.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Countering Authority based violence: Local and Global challenges
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The findings of the research concerning the disjunctive relationship between the needs and aspirations of torture survivors on the one hand, and human rights professionals on the other, when it comes to documentation have been developed into an internal Dignity document of the Principles of Victim Focused Documentation. These principles have now been included in the practices of the multi-country DIGNITY run partnership project on 'Countering Authority based violence: Local and Global challenges' in South Africa, Philippines and Liberia working with the human rights organisations LAPS, Balay, and CSVR. The project aims to strengthen, develop and monitor community-based approaches to empowerment and mobilization of victims of torture and organized violence (TOV) and to ensure that risk groups do not fall prey to TOV in poor, urban neighbourhoods. The findings of the research have led to an increased sensitivity in the project towards the justice goals of the poorest. The aim is to eventually role out the Principles to other projects.
URL https://www.dignityinstitute.org/what-we-do/urban-violence/projects/community-led-intervention-and-t...
 
Description Kenya UN Committee Against Torture List of Issues
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The survey conducted in violence in Nairobi's slums was cited in the Independent Medico-Legal Unit's submission of evidence to the UN Committee Against Torture before the session on Kenya.
URL http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=INT%2fCAT%2fNGO%2fKEN...
 
Description ESRC IAA
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 01/2017
 
Description Asian Human Rights Commission 
Organisation Asian Human Rights Commission
Country Hong Kong 
Sector Multiple 
PI Contribution Morten Koch Anderson has been invited to participate in a newly set up working group at the Asian Human Rights Commission specifically related to international legal reform efforts and documentation practices. The AHRC is the largest regional human rights organisation in Asia.
Collaborator Contribution As above
Impact Still in progress/
Start Year 2016
 
Description IMLU and Dignity 
Organisation Independent Medico Legal Unit
Country Kenya 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution The grant has had great impact on the local partner in Kenya, IMLU, enhancing its capacity to expand its field of operation from torture to violence more broadly. The collaboration between Dignity and the Kenya counterpart has been a key reason for IMLU being Dignity's local partner in a pilot project on police violence prevention. Thirdly, the grant has built capacity within the local counterpart to better engage with research consultants on quantitative data collection and analysis.
Collaborator Contribution IMLU have been central to the success of the research and impact.
Impact Still to come.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Kamakunji Para-Legal Organisation 
Organisation Kamakunji Paralegal Trust
PI Contribution We worked with Kaplet (Kamakunji Paralegal Trust) to help identify the needs of their clients, and to increase awareness amongst national human rights NGOs.
Collaborator Contribution Kaplet helped to identify survivors of torture and we worked together to highlight their needs with national human rights NGOs.
Impact Ongoing.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Redress 
Organisation Redress Trust
PI Contribution We worked with the British human rights NGOS Redress on a submission to the UN Committee Against Torture on the issue of protecting survivors of Torture. We co-authored a report, building on our mutual research, alongside Dignity on the issues.
Collaborator Contribution Redress assisted in briefing the Committee Against Torture on issues of protecting survivors of torture.
Impact The UN Committee Against Torture requested further information on the issue, and we have written a longer report.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Redress and Protecting Survivors of Torture 
Organisation Redress Trust
PI Contribution Jointing organised a briefing session for the UN Committee Against Torture on protecting survivors of torture.
Collaborator Contribution Jointly organised an invited briefing sessions for members of the UN Committee Against Torture in August 2017 on the findings of your research and the need to focus more on protecting survivors of torture, especially amongst the poor.
Impact Ongoing.
Start Year 2016
 
Description "A Brocken System" Op-Ed in the Dhaka Tribune. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An opinion piece in the Dhaka Tribune based in research findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ABC torture interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Hour long interview with Tobias Kelly on Australian Broadcasting Corporation Radio show Overnights, 'Torture in the Modern World', discussing international responses to torture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.abc.net.au/overnights/stories/s4151752.htm
 
Description Bangladesh politics magazine article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Magazine article 'Bangladesh: The Making of Politics', in Torture: Asian and Global Perspectives, 4 May 2015. The magazine is the leading publication aimed at improving dialogue amongst anti-torture advocacy groups across Asia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2015
URL http://torturemag.org/?p=824
 
Description Briefing Session with UN Committee Against Torture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Joint session organised by Redress and Dignity (human rights NGOs) reporting research findings on issues around the protection of victims of torture and making policy recommendations to members of the UN Committee Against Torture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Corruption and torture magazine article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A magazine article, authored by Morten Koch Anderson, 'Torture and Corruption, Practical Twins?', in Global Policy, 18 Sept. 2015. Global Policy is an innovative and interdisciplinary journal bringing together world class academics and leading practitioners to analyse both public and private solutions to global problems and issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2014,2015
URL http://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/18/09/2015/torture-and-corruption-practical-twins
 
Description Dissemination workshop on research findings at University of Dhaka. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A dissemination workshop with human rights practitioners reporting and discussing the research findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Documenting Torture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper Op-ed in My Republica.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://admin.myrepublica.com/opinion/story/42817/documenting-torture.html
 
Description Far too common 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Op-ed piece in MyRepublica
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2016
URL http://admin.myrepublica.com/opinion/story/40736/far-too-common.html
 
Description Human Rights, Poverty, Violence 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop with human rights NGOs in Geneva looking at findings from research and implications for human rights practice. Participants included Amnesty International, World Organisations Against Torture, Al-Karama, Plan, UN Sub-Committee for the Prevention of Torture, Advocacy Forum, Bilay.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://torturemag.org/?p=957
 
Description Inception workshop Kathmandu 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We held a project inception workshop attended by 40-50 human rights practitioners based in Nepal, outlining the aims and objectives of the project, and asking for feedback on design and goals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Inception workshop Nairobi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An inception workshop involving local, national and international human rights practitioners, setting out the project goals, and asking for feedback on design and objectives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Law as Repression magazine article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Article by Morten Koch Anderson in human rights publication: 'Law as Repression', in Torture: Asian and Global Perspectives, 28 Aug 2015. The magazine is the leading publication aimed at improving dialogue amongst anti-torture advocacy groups across Asia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://torturemag.org/?p=957
 
Description Missing Torture Amongst the Poor 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Opinion piece in OpenDemocracy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.opendemocracy.net/openglobalrights/steffen-jensen-tobias-kelly/missing-torture-amongst-p...
 
Description Protecting Survivors Amongst the Poor 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to chair an online discussion by the New Tactics human rights organisation on the issue of protecting survivors of torture. The on-line forum brings together human rights practitioners in order to discuss practical issues and strategies for human rights protection. The findings of the research directly fed into the discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.newtactics.org/conversation/protecting-survivors-and-witnesses
 
Description Sight of Future Op-ed 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Op-ed piece authored by Morten Koch Anderson, 'We should not lose Sight of the Future', Dhaka Tribune, 28 November 2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2014
URL http://www.dhakatribune.com/op-ed/2014/nov/28/we-should-not-lose-sight-future
 
Description Silencing Victims newspaper Op-ed 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper Op-ed authored by Morten Koch Anderson on 'Victims of Silencing;, Dhaka Tribune (Bangladesh national daily), 31 March 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.dhakatribune.com/op-ed/2015/mar/31/victims-silencing
 
Description Survey launch Nairobi 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Launch event for the Nairobi torture and ill-treatment survey. Attended by newspapers, TV, human rights organisation and the press. The event and survey were later picked up on the press, and the findings fed into wider debate about political and other forms of violence in Kenya. For example, the story in the national daily the Daily Nation on 23 Feb 2016 on 'Most Dangerous Gangs in Nairobi Named', see: http://www.nation.co.ke/news/Most-dangerous-gangs-in-Nairobi-named/-/1056/3089534/-/ob0akg/-/index.html.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2016
URL http://www.nation.co.ke/news/Most-dangerous-gangs-in-Nairobi-named/-/1056/3089534/-/ob0akg/-/index.h...
 
Description The reality of making change happen. Blog entry. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A blog entry on research findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.theimpactinitiative.net/blog/blog-reality-making-change-happen
 
Description Torture Documentation in Nepal 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination workshop to communicate research outcomes to journalists and human rights practitioners, which sparked debate and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Urban insecurity newspaper article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Steffen Jensen, authors Newspaper article in Kristeligt Dagblad (Danish Daily): "Byernes ukontrollerede vækst truer vores globale sikkerhed" (Urban uncontrolled growth threatens security), February 15, 2016. See: http://www.kristeligt-dagblad.dk/debat/byernes-ukontrollerede-vaekst-truer-vores-globale-sikkerhed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.kristeligt-dagblad.dk/debat/byernes-ukontrollerede-vaekst-truer-vores-globale-sikkerhed
 
Description Victims Discourse Op-ed 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper op-ed authored by Morten Koch Anderson, 'Victims of Discourse', Dhaka Tribune (Bangladesh Daily), 7 March 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.dhakatribune.com/op-ed/2015/mar/07/victims-discourse