MAnufacture of Safe and Sustainable Volatile Element functional materials - MASSIVE Materials

Lead Research Organisation: University of Surrey
Department Name: Mechanical Medical and Aerospace Eng

Abstract

The world around us is full of modern technology designed to make our lives safer, more comfortable and more efficient. Such technology is made possible by materials and devices that are able to interact with their surrounding environment either by sensing or acting upon it. Examples of such devices include motion detectors, fuel injectors, engine sensors and medical diagnostic tools. These interactive devices contain functional materials that can pose health hazards, are obtained from parts of the world where supply cannot be guaranteed or are relatively scarce.

If access to these functional materials is restricted, many of these advances will no longer be available resulting in a reduction in living standards and decreased UK economic growth. There already exist a number of replacement materials that can provide the same functions without the same levels of concerns around safety, security of supply and sustainability. However, these replacement materials need to be manufactured using different processes compared to existing materials. This project explores new manufacturing technologies that could be used to create interactive devices that contains less harmful and sustainable materials with a secure supply.

This project will focus on two types of material - thermoelectric and piezoelectric - where the replacement materials share a set of common challenges: they need to be processed at elevated temperatures; they contain elements that evaporate at high temperatures (making high temperature processing and processing of small elements difficult); they are mechanically fragile making it difficult to shape the materials by cutting, grinding or polishing; they are chemically stable making it difficult to shape them by etching; and many are air and moisture sensitive.

The proposed research will address these challenges through three parallel research streams that proactively engage with industry. The first stream is composed of six manufacturing capability projects designed to develop the core manufacturing capabilities and know-how to support the programme. The second is a series of short term feasibility studies, conducted in collaboration with industry, to explore novel manufacturing concepts and evaluate their potential opportunities. Finally, the third stream will deliver focussed industrially orientated projects designed to develop specific manufacturing techniques for in an industrial manufacturing environment.

The six manufacturing capability projects will address:
1) The production of functional material powders, using wet and dry controlled atmosphere techniques, needed as feedstock in the manufacture of bulk and printed functional materials.
2) How to produce functional materials while maintaining the required chemistry and microstructure to ensure high performance. Spark Plasma Sintering will be used to directly heat the materials and accelerate fusion of the individual powder particles using an electric current.
3) Printing of functional material inks to build up active devices without the need to assemble individual components. Combing industrially relevant printing processes, such as screen printing, with controlled rapid temperature treatments will create novel print manufacturing techniques capable of handling the substitute materials.
4) How to join and coat these new functional materials so that they can be assembled into a device or protected from harsh environments when in use.
5) The fitness of substituted material to be compatible with existing shaping and treatment stages found later in the manufacturing chain.
6) The need to ensure that the substitute materials do not pose an equal or greater risk within the manufacturing and product life cycle environment. Here lessons learned from comparable material systems will be used to help predict potential risks and exposures.

Planned Impact

The project will link together three academic institutions and a large number of industrial partners (at least 14 initially) representing all aspects of the supply chain involved in the development and exploitation of thermoelectric, piezoelectric and dielectric materials and associated technologies. The beneficiaries in the commercial sector will include materials manufacturers who will have new substituted materials and the producers of devices and systems, who will be able to exploit the new materials. Policy makers will benefit from the research by increased knowledge of the development of environmentally-friendly methods of producing substituted materials without the need for the use of toxic and increasingly rare elements. There will be opportunities for museums and science centres to highlight the move towards environmentally friendly processes and production routes for important functional materials employed in domestic and industrial environments.

To the wider public there will be environmental benefits of replacing a range of traditional functional materials (thermoelectric, piezoelectric and dielectric), containing rare or toxic elements, by new substituted materials in a wide variety of devices and systems in domestic and industrial settings. In the case of the new thermoelectric materials, devices and systems there will be the added environmental benefit of being able to increase the efficiency of the processes to extract energy from fossil fuels, leading to improved fuel consumption for automobiles and industrial plants, without needing to rely on the toxic elements in traditional thermoelectric materials. There will be environmental benefits from excluding toxic elements from the manufacturing process of important products and a slowing of the consumption of natural resources. This will yield economic benefit to individuals and the UK if expensive and rare elements can be substituted by cheaper and more environmentally friendly alternatives. The research has the potential to impact the wealth and the economic competitiveness of the UK by assisting in the manufacture of high performance materials which utilise cheaper and more readily available starting materials. For UK companies there will be new opportunities and new markets in the production of superior materials.

There exists potential for all companies in the supply chain to become more competitive. With the use of cheaper starting materials there should be direct economic and environmental benefits. With the energy materials there should be additional benefits in terms of power generation from waste heat and improved fuel consumption and the potential for reduction of imported oil to the UK, giving additional economic benefits. The new substituted materials and products based on them should be realised within 3-5 years, bringing benefits to companies in the supply chain within 3-7 years. Researchers working on the interdisciplinary projects will gain transferable skills in materials synthesis, characterisation, modelling, module and system engineering, thermal and electrical interfacing and the different applications areas. They will also become proficient in report writing and critical analysis that will be of value in future employment.

We will promote networking across the academic partners and industrial partner companies in the relevant supply chains. Regular contact will be maintained and news of developments will be circulated externally via electronic newsletters and the programme website. Networking events will be held to bring together academics and industrialists to review progress and identify new opportunities for materials substitution projects. Non-confidential findings will be published on a programme web page. Scientific and technological findings will be disseminated to the academic and industrial communities via presentations at major international and trade conferences and high impact refereed publications.

Publications

10 25 50

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Buchacher T (2017) Electrocaloric induced retarded ferroelectric switching in Applied Physics Letters

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Buchacher T (2016) Low field depoling phenomena in soft lead zirconate titanate ferroelectrics in Journal of Electroceramics

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Dharmasena R (2017) Triboelectric nanogenerators: providing a fundamental framework in Energy & Environmental Science

 
Description Manufacturing techniques for synthesis of functional materials containing volatile elements such as sodium.
Exploitation Route working with companies to apply knowledge in manufacturing environment
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Education,Electronics,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

 
Description this ongoing project has developed methodologies that we are now working with industry to deploy in a manufacturing environment
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Electronics,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Economic

 
Description ENHANCED: Collaborative Research & Development
Amount £349,114 (GBP)
Funding ID 102153 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 05/2017
 
Description Energy Harvesting for Autonomous Electronics
Amount £137,924 (GBP)
Funding ID 102153 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 05/2017
 
Description Innovation Actions
Amount £16,900,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Grant Agreement no. 653468. 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 05/2015 
End 05/2018
 
Description Realising the Graphene potential
Amount £99,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/M50774X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2015 
End 03/2016
 
Description Strategic Equipment
Amount £313,840 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/M507246/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2015 
End 03/2020
 
Description University Innovation Voucher
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation Electrosciences Ltd 
Start 12/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description AIST Japan 
Organisation National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Country Japan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Elecctron microscopy of thermoelectric materials
Collaborator Contribution Development of new thermoelectric materials
Impact Papers
Start Year 2011
 
Description European Thermodynamics Ltd 
Organisation European Thermodynamics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Production of samples, supply of materials, Intellectual exchange
Collaborator Contribution Production of samples, supply of materials, Intellectual exchange
Impact Contribution to presentations & outreach material
Start Year 2014
 
Description Hybrid Films for Energy Storage 
Organisation Deregallera Ltd
PI Contribution Provided the company with knowledge and expertise in melt processing and characterisation of materials.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge of building energy storage devices and the commercial needs.
Impact Developed new materials with state of the art energy storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description M&I 
Organisation M&I Materials Limited
PI Contribution Understanding of SiC varistors
Collaborator Contribution Processing of SiC varistors
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description NCSU 
Organisation North Carolina State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Samples of films were produced
Collaborator Contribution Partners analysed films and hosted short term visit by a PhD student
Impact Joint abstract for conference
Start Year 2015
 
Description SuperSTEM 
Organisation Daresbury Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Development of novel thermoelectrics
Collaborator Contribution Atom level electron microscopy
Impact publications
Start Year 2009
 
Description University of Oulu 
Organisation University of Oulu
Country Finland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration in processing routes for oxide thermoelectrics
Collaborator Contribution Cold sintereing of oxide thermoelectrics
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Energy Materials Network Workshop, Edinburgh, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One day international research workshop reviewing developments in energy materials and their applications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Euromat 2017 - Additive print manufacture of film based micro energy harvesting devices 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Additive print manufacture of film based micro energy harvesting devices" Presentation at Euromat2017, Thessaloniki, Greece, 17-22 September 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://euromat2017.fems.eu/
 
Description Euromat 2017 - methodologies for reducing sintering temperature of ceramic thick films 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International conference presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://euromat2017.fems.eu/
 
Description European Microscopy Conference, Lyon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented talk - Recent applications of high energy and spatial resolution STEM-EELS to energy harvesting materials
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description European Microscopy Conference, Lyon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact talk reporting - Mapping cation-vacancy ordering and oxygen octahedral distortions in A-site deficient perovskites by monochromated core-loss EELS
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description European Thermoelectric Conference lLisbon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on - The effect of stoichiometry on the crystal structure and thermoelectric properties of Bi2+xSr2Co2Oy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description European Thermoelectric Conference lLisbon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk reporting - Crystal Structure and High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of La1/3NbO3 Perovskite
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ICMT 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Additive manufacture printing of sustainable active micro devices
20th International conference on mechatronics technology
28-31 October 2016
Dalian, China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description IET lecture 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Achieving sustainable nano-enabled functional products
Institution of Engineering & technology (IET) Lunchtime lecture
18/3/2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description India-UK Thermoelectric Workshop, India Bangalore 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Thre day international research workshop reviewing developments in thermoelectric materials and their applications. Explored possible bids for international collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Industrial Advisory Board 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Industrial Advisory Board for MASSIVE project to disseminate project activities and generate industrial input into future challenges
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Thermoelectric Symposium, Dresden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk reporting - Tungsten Bronze Barium Neodymium Titanate (Ba6-3xNd8+2xTi18O54): A new high temperature oxide thermoelectric
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Materials Exchange 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Exhibition event showcasing capabilities of research centre. Purpose was to engage with industry to develop further collaborations via effective dissemination.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Materials Research Society Annual Meeting Arizona 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk reporting - Thermoelectric Graphene-Strontium Titanate composites with High ZT and Wide Operating window - to international research audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description PacRim International Conference Hawaii USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact PacRim International Conference Hawaii USA; session concerned with energy materials
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description SFM 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Stability of Na-rich functional ceramics during synthesis and manufacture
Sustainable Functional Materials (SFM) 2016
5-6 April 2017
Scarborough, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Thermoelectric Materials Symposium Japan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk reporting - High ZT Graphene-Strontium Titanate Thermoelectric Composites - to international audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Thermoelectric Network Workshop, Edinburgh, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One day international research workshop reviewing developments in thermoelectric materials and their applications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.thermoelectricnetwork.com/home.html
 
Description Thermoelectric Network Workshop, Glasgow UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One day workshop on progress in thermoelectric materials and their applications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.thermoelectricnetwork.com/home.html
 
Description Thermoelectric Network Workshop, Manchester, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Two day international research workshop reviewing developments in thermoelectric materials and their applications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.thermoelectricnetwork.com/home.html
 
Description Thermoelectric Network Workshop, NPL Teddington, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One day workshop on research developments in thermoelectrics, and one day training event on measurement techniques for thermoelectrics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.thermoelectricnetwork.com/home.html
 
Description Thermoelectric Network Workshop, Reading UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact One day workshop on techniques and applications in thermoelectrics, followed by one day Trainng Event for younger workers - theme of modelling in Thermoelectrcs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Thermoelectric Network Workshop, Southamton, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact One day international research workshop reviewing developments in thermoelectric materials and their applications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Thermoelectric Network Workshop, loughborough UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Series of presentations by specialist on thermoelectrics concerned with engineering applications. Training event for postgraduate students and young researchers concerned with use of thermoelectrics for automotive applications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thermoelectricnetwork.com/home.html
 
Description West Surrey Materials Society seminar 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on Sustainable synthesis and manufacture of functional microdevices delivered as part of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining local area CPD series.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description reduce, replace, recycle 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation at reduce, replace, recycle event for Ceramics Industry. Talk on Manufacture of Environmentally Safe and Sustainable Ceramic Functional Materials was part presentations that led to debate on industry requirements.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015