Labor Outmigration, Agricultural Productivity and Food Security

Lead Research Organisation: University of Michigan
Department Name: Institute for Social Research

Abstract

We propose to investigate the consequences of labor outmigration on agricultural productivity in a poor agricultural country persistently facing food security problems. We aim to answer three high-priority scientific and policy questions: To what extent
(a) Does labor outmigration influence (i) agricultural productivity, (ii) women's participation in farming, and (iii) exit from farming?
(b) Do remittances influence (i) farm technology use, (ii) women's participation in farming, and (iii) exit from farming?
(c) Do farm technology use and exit from farming influence subsequent outmigration?
With an estimated 214 million people l--mostly from poor agricultural regions to more industrialized countries-international migration is a key concern in scholarly and policy arenas. This unprecedented phenomenon has wide-ranging consequences both for migrant-sending and receiving locations. This study focuses on one specific, but crucial consequence - the impact of labor outmigration on agricultural productivity in migrant-sending areas. As the agriculture productivity in poor subsistence economies is closely connected with one of the world's epidemic problems: food security. FAO estimated about 870 million people were undernourished in the period 2010-12. The vast majority of these - 852 million live in developing countries. Thus, increased agricultural productivity in poor countries is a key tool for alleviating this problem. This proposed project aims to better understand the relationship between labor outmigration and agriculture, providing crucial information for scientific and policy development of food security concerns.
Understanding the link between outmigration and agriculture is complicated by the fact that migration does not happen randomly. Additionally, changes in agricultural practices and migration are likely to influence each other. Thus, the empirical demands for adjudicating potential reciprocal relationships are high, limiting the ability of previous research to speak to these questions. To address this complication, we will leverage the Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS), a case control comparison design at the community level with a 15-year panel study of a stratified systematic sample of communities, households, and individuals in Nepal. This unusual panel study enables us to address the non-random selection of individuals into migration. Furthermore, the case control design is particularly powerful for controlling macro-level effects (e.g. climate, prices, and policies) to detect the effect of change and variation in the phenomena of interest: farm labor loss, remittances, farm technology use, agricultural productivity, and women's participation in farming. Despite the wealth of panel data, answering our specific questions requires a modest level of new data collection. Our proposed panel measurement will involve multi-mode mixed methods data collection with appropriate temporal order and timing precision necessary to assess the relationships31.
This study will generate high quality scientific outcomes that will be widely disseminated around the world. These outcomes are (i) comprehensive panel data with potential to address perplexing methodological problems; and (ii) empirical evidence of the consequences of labor outmigration, agricultural productivity, and its interplay with gender. First the data will be made available through ICPSR and UK Data Service and publications through websites will be provided to broader audiences. Second, the findings will be disseminated among the scientific communities through presentations at national and international conferences and publication of scientific articles, research briefs, and policy briefs. Finally, our capacity building training will also enhance scientific and analytical capacity of faculty and scientists of host country institutions (AFU, NARC and others).

Planned Impact

The empirical findings and data generated by the study proposed have high potential to impact both academia and policy at local, national, and global levels.
Impact on academia: The empirical findings will be of great use to a wide range of academic audiences (faculty, students, etc.) for teaching and research purposes. At the local level, these audiences include affiliates of AFU, NARC, and other local colleges and universities. At the national level, the findings will have strong relevance to academic audiences in migrant sending countries in South Asia. Our (UM and ISER-N) joint training program on survey methodology in Nepal has strong collaborative ties with various universities and research organizations in South Asia. Faculty, research scholars, and students from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan regularly participate in the training we offer. We will use this venue to share our findings. At the global level, the publication of findings will improve and stimulate further research in this area by scholars worldwide.
The panel measurement generated by this study with the potential for unraveling perplexing problems of selectivity, simultaneity and causal pathways, will provide researchers with the methodological means to answer high propriety scientific questions. We plan to make these measures available to a wider audience through the public release of the data. This will greatly promote data use resulting in additional publications, PhD/MSc dissertations/theses and other reports. We will further promote data use through display booths at national and international conferences, and the training we propose to offer to faculty and research scientists at AFU and NARC. We expect academic audiences will benefit from this research even beyond the current project period stimulating new research in other areas of science such as migrant health and relationship dynamics among parents, spouses and children.
Impact on policy: Empirical answers from rigorous science provide crucial information for policy makers struggling to make the best use of scarce resources. First, understanding the extent to which loss of farm labor is associated with agricultural productivity will provide key information for policy makers to formulate migration and agriculture policy. Second, understanding the extent to which remittances from migrants compensate for the loss of male farm labor, if any, through labor-saving farm technology use is crucial for formulating agriculture mechanization policy. Finally, understanding the impact of male labor migration on women's involvement in agriculture is important for the wellbeing of women.
We plan to engage stakeholders in several stages of this program to ensure effective policy influence. The key stakeholders include: local farmers (male & female), women's groups, service providers and entrepreneurs (local level); District Agriculture Development Office, District Development Committee, NGOs, colleges and universities (district level); NARC, National Planning Commission, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare, INGOs, and donors engaged in rural development programs. The findings of this study will also have broader implications for the design of migration and agriculture policy worldwide. Our global target audiences are the IOM, FAO, WFP, IFRI, INGOs, donors and investors engaged in agriculture development worldwide.
Finally, to disseminate the findings we will hold a series of stakeholders meetings at each level. We will also summarize findings from peer-reviewed publications and publish them as policy briefs. At the global level, we will make these available through websites, conference presentations, and publications in scientific journals. We expect that the analysis of these data by the participants of data analysis workshops and others will generate new findings that will impact policy beyond the project period.
 
Description We accomplished three major achievements through the research funded by this grant:

1. Data. We collected the most comprehensive, uniquely detailed, panel data required to begin understanding the reciprocal relationship between labor out-migration, agricultural change, and the women left behind. Data include 1) population events--prospective monthly records of household size, composition and structure, birth, marriage, death, living arrangement, etc. for in-migration and out-migration with destination and remittance; 2) agriculture--retrospective and prospective seasonal information on household engagement in agriculture (practices, production, consumption); and 3) women's time use--prospective seasonal records of women's time use. Data are deposited at UK Data Services, except population events data, which is being cleaned and coded.

2. Key Findings. We investigated the effect of international labor out-migration on agricultural productivity and the women left behind. Consistent with the hypothesis that labor out-migration produces a loss of labor on farms in the place of origin, the results show that labor out-migration increases the rate of exit from agriculture. However, independent of loss of farm labor through out-migration, the results also show that the amount of remittance from those migrants substantially decreases the rate of exit from agriculture. These results are robust against several key community- and household-level factors. They document the complex and bi-directional nature of the consequences of labor out-migration for local farming in countries of origin.

We also investigated the effect of husband's international out-migration on the wives left behind and their work burden and economic activities. The results show that compared to wives' of non-migrants, wives of migrants perform a substantially higher number of daily activities, which suggests increased burden on migrant wives. Likewise, migrant wives also perform substantially more economic activities. Those activities have provided wives of migrants more economic freedom leading to more empowerment. These results are robust against several community and household factors and women's background characteristics.

3. Capacity building. Our capacity building accomplishments comprise including stakeholders' involvement from project inception, research staff training, and Survey Data Analysis Training. The inception workshop not only enhanced stakeholders' understanding of the interdisciplinary research design, but also provided unique opportunities to strengthen and extend our collaborative ties with new organizations (i.e., Department of Agriculture, Nepal Institute of Development Studies, and other I/NGOs) and independent research scholars. In terms of research staff training, several research staff at our collaborating partner, the Institute for Social and Environmental Research Nepal (ISER-N), participated in the household calendar and questionnaire design and data collection methods. The training on data collection included survey data collection using a Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) system and crop yield measurement through crop cutting. Finally, a total of eight research scientists from the National Agriculture Research Council (NARC) and faculty and doctoral students from the Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU) participated in Survey Data Analysis Training run by the research team. These capacity-building activities have proved effective in extending research collaboration, enhancing research, and analytical capacity that we can now see used daily both within ISER-N and partner organizations (NARC and AFU).
Exploitation Route The empirical findings are relevant to a wide range of academic and non-academic audiences. The data are publically available, holding valuable potential for unraveling perplexing problems of selectivity, simultaneity and causal pathways, and providing researchers with the methodological means to answer high propriety, complex scientific questions. Additionally, the Survey Data Analysis Training equipped researchers, faculty, and students with much needed analytical skills. We expect analysis of these data by workshop participants and others will generate new findings and impact policy beyond the scope of this project.

Specifically, one Ph.D. student from AFU is currently using the data for his dissertation and several others are working on prospectuses that involve analysis of this data. Research scholars from NARC reported using the analytical skills from our capacity building training on a daily basis to analyze data that NARC collected on the agriculture system.

Additionally, the information regarding earning potential in destination places is of great value to prospective migrants and policy makers. And, given the rapidly increasing rate of exit from farming, decreasing national food production and increasing food deficit, the findings regarding out-migration, remittance, and farm exit provides crucial information for policy makers to design agriculture policy to increase agriculture production.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Creative Economy,Education

URL https://loaf.psc.isr.umich.edu/
 
Description Our findings from this award have contributed to non-academic impacts in three key areas: 1. Policy Impact. We are beginning to see positive signs towards increasing the effectiveness of public policy in Nepal. Notably, the Chief of Policy Section, on behalf of the Secretary of Ministry of Agricultural Development, has expressed his commitment to integrating the findings of this research into agricultural policy in Nepal. In his closing remarks at the Dissemination Workshop, he reiterated the Ministry's commitment to collaborate with stakeholders, development partners and related agencies in the area of evidence-based agriculture policy formulation. Additionally, the Chief of the Socioeconomics and Agriculture Research Policy Division from the Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC)-a prime non-academic agricultural research organization in Nepal-recently highlighted the importance of interdisciplinary research in agricultural research. At the Dissemination Workshop, he also expressed his commitment to push forward an interdisciplinary research approach in agriculture research policy in Nepal. These are significant steps forward, holding the potential to enhance the quality of life and health in Nepal for the long term. Finally, we have also published two policy briefs for a general, non-academic audience on previously collected data related to this study. These policy briefs are a crucial step in translating rigorous scientific evidence into applicable and actionable steps for a much broader audience, including policy makers. 2. Capacity Building. Research Scientists at NARC who participated in capacity building workshops are now incorporating skills and research knowledge from this project into their own plans for agricultural research. These Research Scientists at NARC have also learned analytic skills through these workshops and are much better positioned to analyze the data generated through this project as a result. Importantly, we are supporting their requests to help access data from this project, which will further enhance our understanding of the relationship between migration and the agricultural system in Nepal. This is significant because NARC is an autonomous governmental organization that conducts agricultural research to improve the standard of living for Nepalis. Some of NARC's primary objectives are to conduct quality agricultural research; to identify existing problems in agriculture and identify solutions; and to assist the Government of Nepal in formulating agricultural policies and strategies. Given that we now have important stakeholders committing to and advocating for interdisciplinary collaboration to advance evidence-based agriculture policies (please see point #1 above), the desire to use data from this project as a starting point is another crucial step forward in positively impacting Nepal's agriculture policy and eventually its economy. 3. Data Resource. We have created a rich dataset based on rigorous science, fostering intellectual collaboration among potential consumers from project inception. Because we have involved stakeholders such as the Department of Agriculture, Government of Nepal, NARC, and AFU from the beginning of the project and worked to strengthen their analytical capacity throughout the project, we are now receiving requests from these stakeholders to use this data for designing agriculture extension and migration policy. Because the data from this project are multidisciplinary, they will be useful to the widest possible audience of users, ensuring the broadest possible influence on policy. We view these requests to help access this data from the UK Data Service as one of the most positive steps toward evidence-based policy impact in Nepal and ultimately other LICs as well.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Title Crop Yield Measurement Data 
Description To create measures of agricultural productivity and to validate data collected from farmers' responses in the Seasonal Agriculture Survey, we measured yields of seasonal principal crops (such as paddy, wheat, maize and mustard) grown by farm households in each season. Our standard sampling procedure involves a 30-50% random sample from the households who have grown the specific crop. Based on our sampling strategy, we conducted mustard crop yield measurement from February-March 2016. Out of 222 randomly selected sample plots from 546 mustard growing households within the 151 sample CVFS neighborhoods, the mustard crop cutting measurement was completed in 196 sample plots, with a measurement completion rate of 88%. Wheat and lentil crop cutting measurement was conducted from March-April 2016. Out of 134 randomly selected sample plots from 350 wheat growing households, the wheat crop yield measurement was completed in 114 sample plots with a measurement completion rate of 85%. Out of 165 randomly selected sample plots from 552 lentil growing households, the lentil crop yield measurement was completed in 149 sample plots with a measurement completion rate 90%. Maize crop cutting measurement was conducted from June-August 2016. Out of 262 randomly selected sample plots from 853 maize growing households, the maize crop yield measurement was completed in 241 sample plots with a measurement completion rate of 92%. Maize crop cutting measurement was followed by a second wave of paddy crop yield measurement. Paddy crop yield measurement was conducted from October-November 2016. Out of 673 randomly selected sample plots from 1,351 paddy growing households, paddy crop yield measurement was completed in 486 sample plots with a measurement completion rate of 72%. All data, except the second wave of the paddy crop yield measurement, collected during this project year are cleaned and made available for analysis to the investigators. These data are also undergoing disclosure risk assessment to release for public use. 2017-18 Update: To create measures of agricultural productivity and to validate data collected from farmers' responses in the Seasonal Agriculture Survey, we measured yields of seasonal principal crops grown by farm households in each season. This reporting period, to create the measure of change in crop productivity we repeated the crop yield measurement from 266 randomly selected plots of mustard, 184 randomly selected plots of lentil, 142 randomly selected plots of wheat, and 208 randomly selected plots of maize. Data collected during this project year were merged with previous waves and are currently under disclosure risk review for release to the public; they will be deposited at the UK Data Service soon. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These data have been extensively analyzed and presented at several professional meetings (International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, Population Association of America, Rural Sociological Society) and at the Dissemination Workshop in Nepal. Further, using these data, three peer-reviewed papers have been published and the research team and stakeholders continue to analyze this data. In addition, through releasing this data, we are providing stakeholders at every level with access to empirical evidence. Our aim is to provide high quality data to better understand the consequences of outmigration. The data will begin to help inform researchers and policy makers alike. Ultimately, we hope that the data provides a solid foundation for improving the lives of migrant workers and their families. 
 
Title Datasets 
Description Please note that we currently have a total of five datasets in this project. Last year we included all datasets in this one output event. This year we created a separate output event for each dataset. Datasets include: 1. Monitoring of Population Events Data; 2. Seasonal Agriculture Survey Data; 3. Women's Participation in Farming Survey Data (Wave 1 was deposited at the UK Data Service); 4. Crop Yield Measurement Data; and 5. Household Agriculture and Migration Survey Data. (We plan to deposit Wave 1 at the UK Data Service next week.) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact It is too early to comment on notable impacts resulting from the development of this data. 
 
Title Household Agriculture and Migration Survey Data 
Description Using the Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) existing surveys and the national surveys (Demographic Health Survey and Nepal Living Standard Survey), we designed a 43-minute Household Agriculture and Migration Survey. This survey includes information on household agricultural practices, including crop production and farm technology use, wealth, assets, income, consumption, food security and information about each household member currently away from home, and remittances received by the household. In addition, an Agriculture and Remittance Calendar was designed to collect retrospective data on farming/non-farming status, crop production, land under cultivation, farm technology use, migration and remittances from 2006 through July 2015 matching with the agricultural production data collection in 2006. In July 2015, we administered the survey to all the households residing within 151 CVFS sample neighborhoods. We administered the Household Agriculture and Migration Survey to 2,260 households (within sample neighborhoods) with a response rate of 99.1%. This data has been deposited at the UK Data Service. 2017-18 Update: The data collected for the Household Agriculture and Migration Survey is baseline data; no further updates required. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact These data have been extensively analyzed and presented at several professional meetings (International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, Population Association of America, Rural Sociological Society) and at the Dissemination Workshop in Nepal. Further, using these data, three peer-reviewed papers have been published and the research team and stakeholders continue to analyze this data. In addition, through releasing this data, we are providing stakeholders at every level with access to empirical evidence. Our aim is to provide high quality data to better understand the consequences of outmigration. The data will begin to help inform researchers and policy makers alike. Ultimately, we hope that the data provides a solid foundation for improving the lives of migrant workers and their families. 
URL https://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/#852978
 
Title Monitoring of Population Events Data 
Description To create prospective measures of outmigration, remittances and related demographic events required to adjudicate the effects of farm technology use and farm exit on the propensity to migrate, we extended our existing CVFS household registration system forward in time. Using the household registry system, we have been collecting information on births, marriage, deaths, education and, of particular interest to this study, outmigration of individuals from the household on a monthly basis. All the households within the CVFS sample neighborhoods (2,281 households with a response rate 98.6%) are followed once every four months and monthly events are updated. 2017-18 Update: All the households within the CVFS sample neighborhoods were followed once every four months and monthly events were updated. We completed the final wave of this data collection from 3,000 households with a 99% response rate. These data were merged with previous waves and are currently under disclosure risk review for release to the public; they will be deposited at the UK Data Service soon. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These data have been extensively analyzed and presented at several professional meetings (International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, Population Association of America, Rural Sociological Society) and at the Dissemination Workshop in Nepal. Further, using these data, three peer-reviewed papers have been published and the research team and stakeholders continue to analyze this data. In addition, through releasing this data, we are providing stakeholders at every level with access to empirical evidence. Our aim is to provide high quality data to better understand the consequences of outmigration. The data will begin to help inform researchers and policy makers alike. Ultimately, we hope that the data provides a solid foundation for improving the lives of migrant workers and their families. 
 
Title Seasonal Agriculture Survey Data 
Description To measure crop cultivation, farm technology use, agriculture productivity and exit from farming, we administered a 25-minute household interview in each cropping season-three times a year. In March-May 2016, we administered the second wave of this survey to 2,190 households in 151 CVFS sample neighborhoods with a response rate of 99.2%. The third wave of this survey was administered from June-September 2016 to 2,171 sample farm households with a response rate of 98.3%. Finally, the fourth wave of this survey began in October 2016 and is currently being administered in the field. All data collected during wave 1 through wave 3 are cleaned and available to investigators for analysis. Waves 1 through 3 are currently undergoing disclosure risk assessment for release to the public. 2017-18 Update: We completed the ongoing fourth wave of data collection from 2,183 households with a 98.9% response rate and the fifth and final wave from 2,171 households with a 98.5% response rate. All waves of data (waves 1-5) are currently being processed at the UK Data Service, and will soon be available through ReShare. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact These data have been extensively analyzed and presented at several professional meetings (International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, Population Association of America, Rural Sociological Society) and at the Dissemination Workshop in Nepal. Further, using these data, three peer-reviewed papers have been published and the research team and stakeholders continue to analyze this data. In addition, through releasing this data, we are providing stakeholders at every level with access to empirical evidence. Our aim is to provide high quality data to better understand the consequences of outmigration. The data will begin to help inform researchers and policy makers alike. Ultimately, we hope that the data provides a solid foundation for improving the lives of migrant workers and their families. 
 
Title Women's Time Use Survey Data 
Description To measure women's participation in farming we administered a 16-minute survey to women in each cropping season-three times a year. This survey is designed to assess the number of different household activities (farming and non-farming) performed in the past 24 hours and the number of days worked in each activity in the past month. From January- March 2016 we administered the second wave of the Women's Participation in Farming Survey to 2,297 women from all households within the CVFS sample neighborhoods with a response rate of 97.6%. From May-August 2016, the third wave of this survey was administered to 2,137 women from all the sample households with a response rate of 93.3%. Finally, the fourth wave of this survey began in September 2016 and is currently in the field. All data collected during wave 1 through wave 3 are cleaned and available to investigators for analysis. Wave 1 data have been deposited at the UK Data Service and waves 2 and 3 are currently undergoing disclosure risk assessment for release to the public. 2017-18 Update: We completed the fourth wave of data collection from 2,231 women with a 95.3% response rate and the fifth and final wave of data collection from 2,221 women with a 95.6% response rate. All waves of data (waves 1-5) have been deposited at the UK Data Service. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact These data have been extensively analyzed and presented at several professional meetings (International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, Population Association of America, Rural Sociological Society) and at the Dissemination Workshop in Nepal. Further, using these data, three peer-reviewed papers have been published and the research team and stakeholders continue to analyze this data. In addition, through releasing this data, we are providing stakeholders at every level with access to empirical evidence. Our aim is to provide high quality data to better understand the consequences of outmigration. The data will begin to help inform researchers and policy makers alike. Ultimately, we hope that the data provides a solid foundation for improving the lives of migrant workers and their families. 
URL https://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/#852978
 
Description The Institute for Social and Environmental Research - Nepal (ISER-N) 
Organisation Institute for Social and Environmental Research - Nepal (ISER-N)
Country Nepal 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The University of Michigan (UM) team has significantly contributed to this program of research throughout the life of this project. First, the UM team contributed to scientific and intellectual knowledge on research design, implementation, data file preparation, analysis, and data deposits at the UK Data Service and ICPSR. Second, the UM team contributed through research capacity building activities such as workshops and training sessions for stakeholders and for our collaborator's faculty, staff and students. Finally, the UM team also contributed to the program through monitoring and supervising research activities and through extending managerial and administrative support to ISER-N.
Collaborator Contribution Our partner, ISER-N, has significantly contributed to this program of research in the following ways. First, ISER-N forged strong ties with faculty and scientists at the Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU) in Nepal and the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) during the planning phase to submit the proposal for this project. Throughout this project, not only has the partnership between ISER-N and AFU and NARC strengthened, ISER-N also formed new partnerships with various stakeholders that have grown and strengthened as well. Additionally, ISER-N continues facilitating ties with the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science at Tribhuvan University (TU), Lamjung Campus. These collaborative partnerships are crucial for influencing policy changes in Nepal and eventually the Nepali economy. Many of the stakeholders are now interested in analyzing the data from this project. Second, ISER-N staff collected all the data for this research by administering multiple surveys for each wave of data collection in Nepal. ISER-N staff also managed project logistics in Nepal and assisted in cleaning and preparing the data for deposit. Third, throughout the project, ISER-N conducted capacity-building activities, which significantly enhanced our stakeholders' and partners' research capacity.
Impact The UM/ISER-N collaboration is multi-disciplinary and broadly includes the areas of demographic processes, agriculture, and gender. Outputs and outcomes that have resulted from the UM/ISER-N partnership include: (1) Publications: Three peer-reviewed research articles and two policy briefs; (2) Engagement Activities: Three workshops including a Stakeholder Workshop, Capacity Building Training/Survey Data Analysis Workshop, and a Stakeholder Dissemination Workshop; and (3) Datasets: Data was collected in four key areas including a) Women's Time Use Survey, b) Seasonal Agriculture Survey, c) Monitoring of Population Events, and d) Crop Yield Measurement. The majority of the data have been deposited at UK Data Service, with remaining datasets to be deposited soon. Please see full details reported under each of these sections on ResearchFish.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Capacity Building Training - Survey Data Analysis Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact To enhance the analytical research capacity of our collaborating organizations (AFU and NARC) and of South Asia in general, a five-day Survey Data Analysis Workshop took place from November 21-25, 2016. In total, 13 participants attended the workshop including participants from AFU and NARC (two participants from each institution). This workshop is a modified version of a standard course regularly offered by Dr. Prem Bhandari (Co-investigator of this study) and Dr. Ghimire (Principal Investigator of this study) to meet the specific analytical training needs of our collaborators. This workshop has proven very effective in enhancing analytical capacity of survey data both within Nepal and across South Asia. This year, Dr. William Axinn (Co-investigator of this study) from the University of Michigan also taught a portion of the workshop via teleconferencing technology.

It is too early to report on the impacts that arose from this activity as it is scheduled to take place on December 20-24, 2015. However, it is our expectation that by helping to enhance analytical capacity of stakeholders (the direct consumers of the empirical evidence) and broadening the data user base, we will greatly maximize the impact of this program of research at the national level.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL https://loaf.psc.isr.umich.edu/news
 
Description Stakeholder Dissemination Workshop (December 18, 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The goal of the workshop was to share the empirical findings generated through rigorous scientific investigation of labor out-migration, agricultural change and its consequences for left-behind women and foster policy dialogue to integrate findings with policy. Additionally, the workshop also aimed to facilitate cross-disciplinary interaction among scientists and research scholars, crucial for building a foundation for interdisciplinary research, education and public policy. The workshop envisioned a policy formulation process more complex than a simple interaction between researchers and policy makers and reaching a wider audience that includes educators, activists, development practitioners, government line agencies and funding agencies, who, the team believes, have a substantial role in the process. Altogether 45 participants representing various agencies participated in the workshop. The workshop was highly successful in achieving its stated goals of: (1) sharing the empirical findings generated through rigorous scientific investigation; (2) fostering productive dialogue on ways to integrate the empirical findings into policy formulation; and finally, (3) promoting cross-disciplinary interaction among educators, research scholars, policy makers and stakeholders crucial for building a foundation for interdisciplinary research, education and public policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://loaf.psc.isr.umich.edu/events
 
Description Stakeholder Workshop (November 30, 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As proposed, a one-day workshop entitled "Integrating Social and Agriculture Science: Building the Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research in Nepal" was held on November 30th, 2014 at Hotel Himalaya in Lalitpur. The workshop was jointly organized by the Population Studies Center of the University of Michigan, ISER-N, and the Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal to foster intellectual collaboration among potential consumers of the empirical evidence we will generate through rigorous scientific investigation. It focused on capacity building and receiving feedback on our three substantive research questions, the research design, and the dissemination plan. A total of 36 participants from universities, research institutions, government and non-governmental organizations attended the workshop. The participants represented areas of social science research, agricultural research and extension, policy formulation and program implementation.

This workshop was a crucial first step in building a foundation of interdisciplinary research, education and public policy. It was attended by local, regional and national stakeholders and successfully engaged all stakeholders in cross-disciplinary discussions of instrument development, refinement, and design of data collection strategies. The workshop was highly beneficial, generating relevant and insightful feedback which has been incorporated into the program.

Notable impacts that arose from this activity include:
1. Our program of research incorporates a broader interdisciplinary perspective as a result of the feedback provided by stakeholders at the local, regional and national level (i.e., researchers, professional practitioners, policy makers, etc.).
2. Our program of research will impact a much broader user base as a result of facilitating multidisciplinary discussions and seeking input from stakeholders at various levels.
3. Our program of research will continue to improve and impact more disciplines through research capacity building and dissemination of research findings as the new data become available. Additionally, we are also receiving requests from other entities in Nepal that wish to become more involved in the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://loaf.psc.isr.umich.edu/events