Industrial Productivity, Health Sector Performance and Policy Synergies for Inclusive Growth: A Study in Tanzania and Kenya

Lead Research Organisation: Open University
Department Name: Economics

Abstract

The proposed project studies the supply chains of commodities - essential medicines, medical equipment and supplies, and some other health essentials such as disinfectant - from local industries and from imports into the health systems in the two countries. Shortages and unaffordability of these commodities are persistent causes of poor quality health care and exclusion from care in low income Africa. For two selected case study countries, Tanzania and Kenya, both low income but one (Kenya) with more developed manufacturing, we aim to test the hypothesis that there are unexplored synergies between industrial and health policies that could be identified, and that, if addressed, could contribute to higher employment, industrial upgrading and improved health system performance and accessibility in each country. If we are correct, improved industrial production, in terms of higher producitivity, more appropriate and cheaper products, and innovative methods of production, could improve health service performance while raising economic output: in other words, it could contribute to inclusive growth.

The proposed research would bring together two groups of researchers who often work in separate 'boxes, by linking up the concerns of industrial specialists, looking at the scope for industrial innovation to develop new products and processes and raise industrial productivity, and the concerns of health systems specialists with health system strengthening including improving access to supplies. There is patchy evidence that local production of medicines may improve access to essential medicines, and that shorter supply chains and diversification of sources of supply can reduce shortages, but there are also doubts among health specialists about the quality and economic viability of local production of medicines in Africa. There is however renewed interest among African policy makers and international donors in supporting African industrial development, including local production of pharmaceuticals, and this project would contribute new information to assist debate.

This is a research collaboration between two East African research institutes, ACTS in Nairobi, Kenya, and REPOA in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and the Open University, UK, and Rand Europe. It brings together expertise in health systems and health markets; health economics; industrial economics; and technology and innovation studies. The research process will involve from the start private, NGO and public sector stakeholders in both health and industrial sectors, and thus aims to bring together two groups of policy makers too often working in isolation from each other, to debate concrete policy options that arise from the research findings. We aim to translate the research into local and international policy impact.

Planned Impact

This impact summary is divided into early impacts, that we expect to result from successful completion of the project, and longer term impacts which may result if the central hypothesis of the project is confirmed and produces concrete proposals. It should be read alongside Pathways to Impact.

Early impacts
These benefits arise in part from limited connection at present between health and industrial policymaking and the ideas and knowledge that inform them, in the two countries and internationally. The beneficiaries, with type of benefit, are:
Health procurement agencies, government, NGO and private, in Kenya and Tanzania, who will gain enhanced understanding of local suppliers' production capabilities and scope for upgrading, hence better information for procurement decisions;
Health policymakers, who will gain enhanced understanding of the local and import supply chains into the health system and the conditions under which upgrading can improve inclusion, enlarging their scope for beneficial intervention;
Private businesses, who will gain additional market knowledge and enhanced scope for interaction with industrial and health policymakers, and information about funding and support opportunities, widening their options for business development;
Professional bodies such as manufacturing associations representing private business, who will gain another route into engagement with relevant policy makers;
Industrial development and innovation policymakers, who will gain enhanced understanding of health system needs and scope for collaboration with health policymakers to identify opportunities to support socially beneficial and commercially viable product and process innovations;
Policymakers in other low income countries facing similar conditions, through generation of ideas for improved integration of health and industrial policymaking;
International policymakers (United Nations, multilateral organisations, bilateral donors, public-private partnerships, African organisations such as NEPAD and the African Development Bank): in health, the project will provide additional understanding of industrial capabilities and industrial constraints on health system performance; in industrial and innovation policymaking the project will provide additional understanding of health system opportunities and constraints.

Longer term impacts.
The central hypothesis of the project is that there are unexploited synergies between industrial development and health system strengthening. If this is shown to be correct, and opportunities for mutual benefit are identified and exploited, then the ambition is to benefit:

Health service users, male and female, who currently face severe shortage of essential supplies, gaining improvements in the cost, quality and availability of supplies that lead to improvements in access to effective care;
Health professionals, whose ability to work effectively will be enhanced by improved supplies, resulting in better quality and more inclusive services;
Health and industrial innovation policy makers, whose ability to support industrial improvement and strengthen health systems will results in higher productivity and quality and fewer stock-outs;
Industrial employees through upgrading of productivity and skills and increased employment opportunities in local production of health service supplies;
Inclusive growth beneficiaries, as industrial firms exploit newly identified opportunities in strengthened supply chains, and the workforce benefits from improved health services, enhancing labour productivity;
International donors and policy makers through identification, evaluation and exploitation of new routes by which funding can support private sector activity to strengthen health systems;
Industrial and health policy not only in Tanzania, Kenya but also elsewhere, through demonstration of the benefits of collaboration between the two fields.
 
Description This policy-focused project uniquely combines analysis of low-income country health care systems with a corresponding investigation into local manufacturing capacity. There are huge unmet needs for essential medicines and supplies in Tanzania and Kenya, as in many African countries, and domestic health markets offer large unexploited opportunities for locally based manufacturers.
In summary the project has identified:
• the extent of opportunities to combine better health care with industrial development;
• strengths and weaknesses of domestic supply chain linkages, and external pressures that tend to disaggregate them;
• the core challenge faced by locally based firms of upgrading to achieve and sustain international competitiveness;
• existing policies that support or undermine health-industrial synergies;
• the reshaping of health systems and procurement required to use local suppliers effectively to address population needs.
A conceptual framework of industrial and institutional capabilities is used to show how industrial suppliers of essential medicines and medical supplies in both countries face sharply rising international competitive pressures. These result from: broader trade liberalisation and specific policies encouraged by donors to remove tariffs and taxes from imported health sector supplies; externally focused international procurement; competitive and regulatory pressures for higher quality standards; and changes in first line treatments for major illnesses requiring investment in technological upgrading. All domestic manufacturers interviewed engaged in continuous upgrading: hugely challenging in their context of poor infrastructure, expensive and limited industrial finance, and low education and skills (particularly serious in Tanzania).
In both countries, pharmaceutical companies are mainly locally owned, and in neither country is their domestic market share rising. In Tanzania local pharmaceutical firms' domestic market share has recently been falling sharply as they struggle to cope with competitive pressures. Kenya-based producers are doing better within a much stronger national industrial base, sustaining domestic market share and increasing exports to regional markets. Both sets of firms need industrial policy frameworks that support sustained investment in improved technological capabilities, including upstream supplier improvement, associated with sufficient time-limited trade protection.
Health sector organisation and procurement processes also need to build the collaborative capabilities to extract local health-industrial synergy. Damaging and exclusionary reliance on out-of-pocket payments, and doubtfully sustainable reliance on Asian suppliers, both need revision towards more tax and social insurance funding for supplies and public procurement policies that reduce barriers to entry for local firms. There are lessons from good procurement practice in the non-profit sectors, which were found to purchase a higher share of their supplies from domestic manufacturers while private wholesalers relied more on imports.
Collaborative capabilities in industrial and health policy have to be built, from a basis of very limited communication between relevant Ministries and international stakeholders. The project has created local forums for industrialists, industrial and health policy makers, regulators and medical officers to interact directly, opening possibilities for creative interventions to radically improve effective governance in this crucial area of development. Internationally, the project has contributed to expanding research in this field, notably through a UNIDO-supported publishing initiative on Making Medicines in Africa drawing on experience from nine African countries and extensive involvement in international policy networks.
Exploitation Route Our project findings are being actively used by industrial and health policy makers in both Tanzania and Kenya. For example, our research findings on the Tanzanian pharmaceutical sector have been taken up in the Tanzanian government's new Five-year Development Plan "Nurturing Industrialization for Economic Transformation and Human Development", where pharmaceuticals are identified as a key industrial sector for development. The relevant Plan text argues that local production of medicines can both enhance access to medicines and contribute to inclusive economic growth, before discussing how and why the local share of the market is in decline, and the scope for reversal through active policy support. This policy impact follows invited recommendations from this project to a Tanzanian policy Task Force hosted by the Commission for Science and Technology. We continue to contribute findings and advice to: Tanzanian and Kenyan high level policy forums (see our Impact summary for more details); broader African and international policy debate on local production of essential medical supplies, through UN-hosted forums (UNIDO, WHO, UNDP), African Union consultations, and regional initiatives; private sector manufacturers' organisations and conferences (e.g. those hosted by PharmaAfrica and UNIDO); international NGO consultations and initiatives (including Health Action International, Action Medeor, MSF); and bilateral donors (e.g. BMZ). Our publications and policy briefs have been cited by both private sector and public policy actors in the very active policy field of local pharmaceutical production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our project book, "Making Medicines in Africa", was based in a UNIDO-supported workshop that drew together a wide range of impressive African expertise, as well as experience from India, Brazil and high income countries, in a mutual learning process; the book was published under Creative Commons, free to download, and has been very widely cited, especially within African policy debates, where its accessibility, timeliness and depth have been appreciated. We continue to contribute to ensuring that international debates on this topic fully reflect the views, expertise and objectives of African and Africa-based policy makers, regulators, manufacturers and other relevant actors.
Sectors Education,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL http://iphsp.acts-net.org/
 
Description This project has created, in both Tanzania and Kenya, innovative high level forums for industrialists, industrial policy makers, health policy makers, regulators and procurement agencies, NGOs, medical officers and business associations, to interact directly with each other and the project team, generating new possibilities for creative interventions that can radically improve effective governance in this crucial area of development. We have also provided evidence that has influenced international thinking among UN policy actors, international NGOs, international business associations, bilateral donors and researchers feeding into policy in health services procurement and industrial development and innovation. In summary, the following impacts have been achieved to date. 1) Bringing together health and industrial stakeholders to share results and encourage dialogue. Three successful Policy Dialogue workshops, two in Dar es Salaam and one in Nairobi, have brought together high-level industrial and health policy makers, industrial CEOs, regulators and distributors/ procurement heads in Tanzania and Kenya to discuss project findings; in some cases, this was participants' first exploration of the extent of local sourcing of health products and the complex policy issues involved. In both countries, these workshops, all held under Chatham House rules, have each been followed by requests to which the project team has responded for further engagement and information, in the form of briefings, policy recommendations, media interviews and invitations to participate in subsequent policy meetings. In Tanzania, the project team subsequently submitted invited policy recommendations to a national Task Force on Promotion of Local Pharmaceutical Production. Two high-level follow-up meetings in Dar es Salaam continued the health-industrial policy dialogue, at both of which project team members gave invited presentations: see below. 2) Contributing to national and regional policy shifts. Over our project life cycle there has been a marked increase in interest in supporting local pharmaceutical production and debating implications for health policy; this has been driven by a number of interests and pressures. The project has contributed Policy Briefs, information from Working Papers, and organised forums for debate to support these policy developments. A key example is the East African Community secretariat's National Steering Committee on the pharmaceutical sector, which organised a workshop in Dar es Salaam, March 2015; this was opened by the Tanzanian Deputy Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Industry and Trade, who, in her opening speech cited extensively the findings of the project regarding the decline of the pharmaceutical industry in Tanzania and the scope for reversal. A second example is the 1st East Africa Manufacturing Business Summit organized by the East Africa Community and East African Business Council in Kampala 1-2 September 2015; an invited presentation on the sources of the challenge facing Tanzanian pharmaceuticals was well received and both the Pharmaceuticals Manufacturing Association and the EAC Secretariat agreed to take up our findings for action; they indicated that they have been hearing similar messages from manufacturers but this time the messages will be taken more seriously because they come from independent research. Within Tanzania, furthermore, high-level policy dialogues to which project team members have been invited include an UNCTAD-organized High Level Capacity workshop (November 2015) on Policy Coherence for Local Pharmaceutical Production and Access to Medicines in Tanzania; and a workshop on Policy Coherence for Health Technology Access and Delivery, co-organized by UNDP, COSTECH and Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MOHCDGEC); in the latter workshop the key policy ministries participated (Health, Industry and Planning Commission), and the project team were instrumental in ensuring that planners involved in drafting industrial strategy, for which pharmaceuticals has now become a priority sector (previously it was not), were fully represented. In Nairobi, the project book, Making Medicines in Africa: the Political Economy of Industrialization for Local Health was launched by invitation at the Africa Pharmaceutical Summit East, March 2016, where the book, published under a creative commons licence, was widely downloaded by a large audience of pharmaceutical manufacturers and associated practitioners. Team members have written an background paper for the recent Tanzania Human Development Report 2017, and presented it at a high level policy workshop. 3) Contributing to the emergent body of international policy work on African and LIC health-industry linkages and local industrial policy for pharmaceuticals. When we began this project, the relevance of local pharmaceutical production in African to health or industrial development objectives was internationally widely contested; the consensus has since been shifting sharply over the last three years, and the project has contributed to the shift in recognised ways. Our evidence of the contribution to local production to rural medicines access, and of trust in established local branded generics, has been presented to local manufacturers' forums and subsequently widely cited. Project team members have presented evidence to a WHO-hosted consultation on local production and medicines access; to an NGO-hosted European consultation on the same topic; to an internal policy session in an international health NGO; and to a UK Parliamentary Select Committee on Health Systems Strengthening. The project team has developed a continuing dialogue with UNIDO officials involved in supporting the African Union Commission's Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Plan for Africa, and associated regional plans. In this context we have contributed to strengthening expert African networking and participation, by academics and practitioners, in international debates on this theme; the outcome of that active networking was UNIDO support and funding for an international project workshop on Making Medicines in Africa, and the resultant open-access edited book (Palgrave Macmillan 2016) drawing on a wide range of African as well as Brazilian, Indian and high income country experience and expertise. Presentations based on the book have resulted in extensive debate in forums including manufacturers, policy makers and innovation researchers; a book launch in London was opened by senior officer from the African Union Commission and was well attended by academics. The project team members and book contributors are now regarded as international contributors to a marked shift in policy thinking, to which we will continue to contribute, with an emphasis on ensuring that African expertise makes its full contribution to international debates in this field. Our UN networking continues to expand: a recent submission to the UN Secretary General's High Level Panel on Access to Medicines was selected for Skype-presentation by a project team member (Mackintosh, March 2016) and question-and-answer discussion with the UN panel sitting in Johannesburg; we were an invited contributor to the UNCTAD World Investment Forum Session on Access to Medicines in Africa (July 2016); the PI acted as invited lead expert for a UNIDO panel on incentives for local industrial production of pharmaceuticals in Africa, in a high level private sector consultation in Vienna (October 2017); invited presentation by PI to WHO-chaired Interagency Pharmaceutical Coordination Group (December 2017). The impact has been reinforced by open-access academic publication of the research in high profile international journals with a strong policy audience (Social Science and Medicine and Health Policy and Planning).
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Citation in East African Community National Steering Committee on the pharmaceutical industry opening speech
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description Citation of output in Tanzania Second Five Year Development Plan
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The findings of the research in Tanzania has been quoted in the Tanzanian Second Five Year Development Plan, in the section on industrial policy. Subsequent policy changes have included revisions of policy of the public medicines wholesaler towards purchasing from local manufacturers.
URL http://www.mof.go.tz/mofdocs/msemaji/Five%202016_17_2020_21.pdf
 
Description Expressed appreciation of Evidence Brief from BMZ
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Invited recommendations to national task force
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Contributed to a national policy shift, under way, towards more active industrial support in this sector.
 
Description Financial support from UNIDO for an international workshop
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation United Nations (UN) 
Department United Nations Industrial Development Organization
Sector Public
Country Austria
Start 12/2014 
End 12/2014
 
Title Supply chain data set 
Description A data set on supply chains for medicines and supplies in Tanzania and Kenya 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None known beyond project impacts noted elsewhere. 
URL https://www.ukdataservice.ac.uk/
 
Description AERC-DEGRP conference Nairobi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on plenary panel on Industrial Policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://degrp.squarespace.com/project-highlights/2016/11/11/degrpaerc-conference-discusses-economic-o...
 
Description Are manufacturers in Tanzania losing out and what can be done? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Discussion and debate on policy options

Follow up request for recommendations to a national Task Force on policy towards the pharmaceutical industry in Tanzania
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://iphsp.acts-net.org/publications/presentations
 
Description Are manufacturers in Tanzania losing out? Introduction 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact To stimulate some rethinking of policy

Request for recommendations from the project to a national Task Force
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://iphsp.acts-net.org/publications/presentations
 
Description Contribution to methodology for Access to Medicine index 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited contribution to the Methodology for the Access to Medicine Index 2018, with specific reference to low and middle income industrial capacity building. .
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://accesstomedicineindex.org/news/new-methodology-for-2018-access-to-medicine-index-6/
 
Description DEGRP Impact Case Study 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact An impact case study for web distribution by the DEGRP. Currently under preparation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description DFID/ESRC (DEGRP) workshop on Economic Transformation in Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on the scope for pharmaceutical industry development in Tanzania, and challenges in the current context. Chief impact was on on debate and perceptions of the local industry and its capabilities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.repoa.or.tz/events/more/shaping_economic_transformation_in_tanzania
 
Description ESRF National Conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation of a commissioned and peer-reviewed paper, "Health as a Productive Sector: Integrating Health and Industrial Policy" to the Economic and Social Research Foundation, Dar es Salaam Annual Conference. Extensive discussion of the argument for integration of "social sectors" with economic policy concerns.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.esrftz.org/newsdetail.php?id=190
 
Description Enhancing industrial productivity, health sector performance and policy synergies for local health in Kenya and Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Helping to stimulate the field of research in health innovation for inclusive health systems

Feedback and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://iphsp.acts-net.org/publications/presentations
 
Description Enhancing the capabilities of pharmaceutical firms for economic transformation and better health care in Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited presentation by Prof. Samuel Wangwe at the First East African Manufacturers' Summit, Kampala, Uganda, September.

Requests for further policy advising/ involvement
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Evidence brief for GIZ 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Commissioned Evidence Brief on Local production of pharmaceuticals and health system strengthening in Africa, for BMZ, commissioned by GIZ, web-published.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://health.bmz.de/ghpc/evidence_briefs/local_production_pharmaceuticals_health_system_strengthen...
 
Description Health Sector Supply Chains in Kenya: Prospects for improving performance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Talk a contribution to a highly stimulating two-way dialogue between industrialists and policy makers from the health and industrial sectors.

High level request in Kenya for future policy involvement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://iphsp.acts-net.org/publications/presentations
 
Description High level round table: Improving health sector performance in Kenya and Tanzania: Is there a future for the local manufacturing industry? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Day-long debate, structured in breakout groups and plenaries, between high level government, NGO and senior industrialists, on questions pre-consulted, based on research findings. Results to feed into briefs and publications. Policy dialogue including Kenyan, Tanzanian and South African stakeholders. Chatham House rules.

Very recent event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.iphsp@acts-net.org
 
Description IDS presentation Accountability and Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation, part of a panel at the IDS international workshop on Accountability and Health Equity, Sussex July 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ids.ac.uk/project/the-accountability-for-health-equity-programme
 
Description Improving health sector performance in East Africa: the local pharmaceutical industry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Introductory talk opening policy dialogue between senior industrialists and policy makers from Kenya and Tanzania: encouraged dialogue.

Dialogue, unusually, between industrialists and industrial and health policy makers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://iphsp.acts-net.org/publications/presentations
 
Description Industrial productivity and health sector performance: Project Overview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Provided background information for the following results-based presentations.

None from this background presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.acts-net.org/programmes-projects/projects?id=79
 
Description Innovating for Local Health: Addressing Local Needs in a Globalised Context 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Brought together innovation and health research in original ways, stimulated debate.

No immediate impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://2014.globelics.org/conference-themes/special-session-c
 
Description Inter-Agency Pharmaceutical Coordination (IPC) Group meeting presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation to the Inter-Agency Pharmaceutical Coordination (IPC) Group, chaired by the World Health Organisation (Dept of Essential Medicines and Health Products), December 2017, attended by representative of relevant United Nations bodies, the Global Fund the Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, bilateral donors. Presentation of evidence for the benefits for health system strengthening in Africa to be gained from linking industrial development to health needs. Discussion included suggestions for follow-on work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited panellist at UNCTAD 14 World Investment Forum Nairobi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited panelist (Prof.Mackintosh, PI) at the Side Event at the UNCTAD 14 World Investment Forum, Nairobi, July 2016, on Access to Medicines and Industrial Development in Africa: Investment in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://unctad-worldinvestmentforum.org/programme2016/access-to-medicines-in-africa-investing-in-dome...
 
Description Invited presentation REPOA Annual Research Workshop 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited presentation to a high level national and international audience including politicians, advisers, researchers, donors and others. No specific impacts known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.repoa.or.tz/highlights/more/announcing_2016_repoas_21st_annual_research_workshop
 
Description Invited presentation at First East AfricaManufacturing Business Summit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited presentation by project team member on the sources of the challenge facing Tanzanian pharmaceutical manufacturers. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturers' Association and the EAC Secretariat agreed to take up our findings for action, indicating they have been hearing similar messages from some manufacturers, but the messages will be taken more seriously now because they come from independent research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Local manufacturing and the Tanzanian health sector market 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact The talk resulted in a debate on the scope for increased local manufactured supplies to the Tanzanian health system. The discussion included private sector industrialists and senior health practitioners and policy makers.

One senior health policy practitioner noted that this was the first discussion of the manufacturing sources of local health supplies in which he had been involved.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.acts-net.org/programmes-projects/projects?id=79
 
Description Local procurement and supply as part of people-centred care: evidence from Kenya and Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Questions and feedback from a mixed academic / researcher / practitioner audience.

Feedback and requests for further information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://iphsp.acts-net.org/
 
Description Local supply chains of medicines and medical supplies in Kenya: understanding challenges 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Stimulated discussion of the complexities of public procurement activity and its impact on local suppliers.

Unusually, brought industrial and health sector stakeholders together in discussing this topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.acts-net.org/programmes-projects/projects?id=79
 
Description Locally manufactured and imported medicines and medical supplies in Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Talk resulted in lively debate about the scope for increasing local supplies into the health system.

Debate between health and industrial stakeholders: an unusual occurrence in both Tanzania and Kenya.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.acts-net.org/programmes-projects/projects?id=79
 
Description MSF internal meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Invited contribution to MSF thinking on medicines access and global health, internal meeting. Presentation on the global health environment. Contribution to high level third sector policy debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Making Medicines in Africa blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Additional contributions and emailed responses to blog : networking and debate

None beside debate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL http://www.open.ac.uk/ikd/blogs/
 
Description Making Medicines in Africa book launch 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Book launch including an African Union expert keynote speaker. Aimed at academics, postgraduates, funders, NGO and business interests in impact investment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Making Medicines in Africa workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Generated international (African countries, India, Brazil, Europe, US, UN) networking among experts in South-based pharmaceutical production and links to health, and inputs to an edited book aimed at policymakers, practitioners and academics.

Book accepted by publisher, now in press; influence on international thinking and networking; strong presence and leadership by African experts on this topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Nairobi Africa Pharmaceutical Summit 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Participation in the Africa Pharmaceutical Summit 2016 Nairobi, Kenya; invited sessino presenting and debating the project book Making Medicines in Africa.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://africapharmasummit.com/
 
Description Panel at SPRU national conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Panel presenting industry-health linkages to audience of innovation specialists and practitioners: dialogue session on local production of medicines in LMICs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.sussex.ac.uk/webteam/gateway/file.php?name=spru-conference-2016-web-brochure.pdf&site=25
 
Description Policy Coherence for Health Technology Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited presentation by project team member (Prof. Wangwe) entitled Enhancing the capabilities of pharmaceutical firms for economic transformation and better health care in Tanzania: Case for Industrial Policy, at a workshop on Policy Coherence for Health Technology Access and Delivery, co-organized by UNDP, COSTECH and Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MOHCDGEC), Dar es Salaam
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Policy Dialogue Workshop: Improving the Supply Chain for the Health Sector: What Role for Local Manufacturing? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Policy Dialogue Workshop, hosted by an African partner research institute, REPOA, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, on 27th June 2013, to present and discuss interim project findings with key stakeholders in the industrial and health sectors, in public, private and non-governmental sectors, in both Tanzania and Kenya. Team members presentations (available on the project website) followed by discussion and debate.

Follow-on discussions with high level policy makers, and a government request for a policy brief.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.repoa.or.tz/index.php/events/more/policy_workshop_on_improving_the_supply_chain_for_the_h...
 
Description Policy dialogue workshop :Are manufacturers in Tanzania losing out in an expanding health sector market? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Debate and discussion of policy options and challenges with high level policy makers

Project briefings used in subsequent regional government policy consultation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.repoa.or.tz/events
 
Description Private distributor supply chains in Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Provided information and stimulated discussion on role of private distributors in the Kenya health sector supply system.

Mainly sharing of information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.acts-net.org/programmes-projects/projects?id=79
 
Description Recommendations to the Task Force on Promotion of Local Pharmaceutical Production 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Detailed policy recommendations submitted on request, to inform decision making.

Very recent submission.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Reframing "access to medicines": Local industrialisation and access to treatment in African contexts 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited plenary presentation to an academic and professional audience in Oxford: outcome was extensive questions and discussion, plus follow up.

New networking.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description SADC Heads of State Wangwe "Strategy for Economic Transformation" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited Policy by Prof. Wangwe to SADC Heads of State meeting: outcome, directives to the secretariat and Council of ministers to work further on policy detail.

See above, further work on policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description SOAS Industrial Development Policy lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited public lecture in a series. Recorded and podcast.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://soundcloud.com/soaseconomics/health-policy-as-industrial-policy-the-challange-for-inclusive-...
 
Description SPRU-IDS workshop on Innovation Pathways to Inclusive Structural Change 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to a policy-oriented group of innovation scholars and practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Tanzanian Human Development Report invited contributor 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited contribution, based on the project, to the development of the content of the next Tanzanian Human Development Report, UNDP-supported. The previous report (2015) had wide international, national and regional circulation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The Tanzanian Private Health Sector as Buyer and User of Medicines and Other Supplies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Talk was followed by a lively discussion of the private health sector supply chains in Tanzania.

Mainly stimulating debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.acts-net.org/programmes-projects/projects?id=79
 
Description The Tanzanian public health sector as buyer and user of medicines and other supplies and equipment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Talk on public sector procurement stimulated discussion.

Information sharing and debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.acts-net.org/programmes-projects/projects?id=79
 
Description Towards an Active Industrial Policy for the Health Sector in Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Commentary and discussion of policy issues from high level participants

Request for further policy discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://iphsp.acts-net.org/publications/presentations
 
Description UNCTAD /Ministry of Health/COSTECH high level workshop Dar es Salaam Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited presentation: Prof. Wangwe, Dr Mmari, onPolicy Coherence for Local Pharmaceutical Production and Access to Medicines in Tanzania: Current Situation and Challenges for Local Production ;: contribution to an UNCTAD-organized High Level Capacity workshop (November 2015) on Policy Coherence for Local Pharmaceutical Production and Access to Medicines in Tanzania, 3-day high level government workshop on industrialization policy. The presentation sparked considerable debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description UNIDO expert panel lead 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) expert panel meeting on Practical Approaches to Incentives, Affordable Finance and Technology Transfer to
Support Pharmaceutical Production in Africa. vienna 27-29 September. Expert panel lead on Incentives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description iHEA presentation 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Accepted presentation at the International Health Economics Association biennial conference, Boston, 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.healtheconomics.org/resource/resmgr/iHEA_Program_2017.pdf