The Middle East: The Rise and Fall of an Idea

Lead Research Organisation: Edge Hill University
Department Name: English and History

Abstract

The Ottoman Empire governed the Middle East for four centuries. Following the defeat of the Ottomans by the Allies during the First World War, that political system was swept away. In its place came a system of new states in Iraq, Palestine, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia; a raft of violent ethnic, religious and nationalist conflicts; and the establishment of autocratic elites and Zionist colonialists propped up by Western empires and the international community. This research project is the first study of the ideas that shaped the West's attempt to replace the Ottoman Empire, their origins, evolution and effects.

This research focuses on the actions of the British Empire, which occupied the former lands of the Ottoman Empire during the war and was the prime mover in developing a new vision for the region. During the war, British Western Asia specialists developed the concept of the 'Middle East'- a region based upon the principle of nationality under the tutelage of the West, particularly the British themselves. Western Asia was viewed by these policy-makers as a developing region, between East and West, the historical basis of which were the ancient nations of the Arabs, Jews and Armenians that had been oppressed by the despotic Ottoman Turks. The project begins by exploring the origins of this view of the region, and places it within the wider context of an intellectual world shaped by racial, nationalist and Orientalist assumptions.

This concept of a nation-based 'Middle East' was championed by senior British policy-makers as they believed it would mobilise support for the war among the peoples of the region and their diasporas, and coincided with the commitment to national self-determination made by the powerful United States and others in the international community. As protectors of the oppressed nations of the Middle East, the British hoped to secure post-war control of strategically important areas in the region. Imperialism was thus to be re-invented for the age of nationality. The second part of the research project explores the global propaganda campaign that was undertaken by the British Empire to advertise its commitment to a new era of nationality and freedom in a post-Ottoman 'Middle East'. Looking at press, film, posters, pamphlets, and books, the research examines how the British Empire spread the idea of a new age of nationality around the world. It shows how this propaganda machine increased the influence of nationalism among Arabs, Jews and Armenians on a massive scale.

The final part of the project analyses the impact and consequences of the idea of a nation-based Middle East among the societies of the region and their diasporas. It shows how the British promotion of national self-determination had the unforeseen effect of mobilising widespread calls for immediate independence, without Western tutelage. When this independence was not forthcoming after the war, as the British and French Empires staked out their claims in the region, there was widespread protest and violence. This popular anti-colonial nationalism combined with a resurgent Turkey and lack of resources in Britain to result in a political system that was a far cry from the wartime slogans of freedom. Instead, the British and French Empires, with the approval of the international community in the new League of Nations, imposed a system that featured autocratic elites, quasi-colonies, and backing for Zionism. This system, in broad terms, remained in place until the beginning of the 21st century, and its remains to be seen how much of this system will survive the after effects of the Arab Spring of 2011.

Planned Impact

The principal beneficiaries of this research outside of the academe will be policy-makers, the media and the wider public. In the policy-making community, the work will be of interest to those concerned with the Middle East in the UK, the rest of Europe, the USA and Asia, as well as trans-national bodies such as NATO, the European Union, and the United Nations.

The research will provide this community with an analysis of what lies beneath the current power structures of the region. As the first study of the ideas that shaped the post-Ottoman Middle East as a whole, the research will give a picture of why elites, political systems and borders came into being. It will clarify the extent to which these structures derive from the societies of the region, and the intervention of the West. From this baseline, policy-makers will be able to make a more informed analysis as to the possibilities for the future, with particular regard to the issue of advancing democracy.

The research will also give important insights into the origins of national conflicts that continue to bedevil the region, particularly the question of Israel/Palestine, and the possible roles for the international community. The analysis undertaken so far suggests that the conflict derived from wider currents in the international community at the time, and was driven to a great extent by the actions of the British Empire in that context. This contextualised approach suggests ways in which the emergence and evolution of the conflict were conditioned by bigger forces, and takes the focus away from the agency of the conflicting parties themselves. This picture will provide policy-makers with an alternative view of how international actors have influenced the course of the conflict from its inception, and how they might in the future.

More broadly, this research will give policy-makers an in-depth analysis of the most comprehensive attempt at Western intervention in the Middle East. It will provide new lessons concerning the scope for intervention, the impact that it has socially and politically, and some of the types of outcomes that can occur. In particular, this analysis examines the crucial question of how Western intervention is received, the ways in which a communication strategy can be undermined and even backfire, and the interconnections of this sphere with military and political developments on the ground.

All of these issues will also be of interest to the media and the wider public in the UK and abroad. The months preceding the invasion of Iraq in 2003 saw the biggest public demonstrations in the history of the UK. Ever since, there has been profound concern in the public sphere regarding the wisdom of intervention in the region, and the possibilities for the future. The events of 2011 that began in North Africa have only accentuated public interest. These developments have raised the possibility of a region-wide re-drawing of political systems that has not been seen since the period covered in this research. This project speaks precisely to the questions that now dominate public debate on the Arab world: what could or should be the governing principles of the states of the Middle East, what are the possible consequences for the rest of the world, and what could or should be the role of the international community?

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description My research findings provide a new explanation of the unceasing state of political conflict that has bedevilled the Middle East for the last century, as well as unveiling the impact of racism on the West's engagement with the region. The research shows that the turmoil in the Middle East does not stem from the factors that have been emphasised previously by scholars, commentators, and Western policy-makers: Islamic theology and culture; Western imperialism; an undemocratic political culture; or lack of economic development. Instead, it shows that the state of perpetual conflict comes from an unresolvable tension, and intimate interconnection, between an Islamophobic Western desire for control and a popular aspiration for sovereignty across the region; these forces, I argue, have collided and been interlinked since 1918.

My research has found that this story begins in the First World War when policy-makers in the British empire, followed reluctantly by their French colleagues, developed a new political concept for a post-Ottoman Western Asia. This idea, encapsulated in the term the 'Middle East' (a space between the civilisations of the West and East), posited that the region was based on the developing historical nations of the Jews, the Arabs, and the Armenians, who had been oppressed by the Ottoman empire, and now required liberation. The British and French governments publicized this idea around the globe as a way of mobilizing support in the war and justifying their imperial expansion into Western Asia. They believed that the notion of a nation-based 'Middle East' chimed with the new age of nationality: a period in which national sovereignty was starting to replace imperialism as the organising principle for the world order.

The British and French vision of the Middle East of the future was, however, markedly different from that found in the region itself. Influenced by European racist conceptions of Jews and Arabs, the British and French governments did not believe that the region could or should function without Western assistance. But their global promotion of the idea of a new era based on national freedom had led to the emergence for the first time of popular statist nationalist movements across the region. This desire for freedom could not be undone, nor could the Orientalist European fixation on control of the strategically important 'Middle East'. The result has been an unresolvable state of conflict, with a Western politics of control that has had the power to destabilize the region but not extinguish the desire for sovereignty. This Western politics of control, which has in recent years manifested itself in the development of a global surveillance structure, is powered in significant ways by an acute Islamophobia.

These findings draw on extensive archival research, with material from India, the UK, France, Israel-Palestine, Switzerland, Egypt, and Iraq.
Exploitation Route My findings can be taken forward by the UK and European policy communities that deal with Middle East policy, Islam, and questions surrounding counter-terrorism and counter-extremism. I am keen to collaborate with the policy-making community wherever possible to advise based on my findings, and also to work with those in civil society who are working against Islamophobia and antisemitism.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description The findings of my research on the idea of the Middle East and its consequences have been used in debates on contemporary conflict in the region, anti-terrorism legislation in Europe, and Islamophobia. The beneficiaries have been in local Jewish communities, the art world, international media, and the Shadow Cabinet. Since the start of my award in 2012, I have given public talks on how my research provides a new understanding of the Israel-Palestine conflict in Jewish communal organisations in Birmingham, Leeds, London, and Liverpool. I have published articles in the prominent Israeli daily Ha'aretz (April 2013- op-ed on whether Britain should apologise for the Balfour Declaration- translated into Hebrew and published in print in May 2013, a piece on the racism of the Balfour Declaration in November 2017, and an article on antisemitism and Islamophobia in Europe in December 2017); The Conversation UK (August 2014- Europe's war against Hamas) France and Australia editions (January 2016- Islamic State and the memory of Sykes-Picot); openDemocracy (Sept. 2015- European surveillance and Islamophobia); and Middle East Monitor (March 2016- Guest Writer for the month: 'Europe's Undeclared War on Islam'). I have also featured in an Al Jazeera documentary 'World War I through Arab Eyes- Episode 3: The New Middle East' (Jan. 2015); an Al Jazeera panel discussion programme on Britain and the origins of the Israel-Palestine conflict: 'Al Nakba: The Debate' (June 2013), and the documentary 'Balfour at 100: Seeds of Discord (2017). My article in Ha'aretz led to a talk in London in June 2013, which was then discussed by a columnist in The Jewish Chronicle, the world's longest running Jewish newspaper. The Ha'aretz article also led to an engagement with an independent consultancy and accredited United Nations NGO, the 'Palestine Return Centre' (PRC), including a public discussion event at Edge Hill University in May 2014 on their international campaign for an apology for the Balfour Declaration. The researcher at PRC with whom I worked has since invited me to be the 'Guest Writer' for the month at Middle East Monitor (March 2016). In 2012, I advised a prominent artist on the geopolitical history of the conflict in Israel-Palestine, as part of their preparation for a piece commissioned on the mapping of Israel-Palestine. The piece was exhibited in the group show 'Viewpoint' in Tel Aviv, Israel, from 27 October to 6 December 2012. In addition to communal, NGO, cultural, and media work, I have drawn on my research findings regarding Islamophobia and Western-Middle East relations to brief a senior figure in the Shadow Cabinet on the implications for planned UK legislation: the 'Investigatory Powers Bill' and the 'Extremism Bill' (October 2015). As a Jean Monnet Fellow and then a Visiting Fellow at the European University Institute (EUI), I have worked to engage with policy debates in regard to antisemitism, Islamophobia, and the West's relationship with the Middle East. In my role as the Academic Advisor for the new magazine 'MONITOR Global Intelligence on Racism' at the EUI, I have participated in a research briefing at the UK Houses of Parliament (January 2018), and have contributed to the magazine's project of bringing the findings of academic research to global public debate (launched in February 2018). For the centenary of the Balfour Declaration, I contributed to a series of documentaries, interviews, and wrote for Ha'aretz.
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Jean Monnet Fellowship
Amount € 26,400 (EUR)
Organisation European University Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country Italy
Start 09/2016 
End 08/2017
 
Description 'Al-Nakba: The Debate', discussion programme on Al-Jazeera Television 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The television programme sparked a great deal of interest among the audience. Please see below.

An Assistant Producer at the channel, who had read my Ha'aretz piece, invited me, due to my expertise, to feature in a discussion programme on Britain's contribution to the Israel-Palestine conflict, 'Al-Nakba: The Debate', broadcast in June 2013. I contributed to the shaping of the programme through lengthy discussion with the Associate Producer prior to broadcast. I appeared in the programme alongside Professor Emeritus Avi Shlaim, University of Oxford, and the former Director of the Middle East programme at Chatham House, Professor Rosemary Hollis, City University. In the televised debate, I conveyed the arguments made in my article 'The Age of Nationality'. On my impact on the programme, the Producer commented, 'Dr Renton's contribution included detailed, preliminary telephone discussions about the subject matter which greatly informed the parameters of debate for the recording, and, allowed for insightful juxtaposition of varying perspectives between the three guests. During the recorded discussion, Dr Renton's analyses of British motivations in Mandate Palestine provided both historical context and political insight. His contributions were complementary and expansive additions to those of the other guests.' The Associate Producer states that, 'as a result of the diverse panel that was invited to contribute', the programme received a significant level of feedback from the audience, with, 'rather uniquely', viewers 'calling in to say how much they enjoyed the programme and to comment on how informative it was.' Renton, she says, 'put forward a well-balanced argument which stimulated a lot of debate'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6b-18B37O8
 
Description Article for Israeli newspaper, Ha'aretz 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Following my article on the Balfour Declaration for Ha'aretz, I proposed an article on the relationship between antisemitism and Islamophobia in Europe. Following Donald Trump's re-tweeting of 'Britain First' videos, the opinion editor asked me to respond in the piece, which was published on 1 December 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.haaretz.com/world-news/europe/does-the-far-right-hate-muslims-the-same-way-they-hate-jew...
 
Description Article in Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The article was read by at least 6,500 readers- 'a substantial audience' according to the opinion editor- and was in Ha'aretz.com's top ten op-eds for April and May 2013. It fostered a great deal of debate, with 82 comments, a high number for opinion pieces, 40 tweets and 166 Facebook recommendations. The opinion editor described the article as 'a significant contribution to the debate about a key historical event and its present-day consequences ... [with a] successful performance in terms of reader numbers, social sharing and 'buzz'.' Such was the interest in the article that Ha'aretz translated it into Hebrew and published it in the opinion section of the print edition in Israel on 20 May 2013, something that the newspaper only does with a small proportion of online op-eds.

After the article, I was invited to participate in a panel discussion programme on Al-Jazeera Television. I also gave a talk to Jews for Justice for Palestinians, which was discussed in The Jewish Chronicle, the world's longest running Jewish newspaper.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.haaretz.com/opinion/should-britain-apologize-for-the-balfour-declaration.premium-1.518145
 
Description Article on Islamic State in The Conversation (Australia) translated and published in The Conversation (France) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I published the article 'Post-Colonial Caliphate: Islamic State and the Memory of Sykes-Picot'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://theconversation.com/the-post-colonial-caliphate-islamic-state-and-the-memory-of-sykes-picot-...
 
Description Guest writer for Middle East Monitor in March 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was invited to be the Guest Writer for Middle East Monitor for March 2016. I wrote an article entitled 'Europe's Undeclared War on Islam'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20160308-europes-undeclared-war-on-islam/
 
Description Interview and discussions for an Al Jazeera documentary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was contacted by the researcher for a documentary on the Balfour Declaration for Al Jazeera television, Balfour: 'Seeds of Discord', which was broadcast in October 2017. I had worked with the researcher in the past, and had several conversations with him on the subject, and several issues concerning primary sources to be used for the programme. The production team flew to Florence especially to interview me for the programme, in which I featured significantly.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/aljazeeraworld/2017/10/balfour-declaration-100-seeds-discord-17...
 
Description Interview for BBC Radio 4 documentary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was contacted by the producer of a radio documentary on the Balfour Declaration, broadcast on BBC Radio 4. I had a long telephone conversation with the producer about the subject based on my research, and I also sent recommendations for interviewees via email. My own contribution to the documentary was recorded during a few hours spent with the producer visiting a couple of important sites concerning the history of the Declaration. While the programme was being made, I was invited by the opinion editor at the Israeli newspaper, Ha'aretz, who had heard of my involvement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09h3rcf
 
Description Interview for German newspaper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was interviewed for an article that profiled my research in Germany's oldest Jewish newspaper, Judische Allgemeine. The article was entitled 'Der Balfour-Specialist, and was published on 10 August. The article was read by a producer at the German language Swiss public radio, Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen, who then interviewed me for a piece on the Balfour Declaration centenary in November 2017. I was then interviewed by the author of the original profile piece for the German national newspaper, taz. die tageszeitung on the day of the centenary. This press coverage all drew on my research for the book on the idea of the Middle East.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.juedische-allgemeine.de/article/view/id/29312
 
Description Interview for Germany daily newspaper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was interviewed by the prominent left-wing daily newspaper, taz. die tageszeitung, on the Balfour Declaration by the same journalist who profiled my research in the Judische Allgemeine. The article was published on the day of the Balfour centenary, and followed on from the previous piece, in which I drew upon my research for the book on the idea of the Middle East.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.taz.de/!5459711/
 
Description Interview on the relationship between antisemitism and Islamophobia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was interviewed by Pro-Mosaik on the relationship between antisemitism and Islamophobia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://promosaik.blogspot.it/2016/04/james-renton-anti-semitism-and.html
 
Description Newspaper article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The opinion editor at the English edition of the Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz invited me to write an article, when she heard that I was involved in the BBC Radio 4 documentary. I wrote a piece on the racism behind the Declaration, and its contemporary significance. The Editor said that the article had a significant social media impact, and led to the writing of a response op-ed by another writer.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.haaretz.com/opinion/the-balfour-declaration-s-racism-and-why-it-still-matters-1.5460556
 
Description Online article in The Conversation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The article sparked very significant interest as one of the publication's 'most read' pieces, with 2023 readers.

I discussed the argument put forward in this piece at my talks in Birmingham and Manchester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://theconversation.com/profiles/james-renton-133496
 
Description Opinion piece for the History & Policy Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This article received very significant exposure via social media, with 348 retweets and 31 Facebook likes.

This piece obtained significant exposure for my thinking about the question of Britain's apology for Palestine, and my engagement with the Palestinian Return Centre and their campaign.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.historyandpolicy.org/opinion-articles/articles/britain-in-palestine-time-to-apologise
 
Description Policy brainstorming with the EU co-ordinator of counter-terrorism 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The EU coordinator of counter-terrorism visited the European University Institute, where I currently hold a Jean Monnet Fellowship. I was invited to a policy brainstorming session with the coordinator, in which I made several interventions based on the research for my research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public discussion with Nasim Ahmed, Palestinian Return Centre, on Britain and Palestine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The discussion was filmed and broadcast on Youtube via the Edge Hill University Youtube channel. It stimulated significant debate in the room as well. It was watched by 247 people on Youtube.

There was significant discussion after the talk, and we attracted a higher than average audience to Edge Hill's Ethnicity, Race, and Racism Seminar. In addition, the viewing figures on Youtube are higher than average for academic seminar discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uEZyiSqagsI
 
Description Public talk hosted by Jews for Justice for Palestinians (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The talk led to significant debate afterwards.

It was attended by the Senior Researcher of the NGO the Palestinian Return Centre. Regarding the impact of the talk and the Ha'aretz article, the Senior Researcher commented that my work 'consolidated our argument and strengthened our own belief in our campaign'. The talk, he says, 'led us to refine our argument ... [W]e now place more emphasis on the Mandate period ... in our overall argument and our communications going forward. ... The talk has informed, corroborated and focused the thinking of the PRC campaign group, and has certainly had an influence on a debate on policy/practice.' The talk was also the subject of an article by a columnist in The Jewish Chronicle on 8 July 2013.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.palestinecampaign.org/events/should-britain-apologise-for-the-balfour-declaration/
 
Description Public talk in Manchester on the Balfour Declaration and the Israel-Palestine conflict today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact There was intensive discussion afterwards, which lasted for at least an hour. I was informed that it was the largest attendance for Manchester Metropolitan University's public history series. I was informed by many participants that the talk had challenged their thinking, and many were in agreement with my argument.

A significant number informed me that the talk influenced their thinking on the conflict, and that they agreed with my thesis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www2.mmu.ac.uk/hpp/about-us/events/detail/index.php?id=3535
 
Description Public talk on the origins of the Israel-Palestine conflict (Leeds) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The talk was followed by extensive discussion, and effusive praise from the chair.

I was asked to come back in the future, and received positive comments about the talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Research briefing for member of Shadow Cabinet. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I delivered a face-to-face research briefing to a member of the UK Shadow Cabinet on issues related to the Investigatory Powers Bill and the Extremism Bill.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Research briefing in the UK Houses of Parliament 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I participated in a research briefing on antisemitism and Islamophobia in Europe and the UK at the UK Houses of Parliament on 10 January 2018. It was hosted by the All Party Parliamentary Group Against Antisemitism and co-organised by the new magazine, MONITOR Global Intelligence on Racism, at which I am the Academic Advisor. I gave a talk at the briefing on antisemitism and Islamophobia in European history, particularly the idea of the fanatic, which features in my book on the idea of the Middle East. The event was attended by a significant range of policymakers, NGOs, and Parliament. In the discussion that followed, a member of the audience said that the talk had changed their view of the history of the subject, and there were various suggestions for follow up discussions and activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://monitoracism.eu/monitor-event-report-uk-houses-parliament-islamophobia-antisemitism/
 
Description Talk to community group (Birmingham) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact About 40 people attended, which was followed by extensive discussion afterwards.

There was higher attendance than usual at the group meeting, and I was asked to return. The participants will be completing a questionnaire to reflect on the ways in which the talk affected their thinking on the subject.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014