The rise of metallurgy in Eurasia: Evolution, organisation and consumption of early metal in the Balkans

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Institute of Archaeology

Abstract

One of the most significant technological achievements in human history is the transformation of matter, most spectacularly the invention of metallurgy. This triggered a whole new era of fundamental economic, social and cultural changes. Recent excavations by the core members of this project at Belovode in Serbia revealed copper smelting dated to c. 5000 BC, making it the earliest record of fully-developed metallurgical activity anywhere in the world (Radivojevic et al. 2010). How and why this earliest metallurgy emerged and developed in the Balkans, apparently independently from the Near East, is at the centre of this research project.

The origins of metallurgy have so far been studied mostly in isolation and detached from their technological, social and environmental context. What is now required is a systematic and interdisciplinary approach using sites and assemblages of a sufficiently high archaeological and archaeometallurgical resolution to trace these developments in their mutual relationships. Our recent research at Belovode has revealed the huge potential to do this, and our project now seeks to realise this potential at Belovode and other similar Vinca culture sites. Due to the political situation, little internationally-connected research relevant for this has been done in Serbia since the 1990's; our international team comprises established and emerging scholars on early Balkan metallurgy in an attempt to overcome this hiatus. This UK-Serbian joint venture, together with prominent German colleagues, is a collaboration also designed to exchange knowledge and skills as well as build lasting relationships for the future.

The project combines targeted excavations and surveys at three copper mining, production and consumption sites in Serbia with intensive scientific analysis of finds at laboratories in Britain and Germany. The excavations focus on known metal workshops in two sites, and a prospective third site associated with prehistoric mines. We expect to retrieve copper minerals such as malachite, artefacts such as malachite and metal beads, and metallurgical waste from well-stratified settlement contexts, enabling us to understand the relationship between the earlier craft of bead making and the emergence and new role of metallurgy within the individual settlements, and the wider Vinca Culture. The laboratory-based study of the remains will allow us to reconstruct technical aspects of the metal production, and how it related to malachite used for bead making and the earlier introduction of pottery production as possible pre-cursors to a fully-developed metallurgy. The study of trace elements and isotope ratios of copper minerals and metal artefacts will facilitate the reconstruction of trade in ore and metal, and their consumption, revealing the multiple layers of interaction between the different settlements of the Vinca Culture, often along major river routes (Danube, Sava etc.). Through a combination of these different approaches to archaeometallurgy, combining fieldwork, technological reconstruction, and theoretical considerations of cultural development, the project looks afresh at the technological, social and environmental context in which metal first appeared and was subsequently shaped, distributed and used across the Balkans.

One major discussion concerning the beginning of metallurgy often centres on the question whether metal smelting was only invented once, probably in western Asia, and then spread across Eurasia, or whether there are several independent instances of this invention happening. Our team comprises exponents of both schools of thought, ensuring a balanced approach in our research, and the subsequent interpretations.

Planned Impact

Who might benefit from the research?

- Government officials, and more widely, people interested in improving diplomatic relations between UK and Serbia
- Serbian local communities and tourist organisations
- Museums and heritage bodies in UK and Serbia
- Archaeologists and the wider public in Serbia, UK, and Worldwide who are interested in this important episode in human history
- Staff working and related to the project

How will they benefit?

The research will benefit cultural and political sectors of society in the UK, Serbia, and globally. At the broadest level, the project stands as an example of how cultural and intellectual interaction between academics in UK and Serbia vanguards good diplomatic relations between two countries. UK academics working in Serbia are benefiting from interaction with Serbian colleagues and governmental institutions, which serve in improving UK-Serbian relations, thus for the benefit of the governments and people of both countries.
The UK institutions will benefit through operating in international context and influencing the international research agenda, which in turn raises their competitiveness on the global level.
This project engages actively with local communities near archaeological sites by enhancing their knowledge about the neighbouring cultural heritage and help raising awareness of their protection and care. It will also build positive attitudes towards UK organisations, which is particularly important as local Serbian communities usually have little contact with international institutions. In addition, the project will involve local labour and thus improve these relations and communication further. The project will also improve existing tourist experience in the cultural heritage sector and aid local development.
The Serbian National Museum in Belgrade and local museums near Belovode, Plocnik and Jarmovac will prosper from the input of new material and interpretation to enrich their current exhibitions, while the British Museum will gain though exchanging skills and knowledge, as well as planning future collaborative loans, projects and exhibitions. The project aims to provide a platform to raise the profile of Serbian cultural heritage in wider communities in both Serbia and UK, and beyond. The media outreach will provide the fastest flow of information to Serbian, UK and global communities. The exploitation of results through media campaigns will secure instant return to both countries, particularly promoting UK as the world's centre for innovative research.
All staff working on the project, from the UK and Serbia (including also Germany), will benefit from involvement in a collaborative engagement, in terms of advancing their knowledge and experience, as well as the development of specific and generic skills which will improve their future career prospects, within archaeology and beyond. It will also help maintain professional networks extending beyond their own research community. Junior researchers from these countries will be prepared to work in a global research environment.
The wider audience will benefit from a significant increase in the knowledge concerning the emergence of metallurgy as the new, advanced technology in the human history, and a major episode in human history.

What will be done to ensure that they benefit?

In order to maximise opportunities for the public outreach, PI and Co-I will prioritise social and economic impact in the regular management agenda, and ensure that meetings of the Project Committee advance the project outreach throughout its duration.
Government officials and diplomats interested in strengthening UK-Serbian relations will be engaged through invitations to public lectures, workshops, conferences, media appearances and exhibitions arising from the project. Museums in both countries, at national and local level

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The project has discovered the earliest evidence for the production of copper and tin-bronze in the world. The dating of copper production at the site of Belovode at c. 5000 BC and of tin-bronze at the site of Plocnik at c. 4650 BC far exceed the current dating for these metals, both in the Balkans, and beyond. The project has been able to trace in unparalleled detail the process of metallurgical invention from ore through to artefact. It has demonstrated that the selection of specific colours - rather than mechanical properties of raw materials and objects - was fundamental in the earliest metallurgical invention and subsequent innovations.
The identification of the primacy of colour due to in-depth geological and materials analysis has opened up a relatively unexplored avenue of research, which has been overlooked by the majority of prehistorians. The integrated application of geophysical survey, archaeological fieldwork and a wide range of specialist post-excavation analysis in the project will enable a more sophisticated approach towards large complex prehistoric tell sites. The use of experimental archaeology based upon the results of the project in order to try and replicate the processes underlying the invention and innovation of early metallurgy has meant that key interpretations from the field and the lab can be evaluated. The extensive use of digital recording systems throughout the project means that the entire digital archive - comprising all the data from the project - can be made available online following publication.
We have applied cutting edge techniques from materials science and archaeology and by doing so we have provided training for a new generation of junior researchers from the UK, Germany and especially Serbia throughout the project. The creation and development of these new research networks has led to international collaborations on further projects and additional publications.
The integration of the project fieldwork with local communities in three regions of Serbia, combined with a national and international media campaign throughout, meant that the project reached an audience far beyond archaeologists and archaeometallurgists. Project activities such as the experimental archaeology replication of early metal production are now being done regularly as part of a broader tourism agenda to generate further interest in the prehistoric past of Serbia.
Exploitation Route In the academic route, the research outcomes of the project can be taken forward by using an integrated inter-disciplinary approach encompassing materials science, archaeology, geology and experimental archaeology in order to investigate the role of colour in early societies. The careful building of international research networks between junior researchers provides excellent foundations for future collaborations on future projects. By taking a long-term perspective on collaborative relationships, more substantial projects and outcomes can be achieved.
In the non-academic route, the research outcomes can be taken forward by focussing more upon the generation of public interest in the prehistoric past through regional, national and international media campaigns. Whilst the achievements of the projects can inspire interest, they can also be used in conjunction with a broader tourism-orientated campaign to increase visitors and thereby contribute to the regeneration of deprived regions within Serbia.
Sectors Education,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/rise-metallurgy-eurasia
 
Description The project dramatically raised the awareness of the importance of prehistoric sites in Serbia - especially those investigated by the project (Belovode, Plocnik and Jarmovac). This has directly led to the increased protection of these and other prehistoric cultural heritage sites by both state and community organisations in Serbia. The media impact of the project together with activities such as experimental replications of the invention of metallurgy with a replicated Neolithic village have provided the foundations for an increase in the tourism activity and investment in three deprived regions of Serbia. The substantially enhanced visibility of archaeologists on the project within Serbia generated public debates on the importance on national cultural heritage and the benefits of international collaboration. Regarding the impact activities, I highlight here the project that came out of RoME in one of the excavated sites, Plocnik in south Serbia. In 2013 our team invited local communities living around this site to assist us with an experimental copper smelting event and provided suitable training. This activity has now become a major tourist attraction in south Serbia, with annual visits in 2017 amounting to c. 3,000 people, of which the majority were pupils from local schools. It has in turn created a demand for jobs (e.g. local exhibition keeper, site maintenance, souvenir shop) in coordination with the local museum in nearby Prokuplje. Most importantly, these activities helped grow awareness of the importance of cultural heritage amongst the local inhabitants and visitors, which is why the site of Plocnik is maintained with great care and appreciation. Current efforts to expand the tourist potential of this site involve the Sustainable Preservation Institute, based in the USA, and include assisting in developing a business plan and suitable training for the local personnel.
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Education,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description DM McDonald Award
Amount £14,500 (GBP)
Funding ID Grant awarded to Dr Miljana Radivojevic to continue research on early Balkan metallurgy over the course of three consecutive years (2015-2018) 
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 03/2015 
End 01/2018
 
Title Dataset for "Community structure of copper supply networks in the prehistoric Balkans: An independent evaluation of the archaeological record from the 7th to the 4th millennium BC" 
Description The dataset includes trace element analyses for 410 copper-based objects from the Balkans (c. 7th - 4th mill BC), with PCA scores calculated out of log-normalised values, altogether accompanied with relevant archaeological, chronological and geographical data. The article abstract: Complex networks analyses of many physical, biological and social phenomena show remarkable structural regularities, yet, their application in studying human past interaction remains underdeveloped. Here, we present an innovative method for identifying community structures in the archaeological record that allow for independent evaluation of the copper using societies in the Balkans, from c. 6200 to c. 3200 BC. We achieve this by exploring modularity of networked systems of these societies across an estimated 3000 years. We employ chemical data of copper-based objects from 79 archaeological sites as the independent variable for detecting most densely interconnected sets of nodes with a modularity maximization method. Our results reveal three dominant modular structures across the entire period, which exhibit strong spatial and temporal significance. We interpret patterns of copper supply among prehistoric societies as reflective of social relations, which emerge as equally important as physical proximity. Although designed on a variable isolated from any archaeological and spatiotemporal information, our method provides archaeologically and spatiotemporally meaningful results. It produces models of human interaction and cooperation that can be evaluated independently of established archaeological systematics, and can find wide application on any quantitative data from archaeological and historical record. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We are still measuring impact. 
URL https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.9599
 
Title Photographs of Cu-As-Sn binary and ternary metal pellets as supporting material for the article: "Experimental design of the Cu-As-Sn ternary colour diagram" 
Description The dataset supports the article: Radivojevic, M., Pendic, J., Srejic, A., Korac, M., Davey, C., Benzonelli, A., Martinón-Torres, M., Jovanovic, N., and Kamberovic, Ž. (2017). Experimental design of the Cu-As-Sn ternary colour diagram. Journal of Archaeological Science, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.001. Abstract: The aesthetic appearance of metals has long been recognised in archaeometric studies as an important factor driving inventions and innovations in the evolution of metal production. Nevertheless, while the studies of ancient gold metallurgy are well supported by the modern research in colour characteristics of gold alloys, the colour properties of major prehistoric copper alloys, like arsenical copper and tin bronzes, remain either largely understudied or not easily accessible to the western scholarship. A few published studies have already indicated that alloying and heat treatment change the colours of copper alloys, although they are mainly based on the examples of prehistoric tin bronze objects and experimental casts. Here we present the procedure for building the Cu-As-Sn ternary colour diagram, starting with experimental casting of 64 binary and ternary alloys in this system. We used two types of information to produce two different ternary colour diagrams: one, based on photographs of the samples, and the other, established on the colorimetric measurements. Furthermore, we developed the procedure for creating a graphic representation of colours in the Cu-As-Sn ternary diagram using QGIS. As an initial case study, we plotted the composition of the world's earliest tin bronze artefacts; the graphic representation further supports claims about the importance of golden hue for their invention and demand, c. 6,500 years ago. We argue that the presented colour diagrams will find wide use in future investigations of aesthetics of prehistoric copper alloys. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We are still measuring impact 
URL https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/270330
 
Description Collaborative research project with Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Serbia 
Organisation University of Belgrade
Country Serbia, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Miljana Radivojevic, PDRA of this project, started a collaboration with Prof. Kamberovic, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, on experimental design of CuAsSn ternary colour alloys back in 2014. I have been overseeing the activities, which were not directly related to the goals of the Rise of Metallurgy project, yet, proved beneficial for the interpretation of our results.
Collaborator Contribution PDRA Radivojevic, Kamberovic and members of Serbian and UCL teams have just published a joint paper on building ternary colour diagrams. I have expanded this collaborative link and currently collaborate with Prof. Kamberovic on experimental production of copper-arsenic alloys and the effects of recycling on arsenic content.
Impact Radivojevic, M., Pendic, J., Srejic, A., Korac, M., Davey, C., Benzonelli, A., Martinón-Torres, M., Jovanovic, N., and Kamberovic, Ž. (2018). Experimental design of the Cu-As-Sn ternary colour diagram. Journal of Archaeological Science 90: 106-119, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.001.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaborative research project with Vrije University in Brussels 
Organisation Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Department Artifical Intelligence Lab
PI Contribution The PDRA of this project, Dr Miljana Radivojevic, started a collaboration with Dr Jelena Grujic, a physicist from the Vrije University in Brussels, which I followed in the capacity of PI of the 'Rise of Metallurgy in Eurasia' project, although I was not personally involved. The outcome of their research, however, acknowledges the support of the 'Rise of Metallurgy in Eurasia' project, which is the reason it is mentioned here.
Collaborator Contribution The collaboration resulted in an innovative method to identify archaeological cultures via networks analysis of metallurgical data. This approach has thus far been tested on data assembled and produced by the 'Rise of Metallurgy in Eurasia' project, and the authors of the study (Radivojevic & Grujic) are currently developing a follow up project with method testing on data from other parts of world (i.e. Near East, northern Europe etc).
Impact Radivojevic, M., and Grujic, J. (2018). Community structure of copper supply networks in the prehistoric Balkans: An independent evaluation of the archaeological record from the 7th to the 4th millennium BC. Journal of Complex Networks 6: 106-124, doi:10.1093/comnet/cnx013.
Start Year 2014
 
Description A blogpost for Oxford University Press 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A blogpost on an influential platform, Oxford University Press, on the making of the complex networks research recently published in Journal of Complex Networks
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://blog.oup.com/2017/09/serendipity-metals-networks/
 
Description Invited talk at the Aegean Seminar at the University of Zagreb 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Silvia Amicone delivered 'Pottery Making Recipes at the Dawn of the Metal Age: Insights into the Selection and Processing of Raw Materials in Prehistoric Balkans' at the Aegean Seminar, University of Zagreb.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited talk for the Ur- und Frühgeschichte Kolloquium, University of Berlin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Silvia Amicone delivered 'Approaching Specialisation in Late Neolithic Pottery Production: A View from Vinca Culture' at the Ur- und Frühgeschichte Kolloquium, University of Berlin,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk for the Ur- und Frühgeschichte Kolloquium, University of Leipzig. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Silvia Amicone delivered 'Technological Approaches to the Study of Ancient Pottery: a case study from Neolithic and Chalcolithic Balkans' for the Ur- und Frühgeschichte Kolloquium, University of Leipzig.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Keynote lecture to engineering community in southeast Europe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Plenary lecture on early Balkan metallurgy at the 1st Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Congress of South-east Europe, held in Belgrade from May 23-26, 2013.

After the talk, the researcher (M. Radivojevic) was approached for collaboration with the metal industry in Serbia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Media campaign 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Media campaigns in several phases from launch to selected major discoveries, beginning and end of fieldwork campaigns.

Extensive national awareness of the project leading to greater awareness and protection of the past as well as growth in tourist programs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/rise-metallurgy-eurasia/news
 
Description Media campaign for the publication on Catalhoyuk metallurgy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release about the recent publication on Catalhoyul metallurgy generated significant interest in international media: http://www.arch.cam.ac.uk/mystery-of-8-500-year-old-copper-making-event-revealed-through-materials-science#.WZLHhI2H-cY.facebook
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-08/uoc-mo8081117.php
https://phys.org/news/2017-08-mystery-year-old-copper-making-event-revealed.html
http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/mysterious-origins-metal-making-solved-by-analysis-8500-year-old-copper-1635123
http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/mensch/kupfer-in-atalhoeyuek-wie-ein-hausbrand-archaeologen-narrte-a-1162961.html
https://ria.ru/science/20170815/1500404505.html
http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/summer-2017/article/mystery-of-8-500-year-old-copper-making-event-revealed-through-materials-science
http://www.sciencenewsline.com/news/2017081513010055.html
https://uk.news.yahoo.com/mysterious-origins-metal-making-solved-145852506.html
http://indiainternationaltimes.com/oldest-8500-year-old-copper-smelting-unit-unearthed-turkey/2388
http://www.scinexx.de/wissen-aktuell-21780-2017-08-16.html
http://www.heritagedaily.com/2017/08/mystery-8500-year-old-copper-making-event-revealed-materials-science/116297
https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.co.uk/2017/08/mystery-of-8500-year-old-copper-making.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+TheArchaeologyNewsNetwork+(The+Archaeology+News+Network)#VCYEuXv6OUJeB08z.97
http://arkeofili.com/catalhoyuk-metalurjinin-kesfedildigi-tek-yer-olmayabilir/
http://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/1.809367
http://www.eurasiareview.com/04092017-metallurgy-likely-has-more-than-one-birthplace/
http://www.alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=178563&CultureCode=en
https://idw-online.de/de/news680332
http://www.innovations-report.de/html/berichte/geowissenschaften/die-entstehung-der-metallurgie-hat-vermutlich-nicht-nur-einen-geburtsort.html
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/09/170901113607.htm
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/1.809367
 
Description Media campaign for the publication on complex networks analysis (Journal of Complex Networks) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media campaign reached international audience: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170727103006.htm
http://www.arch.cam.ac.uk/forging-relationships-identifying-prehistoric-social-network-dynamics-with-modern-algorithms
https://techxplore.com/news/2017-07-forging-relationships-prehistoric-social-network.html#nRlv
http://www.telegraf.rs/vesti/srbija/2887947-one-se-ponose-sto-su-streberke-i-naucne-ambasadorke-nase-zemlje-kembridz-stoji-iza-rada-jelene-i-miljane-foto
http://www.investigacionyciencia.es/blogs/matematicas/65/posts/redes-complejas-en-la-edad-del-cobre-15624
https://blog.oup.com/2017/09/serendipity-metals-networks/
http://www.fakulteti.mk/news/17-08-12/otkriena_dinamikata_na_praistoriskite_socijalni_mrezhi_na_balkanot.aspx?fb_action_ids=1409843835761311&fb_action_types=og.comments
http://www.sciencenewsline.com/news/2017072718100071.html
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170727103006.htm
 
Description Media campaign for the publication on experimental design of colour ternary diagram 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media campaign reached a wide international audience: https://phys.org/news/2017-12-prehistoric-bling-aesthetics-crucial-factor.html
https://www.arch.cam.ac.uk/prehistoric-bling-aesthetics-crucial-factor-in-development-of-earliest-copper-alloys
http://www.sciencecodex.com/prehistoric-bling-aesthetics-crucial-factor-development-earliest-copper-alloys-617972
http://bintroo.com/prehistoric-bling-aesthetics-crucial-factor-in-development-of-earliest-copper-alloys/
http://www.quo.es/ciencia/la-estetica-fue-crucial-para-el-desarrollo-de-las-aleaciones-de-cobre
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-12/uoc-pba122117.php
http://polit.ru/news/2017/12/22/ps_bronzes/
http://www.meteoweb.eu/2017/12/gioielli-preistoria/1020405/
http://www.globalist.it/science/articolo/2017/12/23/come-nuovi-dopo-4000-anni-tornano-a-splendere-i-gioielli-di-varna-2016844.html
http://www.ansa.it/canale_scienza_tecnica/notizie/tecnologie/2017/12/22/gioielli-preistorici-ritrovano-lo-splendore-perduto_b3ca68e5-5643-41fb-bfb7-f5b724e26a0b.html
http://www.mining.com/prehistoric-bling-research-uncovers-factors-behind-development-earliest-copper-alloys/
http://www.eurasiareview.com/30122017-prehistoric-bling-aesthetics-crucial-factor-in-development-of-earliest-copper-alloys/
https://www.heritagedaily.com/2017/12/prehistoric-bling-aesthetics-crucial-factor-development-earliest-copper-alloys/117909
http://www.scinexx.de/wissen-aktuell-22265-2018-01-04.html
https://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/MAGAZINE-prehistoric-balkans-were-faking-gold-6-500-years-ago-1.5785033
http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/experimental-color-chart-reveals-original-beauty-prehistoric-copper-goods-021773
https://www.nature.com/articles/nmat5075
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/MAGAZINE-prehistoric-balkans-were-faking-gold-6-500-years-ago-1....
 
Description Nature Materials commentary on our follow up work 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A commentary on two articles coming out of this project published in Nature Materials by Philip Ball, a former editor of Nature and celebrated British science writer. He cites three publications, of which two are from our project team, as spearheading resumed research on the value of aesthetics in prehistoric metal production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.nature.com/articles/nmat5075
 
Description Smelting experiment 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A series of smelting experiments was held at the project site of Plocnik involving experts from the UK, Germany, Serbia and beyond. The primary purpose of the 12 experiments is to understand the processes involved in the production of early copper. The secondary purpose is to promote the project to an invited audience beyond archaeology in order to develop international archaeological collaboration and archaeological tourism in Serbia. The event was attended by a range of archaeological, cultural and political leaders from Serbia and beyond. The event attracted considerable media attention
http://www.vreme.com/cms/view.php?id=1136710 http://www.politika.rs/rubrike/Kultura/Topili-bakar-kao-pre-sedam-milenijuma.lt.html http://www.rts.rs/page/magazine/sr/story/511/Zanimljivosti/1389618/Kod+Prokuplja+tope+bakar+kao+pre+7.000+godina%21.html http://www.politika.rs/rubrike/Kultura/Plocnik-je-prva-evropska-juvelirnica.lt.html http://www.novostitop.com/prokuplje/1443-eksperiment-na-neolitskom-nalazistu-plocnik http://www.kurir-info.rs/zagrebacki-profesor-buric-plocnik-je-nekada-bio-centar-svetske-kulture-clanak-1054223 http://www.toplickevesti.com/studenti-profesori-arheologije-iz-hrvatske-posetili-lokalitet-vincanske-kulture-plocnik.html There is also a video of the event http://www.rts.rs/page/tv/sr/story/22/RTS+Satelit/1437702/Trag%3A+Topli%C4%8Dka+razglednica.html (more on project website http://www.ucl.ac.uk/rise-metallurgy-eurasia)

The event bought together a range of influential international and Serbian archaeologists with Serbian cultural leaders and politicians. The purpose was to promote not only the methods and results of the project but also to highlight the potential for further international collaboration in archaeology and archaeological tourism.
After the experiment, the local community started replicating it for touristic purposes. The project excavation and post-excavation analyses underpinned each aspect of the smelting experiments that were the core feature of the impact activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/calendar/articles/2013-14/20131009b
 
Description The Project Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project website has exceeded over 5000 unique visitors.

The project website provided one of the primary sources for media engagement as well as public information and recognition for the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/rise-metallurgy-eurasia